Situational Awareness for Complex Environments


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SA technology is evolving rapidly and there are more than a few key application opportunities for suppliers, including: blue force tracking and battlefield command & control capabilities for the military; border protection/security for national and local government agencies; and, B2B and B2C location-based services for a variety of commercial enterprises. During this webcast, David Krebs, Director of the Mobile & Wireless Practice, covered the key findings from VDC’s Situational Awareness Solutions report, and discussed the next-generation commercial and technical requirements for SA applications across a broad spectrum of sectors and end-user applications.

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Situational Awareness for Complex Environments

  1. 1. VDC RESEARCH WEBINAR Situational Awareness for Complex Environments June 17, 2010 Mobile & Wireless Practice David Krebs, Director
  2. 2. Frequently Asked Questions These slides are from a webcast presented on 06/17/10 A full audio recording is available for download at: 1– 2010 VDC Research Group, Inc. Mobile & Wireless Practice
  3. 3. VDC Research Group Complimentary Insights and Marketing Data on Situational Awareness Available at: To receive the monthly practice update please opt-in at: 3– 2010 VDC Research Group, Inc. Mobile & Wireless Practice
  4. 4. Today’s Speakers • David Krebs, Director – Mobile & Wireless Practice David has more than ten years experience in mobile computing systems, wireless data communication and automated data-capture research and consulting. David’s experience in consulting includes: end-user segmentation and adoption analyses for next-generation mobile platforms and communication networks, automatic data-capture technology migration mobile software middleware and interfaces; development of proprietary forecast methodologies; comparative product performance evaluation; missionary sales and market expansion requirements analysis; and merger and acquisition due diligence advisory support. David is a graduate of Boston University. 2– 2010 VDC Research Group, Inc. Mobile & Wireless Practice
  5. 5. Table of Contents Definitions & Context Military Opportunities & Trends Public Safety Opportunities & Trends 4– 2010 VDC Research Group, Inc. Mobile & Wireless Practice
  6. 6. Situational Awareness Overview • Situation awareness (SA) involves being aware of what is happening around you to understand how information, events, and your own actions will impact your goals and objectives, both now and in the near future. Key elements of SA include:  Knowing and understanding what is happening around you  Predicting how it will change with time  Being unified with the dynamics of your environment • Application of technology to achieve situational awareness having significant impact in variety of military and sophisticated public safety settings. • Moreover, situational awareness concepts have potential to support a wide range of applications beyond current military and advanced public safety solutions. 5– 2010 VDC Research Group, Inc. Mobile & Wireless Practice
  7. 7. Embracing Open Platforms & Consumer Influence, Mobility Evolves Considerably 1990+ 2000+ 2010+ Custom designed Email attachments and Application generators applications on purpose personal repositories and device proliferation built devices Personal Productivity Knowledge Distribution Collective Intelligence Focused Situational Awareness Traditional Mobility Technology Drivers New Mobility • Device convergence • Limited mobile HW • Ease of use • Diversity in device choices choices • Wireless ubiquity • Social software and Business Drivers collaboration • Siloed approach to • Team-based solution development • Migration away from collaboration • Uneven wireless coverage green-box solutions • Real time business • Limited mobile processing processes driving • Impact of consumer capabilities operational change products on business user expectations • Immature I/O solutions HR Drivers • Workforce demographics 6– 2010 VDC Research Group, Inc. Mobile & Wireless Practice
  8. 8. Leading Mobile Applications: Migration from Data Access / Distribution to Collaboration & Situation Awareness High Collective & Predictive Team Intelligence Value & Worker (Situational awareness; Collaboration Predictive policing) Evidence (Team collaboration; wikis Capture & and mash-ups; Management workflow management) (Digital video) Dispatching & Records Management (Citation; emergency Low comms) Low Complexity & High Time to Market 7– 2010 VDC Research Group, Inc. Mobile & Wireless Practice
  9. 9. Government & Public Safety Mobile Worker Trends Mix of logistics and command and control applications driving demand Total Mobile Workers: • National defense budgets account for between National Government 5-20% of federal expenditures with US spend („000 workers) ranking highest in terms of total spend and percent of federal spend. 120,000 • Military command and control and homeland security solutions remain one of the fastest growing segments of government IT spending. 100,000 Technology spend is expected to be especially Federal: Military strong for more advanced situational awareness Federal: Non-Military applications and the software solutions that 80,000 support them including GIS, CAD (computer aided dispatch) and RMS (record management systems). 60,000 • VDC estimates the total military and federal non- military mobile worker population at 14.9 and 40,000 102.5 million respectively. • The installed base of mobile computing devices 20,000 supporting military applications is estimated at approximately 2.5 million units. The installed base supporting federal non-military applications is 1.6 0 million. Global Americas EMEA Asia-Pacific 8– 2010 VDC Research Group, Inc. Mobile & Wireless Practice
