Cog5 lecppt chapter07

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  • Correct answer: d
    Feedback: All the answers are true.
  • Correct answer: c
    Feedback: This is state-dependent learning in that learning and recall contexts match.
  • Correct answer: b.
    Feedback: Background knowledge is used to fill in missing information and thus leads to intrusion errors.
  • Correct answer: b.
    Feedback: Trying to fill in gaps is likely to increase the use of schemata in order to guess what might have happened.
  • Correct answer: d.
    Feedback: Interference arises because the new memories interfere with or impede old memories.
  • Correct answer: d.
    Feedback: Hypnosis makes people open to suggestion, and hence they are likely to suffer from misinformation.
  • Correct answer: d.
    Feedback: People will actually bias their memories toward current views of the self.
  • Cog5 lecppt chapter07

    1. 1. © 2010 by W. W. Norton & Co., Inc. Remembering Complex Events Chapter 7 Lecture Outline
    2. 2. Chapter 7: Remembering Complex Events  Lecture Outline  Memory Errors  Avoiding Memory Errors  Autobiographical Memory
    3. 3. Chapter 7: Remembering Complex Events  In this chapter we consider some of the errors that can arise when people try to remember episodes that are related to other things they know and have experienced  We also consider some of the factors that are directly pertinent to memory as it functions in day-to-day life
    4. 4. Memory Errors  An example of a memory error  Airplane lost power to two engines  Crashed into side of building in Amsterdam.  193 participants interviewed 10 months later  More than half of the participants reported seeing the crash on TV  In later follow-ups, many participants confidently provided details about the crash.
    5. 5. Memory Errors  Brewer and Treyens (1981)  Participants often report seeing books or other typical items in an office
    6. 6. Existing knowledge Memory Errors  A hypothesis regarding memory errors Existing knowledge Event Time E V E N T
    7. 7. Memory Errors  Intrusion errors Existing knowledge Existing knowledge Event Time E V E N T New information
    8. 8. Memory Errors  Nancy arrived at the cocktail party. She looked around the room to see who was there. She went to talk with her professor. She felt she had to talk to him but was a little nervous about just what to say. A group of people started to play charades. Nancy went over and had some refreshments. The hors d’oeuvres were good but she was not interested in talking to the rest of the people at the party. After a while she decided she had had enough and left the party.
    9. 9. Memory Errors Nancy woke up feeling sick again, and she wondered if she really were pregnant. How would she tell the professor she had been seeing? And the money was another problem. Theme condition
    10. 10. Memory Errors Better memory, more intrusions Worse memory, fewer intrusions Inferred proposition: the professor had gotten Nancy pregnant
    11. 11. 記憶實驗(記住 16 個字詞)
    12. 12.  護士
    13. 13.  針筒
    14. 14.  酒精
    15. 15.  棉花
    16. 16.  血漿
    17. 17.  病床
    18. 18.  藥丸
    19. 19.  醫生
    20. 20.  拐杖
    21. 21.  輪椅
    22. 22.  點滴
    23. 23.  白袍
    24. 24.  膠布
    25. 25.  病人
    26. 26.  水果
    27. 27.  繃帶
    28. 28.  請盡可能把剛剛看過的字詞寫下來
    29. 29. 護士 針筒 酒精 棉花 血漿 病床 藥丸 醫生 拐杖 輪椅 點滴 白袍 膠布 病人 水果 繃帶
    30. 30. Memory Errors  Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) procedure. (DRM procedure))  Read the list “bed, rest, awake, tired, dream, wake, snooze…”  Participants recall “sleep” even though it was not on the list
    31. 31. Memory Errors Very good memory Intrusions
    32. 32. Memory Errors Highway Schema Palm tree breaks schema Other intrusions are due to schematic knowledge. A schema (plural, schemata) refers to knowledge that describes what is typical or frequent in a given situation.
