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Cog5 lecppt chapter09


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Cog5 lecppt chapter09

  1. 1. © 2010 by W. W. Norton & Co., Inc. Language Chapter 9 Lecture Outline
  2. 2. Chapter 9: Language  Lecture Outline  Organization of Language  Phonology (音韻學)  Words  Syntax (句法)  Sentence Parsing  Biological Roots of Language  Language and Thought
  3. 3. Chapter 9: Language  Language  Unique to humans  Present in all cultures  Essential for knowledge and culture  Without it, cultural transmission of information and the acquisition of knowledge would be much more limited
  4. 4. The Organization of Language Thoughts become sounds Sounds become thoughts HOW? Hierarchical organization
  5. 5. The Organization of Language  Sentence—sequences of words  Word—smallest free form  Morpheme (詞素)— smallest unit of meaning  Phoneme (音素)— smallest unit of sound
  6. 6. The Organization of Language  Hierarchical, with each level composed of other sublevels
  7. 7. Phonology Flow of air from lungs Modulation of air by mouth and nose Production of phonemes
  8. 8. Phonology  Voicing  Whether vocal folds (聲帶) vibrate ([z], [d], [b], [v])  Or not ([s], [t], [p], [f])  Manner of production  Whether air is fully stopped ([b], [p], [d], [t])  Or merely restricted ([z], [s], [v], [f])  Place of articulation  Where in the mouth the air is restricted  Closing of lips ([b], [p])  Top teeth against bottom lip ([v], [f])  Tongue behind upper teeth ([d], [t], [z], [s])
  9. 9. Phonology Many words have no clear boundaries yet speech segmentation is effortless Speech segmentation is the process of “slicing” the speech stream into words and phonemes.
  10. 10. Phonology 10 The sky is NOT falling!
  11. 11. Phonology  Coarticulation the blending of phonemes at word boundaries  refers to how the production of each phoneme is slightly altered depending on the preceding and following sounds.  “My name is Dan Reisberg”  “My name is Noam Chomsky” S is slightly different D and N are slightly different
  12. 12. Phonology  Perception of language is constructed  Use prior knowledge to fill in missing information The state governors met with their respective legi*latures convening in the capital city. Phonemic restoration effect
  13. 13. Phonology  Pollack and Picket (1964)  Spliced out words from conversations  Easily identified in context  Hard to do without context 13
  14. 14. Phonology Continuous variation of sounds are filtered to produce clear phonemes Categorical perception Our categorization of phonemes shows abrupt boundaries, even when there is no corresponding abrupt change in the stimuli themselves.
  15. 15. Phonology  Sequences  Only some are acceptable in a language.  For example, the sequence [tl] is not acceptable in English  Adjustments for certain phoneme sequences.  For example, the [s] sound becomes a [z] in words like “bags”
  16. 16. Words  For each word that a speaker knows, there are several kinds of information  Phonology—the sequence of phonemes that make up the word  Orthography—how the word is spelled (if the person is literate)  Syntax—how to combine the word with other words  Semantics—what the word means
  17. 17. Words  The referent is the actual object, action, or event in the world that a word refers to  Conceptual information  A large part of “knowing a word” is knowing the relevant concept
  18. 18. Words  Generativity  Our morphological knowledge specifies how to create variations of each word by adding appropriate morphemes  New words can be formed  “Hardware,” “software” lead to “spyware” and “malware”  Words can take on new meanings  “I have been hacked by a hacker.”
  19. 19. Syntax  Generativity  Infinite number of sentences by combining finite set of words  For practical purposes, there is an infinitely large number of sentences that speakers can produce in their language
  20. 20. Words Syntax tells us which verbs can take direct objects 及物 vs 不及物動詞
  21. 21. Syntax  Acceptable sequences:  “The boy hit the ball.”  Unacceptable ones:  “The boy hit ball the.”  These rules also help us determine the relationships among the words in the sentence  Who is doing what to whom?  “The boy chased the girl.”
  22. 22. Syntax  Jabberwocky  Sentences can be syntactically and morphologically correct even when meaningless  “’Twas brillig, and the slithy toves did gyre and gimble in the wabe...”
  23. 23. Syntax Phrase structure rules How the trees branch noun phrase (NP) and verb phrase (VP)
  24. 24. Syntax  Descriptive rules, “To boldly go where no one has gone before.”  Prescriptive rules “To go boldly where no one has gone before.”