  10. 10. Table of Contents Definitions & Context Military Opportunities & Trends Public Safety Opportunities & Trends 9– 2010 VDC Research Group, Inc. Mobile & Wireless Practice
  11. 11. Situational Awareness in Context of Military Decision Making • Information warfare and its primary objective – achieving information dominance over enemy forces – has evolved as a major area of emphasis for future military operations. • The concept of information dominance and the issues involved in attaining it are explored through a model of situation awareness within the context of complex distributed military units. • Achieving information dominance involves far more than having more data than the enemy.  It will require that the available data be transformed into the required information in a timely manner for a multitude of forces each with varied but interrelated information needs and properly understood by each in the context of a joint mission.  This is becoming a key issue for Military operations. Significant amounts of data, video feeds, etc. are being captured daily creating a scenario where military will be “swimming in sensors and drowning in data”. • By examining what is know about the way people access and interpret information to develop situation awareness and how it fits within the decision making cycle clear directions for the development of systems to support the goal of information dominance are established. 10 – 2010 VDC Research Group, Inc. Mobile & Wireless Practice
  12. 12. Executive Findings: Military Solutions Major transition for key military SA programs • Technology & Application Trends:  Primary applications for national government solutions continue to revolve around mission planning and operations, logistics, maintenance and repair/asset management and border control/protection. Key solutions are becoming increasingly complex – not only in terms of the types of applications supported, but also with regard to the breadth of users, especially across multiple agencies.  Situational awareness is proving to be a key requirement for next generation solutions across both military and federal non-military customer classes. However, various issues surrounding encryption requirements, radio support and software configuration are creating roadblocks as the military looking to expand SA capabilities.  This convergence of current and evolving applications is the cornerstone of how the Army will incorporate emerging capabilities into the current network.  The Command Post of the Future (CPoF) and Tactical Ground Reporting System (TiGR) are examples of this approach to incorporate new or increased capabilities quickly into the force. The JBC-P will replace FBCB2 and improve situational awareness by reducing latency, supporting rapid task reorganization, and improving interoperability with U.S. Marine Corps ground forces.  The fielding of the integrated network occurs within multiple capability packages, beginning with initial fielding to an Infantry BCT in FY11. 11 – 2010 VDC Research Group, Inc. Mobile & Wireless Practice
  13. 13. Net-Centric Operations – Beyond Connectivity THE BATTLEFIELD Situational Awareness Collaborative for Decision Making Mission Effectiveness Connectivity Environment THE BUSINESS MC2 Integrated 1 Technology Development Labs C4ISR F-22 Candidate Stakeholder J-UCAS AWACS ABL DEMPC FCS Philadelphia Wichita C4ISR BIC EAST FAB-T FAB- C4ISR F-15 Mesa F-18 JTRS Huntsville BIC Satellite Boeing Integration 2 Center C-17 Virtual Warfare Center 3 Situational Awareness Mission Assurance/ Collaborative for Decision Making Program Success Connectivity Environment 12 – 2010 VDC Research Group, Inc. Mobile & Wireless Practice
  14. 14. FBCB2 Migration: State of Flux Salvaging FCS investments a key theme/barrier • Investments in situational awareness solutions in the military have been substantial and far reaching (such as Force XXI Battle Command Brigade and Below – FBCB2). • The highly successful FBCB2 program which has significantly improved unit SA is being upgraded to address its platform-level interoperability issues. The US Military is in the process of migrating to JBC-P by way of the FBCB2-JCR (Joint Capabilities Release). • The key elements of JBC-P are expected to include:  JBC-P Full. The will include the core hardware, display and software with integrated SAASM-based GPS.  JBC-P Partial. These are solutions that are capable of supporting the same C2/SA content, however, based on their usage environment (for example a helicopter cockpit) require different hardware configurations and user interfaces.  JBC-P Beacon. This will include a one-way beacon used to populate the SA application with Blue-Force (friendlies) icons. 13 – 2010 VDC Research Group, Inc. Mobile & Wireless Practice