    33. 33. Memory Errors  Schema can help us when remembering an event  What was the first thing that happened  The last time you went to a restaurant  The last time you went to your favorite restaurant  The last time you went to a restaurant on vacation
    34. 34. Memory Errors  However, schema can also cause us to make errors when remembering an event  For example, you might remember seeing magazines in a dentist’s office even if there were none  Memories are regularized
    35. 35. Memory Errors  A classic demonstration of the effects of schema on memory was provided by Frederick Bartlett (1932)
    36. 36. Memory Errors  One night two young men from Egulac went down to the river to hunt seals, and while they were there it became foggy and calm. Then they heard war cries, and they thought; “Maybe this is a war party.” They escaped to the shore and hid behind a log. Now canoes came up, and they heard the noise of paddles and saw one canoe coming to them. There were five men in the canoe, and they said: “What do you think? We wish to take you along. We are going up the river to make war on the people.” One of the young men said: “I have no arrows.” “Arrows are in the canoe,” they said. “I will not go along. I might be killed. My relatives do not know where I have gone. But you,” he said, turning to the other, “may go with them.” So one of the young men went, but the other returned home. And the warriors went on up the river to a town on the other side of Kalama. The people came down to the water and they began to fight, and many were killed. But presently the young man heard one of the warriors say: “Quick, let us go home; that Indian has been hit.” Now he thought, “Oh, they are ghosts.” He did not feel sick, but they said he had been shot. So the canoes went back to Egulac, and the young man went ashore to his house and made a fire. And he told everybody and said: “Behold I accompanied the ghosts, and we went to fight. Many of our fellows were killed, and many of those who attacked us were killed. They said I was hit, and I did not feel sick.” He told it all, and then he became quiet. When the sun rose, he fell down. Something black came out of his mouth. His face became contorted. The people jumped up and cried. He was dead. (Bartlett, 1932, p. 65)
    37. 37. Memory Errors  Indians were out fishing for seals in the Bay of Manpapan, when along came five other Indians in a war-canoe. They were going fighting. “Come with us,” said the five to the two, “and fight.” “I cannot come,” was the answer of the one, “for I have an old mother at home who is dependent upon me.” The other also said he could not come, because he had no arms. “That is no difficulty” the others replied, “for we have plenty in the canoe with us”; so he got into the canoe and went with them. In a fight soon afterwards this Indian received a mortal wound. Finding that his hour was come, he cried out that he was about to die. “Nonsense,” said one of the others, “you will not die.” But he did. Details altered
    38. 38. Memory Errors  Native American stories presented to British participants  The gist of the stories was recalled but details were altered
    39. 39. Memory Errors  Regularization via schema  Books are remembered in an office  Footage of a plane crash is remembered
    40. 40. Memory Errors  Another line of research has investigated the misinformation effect Event Misleading information Time Misleading information becomes part of event
    41. 41. Memory Errors  Loftus and Palmer, 1974  View a series of slides depicting a car accident How fast were the cars going when they _____ each other?
    42. 42. Memory Errors  Loftus and Palmer, 1974 How fast were the cars going when they _____ each other? when participants came back a week later, those who had heard “smashed into” were more likely to agree to having seen broken glass in the pictures compared to those who heard “hit,” even though there was no broken glass.
    43. 43. 當記憶出錯時 證人證詞1 證人證詞2
    44. 44. ELIZABETH LOFTUS: THE FICTION OF MEMORY TED TALK © 2010 by W. W. Norton & Co., Inc. 44
    45. 45. Memory Errors  Other studies have shown that false autobiographical memories can be implanted, such as participants believing they had become ill eating egg salad as children
    46. 46. Memory Errors  Entire events can be implanted into memory  Imagery can be very compelling  Having been hospitalized overnight for a high fever.  Having spilt a bowl of punch at a wedding.  Having been lost in a shopping mall.  Having taken a hot-air balloon ride.  Having been attacked by a vicious animal.
    47. 47. Memory Errors A picture can create a memory
    48. 48. Memory Errors Participants remembered misbehaving in class.
    49. 49. Memory Errors  Memory confidence  There is little relationship between our confidence in our memories and their accuracy
    50. 50. Memory Errors  Participants witnessed a crime  Later provided with feedback Feedback affected confidence but not accuracy
    51. 51. Avoiding Memory Errors  Other studies have demonstrated cases in which memories were surprisingly accurate  What factors determine whether a memory will be accurate or subject to errors?
    52. 52. Avoiding Memory Errors  The feelings of “remembering” and “knowing”  Remembering is more likely with real memories  Knowing is less likely  However, there are no guarantees
    53. 53. Avoiding Memory Errors  Retention interval—the amount of time that elapsed between initial learning and subsequent retrieval  Schematic knowledge fills in older memories, making them less reliable  Source monitoring—determining which parts of the memory actually occurred and which parts are associated knowledge.
    54. 54. Avoiding Memory Errors It takes longer to relearn information after a longer retention interval
    55. 55. Avoiding Memory Errors  Why memories may weaken with time  Decay—memories may fade or erode  Interference—newer learning may disrupt older memories  Retrieval failure—the memory is intact but cannot be accessed
    56. 56. Blocking Is Temporary  Blocking is a temporary inability to retrieve specific information, as exemplified by the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon  Blocking often occurs because of interference from words that are similar in some way, such as in sound or meaning, and that recur
    57. 57. Avoiding Memory Errors Number of games Lower recall Baddeley and Hitch (1977) This allowed the investigators to calculate intervening games independently of time.
    58. 58. Avoiding Memory Errors  Hypnosis makes people more open to misinformation  Memories are not recovered, they are created
    59. 59. Avoiding Memory Errors Rather than regressing, the adult draws what he or she thinks a 6-year -ld would draw It is clear that the hypnotized adults’ drawings were much more sophisticated.