  25. 25. Syntax Phrase structure No phrase structure Easier Harder
  26. 26. Syntax He wants to discuss sex with Jay Leno. He wants to discuss sex with Jay Leno. D-structure
  27. 27. 2014 年外國人中文十級考試試題:請考生寫出以下兩句話 的區別在哪裡?  1. 冬天:能穿多少穿多少;夏天:能穿多 少穿多少。  2. 剩女產生的原因有兩個,一是誰都看不 上,二是誰都看不上。  3. 地鐵裡聽到一個女孩,大概是給男朋友 打電話:「我已經到西直門了,你快出來 往地鐵站走。如果你到了,我還沒到,你 就等著吧;如果我到了,你還沒到,你就 等著吧。」 © 2010 by W. W. Norton & Co., Inc. 27
  28. 28.  4. 單身的原因:原來是喜歡一個人,現在 是喜歡一個人。  5. 兩種人容易被甩:一種不知道什麼叫做 愛,一種不知道什麼叫做愛。  6. 想和某個人在一起的兩種原因:一種是 喜歡上人家,另一種是喜歡上人家。  7. 女孩約的男孩遲到了有兩個原因: 1. 睡 過了。 2. 睡過了。 © 2010 by W. W. Norton & Co., Inc. 28
  29. 29. Syntax  Linguistic universals  Rules that apply to all languages  Subject-verb-object  “Sally ate the apple.”  Preferred order for 98% of the languages
  30. 30. Syntax  Linguistic universals  Innate knowledge of these universals may prepare children for learning language rapidly  Others suggest that grammar learning is constrained by many factors
  31. 31. Sentence Parsing  Parse  Process of assigning words to a phrase structure
  32. 32. Sentence Parsing  Garden-path sentences  “The secretary applauded for his efforts was soon promoted.”  “Fat people eat accumulates.”  “The horse raced past the barn fell.”
  33. 33. Sentence Parsing  Garden-path sentences  “Because he ran the second mile went quickly.” First interpretation Something wrong Reinterpretation
  34. 34. Sentence Parsing  Minimal attachment—simplest phrase structure One phrase Because he ran the second mile he was able to finish quickly. Because he ran the second mile went quickly. Two phrases
  35. 35. Sentence Parsing The detectives examined by the reporter revealed the truth about the robbery The evidence examined by the reporter revealed the truth about the robbery Background knowledge plays a part
  36. 36. Sentence Parsing  Extralinguistic context  “Put the apple on the towel into the box.”
  37. 37. Sentence Parsing  Prosody (音韻學) refers to the patterns of pauses and pitch changes that characterize speech production. It is used to:  Emphasize elements of a sentence  Highlight the sentence’s intended structure  Signal the difference between a question and an assertion
  38. 38. Sentence Parsing  Pragmatics.  “What happened to the roast beef?”  “Well, the dog sure does look happy.” He must have eaten it
  39. 39. The Biological Roots of Language Motor planning Language Comprehension nonfluent aphasia fluent aphasia
  40. 40. The Biological Roots of Language  Children learn language even with no exposure  May have some biological mechanisms for that
  41. 41. The Biological Roots of Language  Specific language impairment  Normal intelligence  Normal muscle movement  Difficulty learning and using language  May be evidence of specialized mechanism for language learning
  42. 42. The Biological Roots of Language  Overregularization errors  “Yesterday, I thinked.”
  43. 43. The Biological Roots of Language  Learning of information present in the environment is also critical to language acquisition  Children as young as 8 months are sensitive to the statistical regularities in the language that they hear, as shown in studies employing nonsense syllable streams
  44. 44. The Biological Roots of Language  Semantic bootstrapping refers to using semantic knowledge to make inferences about the syntactic structure of a language
  45. 45. Language and Thought  Linguistic relativity is the hypothesis that people who speak different languages think differently  Benjamin Whorf’s original argument was that Hopi speakers and English speakers think differently about time
  46. 46. Language and Thought  A language’s color categories may affect how its speakers perceive and remember color
  47. 47. Language and Thought  The spatial terminology of a language—for instance whether absolute or relative terms are used—may affect how its speakers perceive and remember spatial information
  48. 48. Language and Thought  One possibility for such results is that the language you speak determines the concepts and categories that you use, and as a result, shapes what you can think about  A more flexible possibility is that language influences what we pay attention to, and this shapes experience, which influences how we think
  49. 49. Chapter 9 Questions
  50. 50. The hierarchy of linguistic units, from largest to smallest, is a)phrases, words, morphemes, phonemes. b)phonemes, phrases, words, morphemes. c)morphemes, phonemes, phrases, words. d)phonemes, morphemes, words, phrases.
  51. 51. Which of the following is a function morpheme? a) ing b) -les c) wish d) noun phrase
  52. 52. Which of the following claims is TRUE? a) Reliance on prototypes is likely to emerge gradually as a participant’s experience with a category grows. b) People are likely to rely strongly on prototypes early in their exposure to a particular category. c) People only rely on prototypes when they have time to make a decision. d) With exposure to many instances of a particular category, it becomes easier to remember each particular instance, and this contributes to the emergence of a prototype.
  53. 53. Which of the following is TRUE of speech segmentation? a) It is made harder by the fact that more than half of the speech we hear consists of the 50 most common words in English. b) Speech recognition programs can understand a lot of speech from one person and very limited speech from many people. c) When words are in context, they are far more difficult to identify. d) It is made harder by the process of coarticulation, where each phoneme overlaps with the ones before and after it.
  54. 54. Categorical perception cannot explain a) why it is more difficult to detect variations within a single category than differences between two phonemic categories. b) why we sometimes confuse phonemes when in a noisy environment. c) how we identify spaces between words in a continuous speech stream. d) why certain phoneme combinations are difficult for English speakers to pronounce.
  55. 55. The fact that new words in English do not typically start with start with sound combinations like “tl” or “ks” demonstrates a) the generativity of English. b) the role of phrase-boundaries in English. c) the phonological rules of English. d) the biological basis of English.
  56. 56. Which sentence is the hardest to read? a) The witness examined by the lawyer was nervous. b) The witness examined by the lawyer was nervous. c) both a and b d) neither a nor b