  15. 15. FBCB2 Migration: Key Issues with Legacy Elements • However, while the need and potential for next generation SA platforms is great, significant issues need to be addressed/ overcome. Included among the most critical are:  Leveraging (Salvaging) Legacy FCS Investments: Looking to salvage/leverage pieces of SOSCOE software. Not having a lot of success with SW. Unmanned ground systems and unmanned sensors may become exclusive domain for SOSCOE.  Software Elements. While JCR offers transitional software elements as FBCB2 migrates to JBC-P there are only minimal improvements in this platform. The current software has an inflexible database structure that is updated quarterly. To address issue new SW developed that will upgrade DB with “self descriptive SA” that will enable FBCB2 operators to update user profile without major reprogramming.  Hardware Form Factors: There continues to be a movement away from the one size fits all mentality for military SA applications. The most significant push is for ground solider systems and dismountable applications. Next generation tablet and ultra-mobile form factors are being considered in addition to wearable devices. Additional programs such as GSS (Ground Soldier Systems) are being developed in conjunction to deploy a highly modular architecture for ground soldier SA.  Radio/Communications: Two variants currently exist: ELPRS and a Sat-Com version. Key issues with system latency and bandwidth. Next generation solution looking to integrate both and increasing bandwidth for ELPRS network.  Encryption Requirements: There is an undercurrent towards Type I but not Type II encryption for several SA applications. However, this is a slow moving development and no key executive decision makers have yet to make a firm commitment to next generation requirements (or decision to waive certain current requirements). 14 – 2010 VDC Research Group, Inc. Mobile & Wireless Practice
  16. 16. Ground Soldier Solutions: The Next Wave of Deployment • Although many ground vehicles are equipped with blue force tracking solutions, when soldiers dismount to patrol on foot they currently lose digital awareness of surroundings. • Troubled Land Warrior Program – which included a wearable computer, GPS, radio and monocle display ensemble – was designed to address this issue. • Current recognition that there is no “one size fits all” solution. Key distinction between dismountable solutions – which typically are used within a 2km radius of the vehicle – and dismounted solutions which are typically smaller form factor solutions. • DRS’s Joint Platform Tablet is a good example of the shift away from the US Military’s product philosophy. The platform provides hardware commonality with other Joint programs and support the transition to Joint Battle Command – Platform (JBC-P). • Several other initiatives underway to address dismounted applications – including the distributed operations (DIsOps) system from Lockheed Martin and their recently released Tactical Digital Assistant (TDA) for dismounted situational awareness. • The TDA is one of the first military devices to mimic intuitive user interfaces so common on consumer devices today. The device interfaces with both FBCB2 and emerging JBC-P systems. The device also provides the flexibility to host Google’s Anroid OS. 15 – 2010 VDC Research Group, Inc. Mobile & Wireless Practice
  17. 17. Military’s iPhone Dreams: Evidence of an Antiquated Development & Sourcing Model? • New “apps” contest launched by US Army evidence of their desire for more sophisticated next generation form factors. Moreover, this is a stark reminder of the US Military’s reluctance to take advantage of commercial/consumer technology. • Part of the issue is security requirements and lack of control over open source solutions. Any mobile device that connects to the military information network requires Type I encryption. Both Apple and Google are in the process of requesting NSA certification (however, this will also significant add to cost of device). • However, the military is shifting away from its traditional “big green-box” solutions to ones more capable of adapting to users’ needs in the battlefield. Much of this has to do with the mobile devices deployed as with how the networks supporting them are architected. • A recent initiative to develop a “global enterprise” that provides a single email address to service members regardless of location. Today’s battle command networks still run on local servers in tactical operations centers. However, these applications could also eventually find their way to the cloud as part of a global “enterprise system”. 16 – 2010 VDC Research Group, Inc. Mobile & Wireless Practice
  18. 18. Table of Contents Definitions & Context Military Opportunities & Trends Public Safety Opportunities & Trends 17 – 2010 VDC Research Group, Inc. Mobile & Wireless Practice
  19. 19. Better Preparedness, Increased Efficiency & Increased Mobility are Common Public Safety Themes • Technology & Application Trends:  Primary applications for public safety solutions continue to revolve around citation and record management solutions, mobile ticketing and other workforce management related applications.  Social networking and collaboration tools are increasingly the norm for a variety of public safety applications. In addition to using them for internal communication, agencies are also utilizing them for evidence management and more advanced situational awareness solutions.  Organizations are expressing renewed interest in next generation security and evidence collection applications such as digital video. Although representing a smaller share of the overall market, they are expected to represent a critical catalyst moving forward.  A key element of many next generation public safety solutions – especially surrounding evidence collection – are geographic information systems (GIS). These solutions also represent a key pillar for SA applications in public safety.  Most demand in GIS solutions is from agencies with homeland security, law enforcement and emergency management responsibilities. Beyond standard mapping functions, GIS solutions provide critical leverage to drive other core applications through dedicated interfaces to mobile devices, emergency management systems and location intelligence. 18 – 2010 VDC Research Group, Inc. Mobile & Wireless Practice