    60. 60. Avoiding Memory Errors  Instead, the method of recovering “lost” memories that is the most grounded in research is to provide a diverse set of retrieval cues  Context reinstatement  Visualization
    61. 61. Avoiding Memory Errors  Summary of memory errors  People can confidently remember things that never happened  Memories become embedded in schematic knowledge  Schema provide organization and retrieval paths  Forgetting may be a consequence of how our general knowledge is formed: Specific episodes merge in memory to form schema
    62. 62. Autobiographical Memory  Autobiographical memory refers to memory of episodes and events in a person’s own life
    63. 63. Autobiographical Memory  The self-reference effect—better memory for information relevant to oneself  The self-schema is a set of beliefs and memories about oneself
    64. 64. Autobiographical Memory  As with general memories, memories about oneself are subject to errors Memories about ourselves are a mix of genuine recall and schema-based reconstruction Our autobiographical memories are also biased to emphasize consistency and positive traits
    65. 65. Autobiographical Memory  Emotion and memory Emotional events Amygdala Better consolidation
    66. 66. Autobiographical Memory  Causes of better memory for emotional events  Narrowing of attention  More rehearsal
    67. 67. Autobiographical Memory  Flashbulb memories  Are they accurate?
    68. 68. Flashbulb Memories Can Be Wrong  Some events cause people to experience what Brown and Kulik termed flashbulb memories  flashbulb memories: vivid episodic memories for circumstances in which people first learned of a surprising, consequential, or emotionally arousing event  They do not reflect the problem of persistence, however, in that they are not recurring unwanted memories
    69. 69. Autobiographical Memory  Some flashbulb memories contain large- scale errors  A group of college students were interviewed one day after the 1986 space shuttle Challenger explosion (Neisser & Harsch, 1992)  Five years later, confidence was high but there were may inaccuracies in their reports
    70. 70. Autobiographical Memory  Other flashbulb memories are well remembered  Consequentiality—whether it matters to a person’s life  Increases rehearsal and thus memory
    71. 71. Autobiographical Memory  Traumatic memories  Physiological arousal increases consolidation  Can be lost  Head injuries, sleep deprivation, drugs/alcohol, and—controversially—“repression”
    72. 72. Persistence Is Unwanted Remembering  Persistence is the recurrence of unwanted memories; This problem is characteristic of posttraumatic stress disorder  The most common triggers of PTSD include events that threaten people or those close to them  Emotional events are associated with amygdala activity, which might underlie the persistence of certain memories  Contemporary researchers are investigating methods to erase unwanted memories
    73. 73. Autobiographical Memory  Repression  Traumatic memories, can be “lost” and then “recovered”  Lost memories could be lost voluntarily or due to ordinary retrieval failure  However, memories may be due to misinformation
    74. 74. Autobiographical Memory Very stable memories For instance, although some forgetting occurs, high school classmates are recognized in photographs 30 years later.
    75. 75. Autobiographical Memory  Memory for cognitive psychology class (Conway et al., 1991) Considerable Loss for three years Then fairly stable memory
    76. 76. Autobiographical Memory  Permastore  Permanent memories  May be aided by rehearsal and continuing to learn
    77. 77. Autobiographical Memory Most memorable period of life = high school through early college
    78. 78. Autobiographical Memory  Certain principles of autobiographical memory reflect more general memory principles  The importance of rehearsal  The formation of generalized schema from individual memory episodes  The potential for intrusion errors and susceptibility to misinformation  Other principles of autobiographical memory may be distinct  The role of emotion in shaping autobiographical memory may be less applicable to other kinds of memory
    79. 79. 全現遺覺記憶 Photographic memory
    80. 80. Chapter 7 Questions
    81. 81. Which of the following statements is TRUE? a) Memory connections can both help and hurt memory accuracy. b) When events are misremembered, they tend to be remembered as more normal, or more consistent with expectations, than they actually were. c) The greater the density of connections associated with a particular episode, the more likely intrusion errors are to occur. d) all of the above
    82. 82. Which of the following is true regarding recall performance? a) Recall performance is usually better than recognition performance. b) Recall performance does not benefits from context reinstatement. c) Whether a clue about a word’s sound is more helpful for recall than a clue about its meaning depends on how the word was thought of when it was learned. d) Physical context is more important to recall than psychological context.
    83. 83. Intrusion errors are typically caused by a) words or ideas not associated with the material being learned. b) background knowledge brought to a situation. c) maintenance rehearsal. d) thoughts about an event that take place before the event has occurred.
    84. 84. Which of the following is likely to INCREASE the intrusion of schematic knowledge in later recall? a) thinking about how the event unfolded, rather than what it meant b) making an effort to fill in the gaps in one’s memories c) decreasing the retention interval d) thinking about what was distinctive, rather than typical, about the episode
    85. 85. According to interference theory, most forgetting is attributable to the fact that a) due to a change in perspective, you lose paths to the information. b) emotion causes the disruption of memories acquired earlier. c) memories and memory connections fade with time. d) new learning disrupts or overwrites old learning.
    86. 86. While under hypnosis, people a) are quite accurate at distinguishing true and false memories. b) tend to remember more about the event they are being questioned about. c) tend to talk less about the event they are being questioned about. d) are more susceptible to the misinformation effect.
    87. 87. Which of the following is TRUE about autobiographical memories? a) People will bias recollection of past events away from current characteristics. b) Recollection is worse for memories that seem more directly relevant to the self. c) When an event is forgotten, reconstruction tends to favor seeing the self in a negative light. d) Reconstruction of past events will often be consistent with current views of self.

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