  20. 20. Situational Awareness Taxonomy Source: ESRI 19 – 2010 VDC Research Group, Inc. Mobile & Wireless Practice
  21. 21. Key Data Sources for Public Safety Situational Awareness • Commonly used applications and solutions such as computer-aided dispatch (CAD), GIS, automatic vehicle location (AVL), records management systems (RMS), weather services, video camera feeds, dashboards, and some enterprise applications provide the opportunity to select the desired data to create specific situational awareness for public safety. • Computer-Aided Dispatch Provides Incident Data  CAD is a source of event, incident, and resource availability data. New incidents and unit statuses are captured within CAD, providing an accurate picture of what is occurring in the community as well as the community's capacity to handle and respond to new incidents. • AVL Tracks Location of Resources  When interfaced with other server-based technologies, AVL records the user's position so data and information relating to the public safety user's location and activity can be provided, displayed, and accessed on a map on a mobile data terminal, in an Emergency Operations Center (EOC), or on other connected computer systems. • GIS Aggregates Data in a Spatial Context  GIS can access and display data from local GIS databases or other GIS services. In addition to incident locations, emergency responders and incident commanders need to know the location of essential resources, assets, and infrastructure. This data, when combined with planning and assessment data (high-risk areas, hazard areas, critical infrastructure, etc.), results in relevant and actionable information. • RMS Provides Historical Information  RMS provides historical incident data such as locations of crimes and fires, emergency medical responses (including vehicle and personal injury accidents), and citizen assist responses. 20 – 2010 VDC Research Group, Inc. Mobile & Wireless Practice
  22. 22. Primary Mobile Applications Dispatch and reporting are the main uses of mobile computing solutions What are the primary applications supported by your in-vehicle computing solutions? Dispatching (911, CAD) 71.4% Reporting 47.6% Automatic Vehicle Location (AVL), GPS, Mapping 38.1% Criminal Records 33.3% License Plates - Vehicle Records 28.6% Driver's Licenses - Driving Records 28.6% Tickets and Citations 28.6% Building Maps, Sewer and Hydrant Locations 19.1% Prior Calls for Service 14.3% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 21 – 2010 VDC Research Group, Inc. Mobile & Wireless Practice
  23. 23. GIS Enhanced Public Safety Situational Awareness System • Sensory Data Integration Complexity • Live Video Feeds • Weather Data Advanced • Multimedia Access Situational • Enterprise Application • Data sharing Integration • Workflow Awareness • Transportation Layers management Essential Dynamic Data Mission • Gather basemap data. Complexity • Identify key asset locations ( population Basic • Resource Location and critical Information Tracking infrastructure). • Threat and Hazard Data • Develop potential hazard Needs • Incident Data map (earthquakes, storm surges, flooding, fire risks) • Analyze value/hazard relationships • Analyze vulnerabilities. • Develop mitigation measures Source: ESRI 22 – 2010 VDC Research Group, Inc. Mobile & Wireless Practice
  24. 24. Fusion Centers: Breaking Down Public Safety Stovepipes • Fusion Center is a terrorism prevention and response center that was started as a joint project between the Department of Homeland Security and the US Department of Justice’s Office of Justice Programs between 2003 and 2007. • Support the integration of intake, analysis, fusion and synthesis of intelligence information with and emphasis on terrorism threat intelligence • Identify patterns and trends that may be indicative of emerging threat conditions • Provide relevant and actionable intelligence in a timely manner to prevent, mitigate and respond to emergent threats • Produce timely, relevant and accurate value added intelligence products for the region while providing analytical case support, trend identification and performance of strategic analysis and reporting. 3– 2009 VDC Research Group, Inc. Mobile & Wireless Practice
  25. 25. Optimistic Outlook for New Mobile Form Factors Officials are cautious but open to smaller form factors • Laptops or two/three piece mobile computing solutions remain the leading form factors in the public safety sector for in-vehicle computing and communications.  Ensuring that they are using the most current mapping software is essential for the officials since it enables them with most up-to-date information such as where they are located, where the incident is taking place, and how they can get there in addition to storing the building maps for schools and public and commercial buildings.  Other than the emerging/ next generation applications, the departments are using the laptops for mainly reporting and note taking/ interviewing purposes. • Touchscreen functionality is a critical purchased requirement for all vehicle-based solutions. The performance of touchscreen solutions, however, varies considerably (respondents have complained about the responsiveness of the touchscreens in their Panasonic Toughbook).  Next generation functionality such as multi-touch is a growing requirement in the public safety segment – especially for more advanced mapping and GIS applications – is an emerging requirement. • However, increasing proportion of public safety officials carrying Smartphones.  Deployment of these devices is starting from the executive staff and continue with officers. BlackBerry is the dominant platform with almost 60% of the installed base.  Email continues to be the most popular application supported by Smartphones. However, officers are looking for access to backend systems such as records management. 24 – 2010 VDC Research Group, Inc. Mobile & Wireless Practice
  26. 26. Smartphones – Public Safety Snapshot Broader application appeal – beyond traditional telephony and messaging Hardware Marketshare Which of the following business processes and workflows are currently 70.0% supported on Smartphones? 60.0% 100% 90% 50.0% 80% 40.0% 70% 60% 30.0% 50% 20.0% 40% 30% 10.0% 20% 0.0% 10% BlackBerry Windows Apple Other 0% Mobile RMS Collaboration Workflow Currently Support Plan to support in the next year No plans to support How does your organization deploy Smartphones? 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Company Only Employee Only Both 25 – 2010 VDC Research Group, Inc. Mobile & Wireless Practice
  27. 27. Must Have Next Generation Applications Budgetary concerns are shaping the future • Public safety organizations are treating their CAD as their most important asset and VDC expects it to continue in the next years.  Departments are continuously looking for possible improvements for their CAD solutions in order to get the right information to the right place at the right time to improve real-time decision making capabilities.  Some departments have already contacted their solution providers to extend their CAD software to their smartphones in order to enable the employees to take calls when they are away from their vehicles. • VDC observed that the fire departments are not really satisfied with their CAD solutions since the majority of the CAD solutions available in the market are made for police departments. Hence, the fire departments are only left with two options; to either develop a custom solution which is costly, or get a solution which is tweaked from the one for police departments. • With the improvements in technology, the appetite for solutions using geographical improvements (i.e. AVL, GIS, GPS, mapping software) is constantly increasing. • While a lot of agencies are interested in getting a RMS, budgetary pressures represent a key barrier. • Despite being doubtful about the security and privacy concerns, departments are more welcoming to both internal and external communication and collaboration tools. VDC estimates that the demand for these tools will increase in the upcoming years. 26 – 2010 VDC Research Group, Inc. Mobile & Wireless Practice
  28. 28. Summary, Observations Increasing interest for new, improved solutions • Progression in technology, in addition to generational changes and consumerization of technology have impacted the mobile computing solutions in public safety industry.  Public safety organizations were able to gain the trust of their workforce by building their appetite on the emerging and next generation technologies.  The agencies are open to learning about new technologies and are constantly evaluating available solutions in order to determine their needs for their next generation deployment. • Funding and budgetary concerns for these organizations have increased tremendously due to the current economic downturn.  Even though, the majority of the organizations have average replacement cycles for the mobile computing devices that are currently in use, they have a difficulty with sustaining that rate due to low budgets and unavailability of grants.  Many units have been focusing on the maintenance and minor upgrades of their mobile computing solutions during the economic downturn, to ensure the operability of these systems. • While public safety officials are highly thankful for these new mobile devices which increase their productivity and efficiency, they are demanding more customizable applications that are easily integrated with their current systems for the future.  Similarly, they are looking to adopt all-in-one solutions that can reduce the amount of time required for integration and training.  Some departments are already in the process of creating in-house solutions since they were not able to find any all-in-one solutions that fit their needs. 27 – 2010 VDC Research Group, Inc. Mobile & Wireless Practice
  29. 29. What is next? • Situational awareness concepts have potential to support a wide range of applications beyond current military and advanced public safety solutions. • Leverage to create demand for integrating a wide range of emerging technologies, including low cost sensors, robotic vision systems, 3D modeling, virtual augmentation, location services and social networks. • Potential next generation commercial applications are far reaching and may include:  Disease surveillance, response and outbreak management  Smart infrastructure management  Civicware and political transparency 28 – 2010 VDC Research Group, Inc. Mobile & Wireless Practice
  30. 30. Q&A Session Thank You for Attending this VDC Webcast For more information about VDC Research coverage – please contact: David Krebs Director, Mobile & Wireless Practice | 508.653.9000 x136 Gerrald Smith Account Executive | 508.653.9000 x113 Chris Rezendes Executive Vice President | 508.653.9000 x120 29 – 2010 VDC Research Group, Inc. Mobile & Wireless Practice