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Sld pd

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SLD PD

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Sld pd

  1. 1. Specific Learning Disabilities Characteristics, Strategies, and Accommodations Valerie Chow April 22, 2014
  2. 2. Objective To bring awareness of specific learning disabilities, how they impact the acquisition of academic skills, and to provide strategies and accommodations that can be used in the classroom to support student learning
  3. 3. Psychological Processing Areas•Attention •Visual Processing •Auditory Processing •Sensory Motor Skills •Cognitive abilities including association, conceptualization, and expression SLD Certification Present Levels of Performanc e
  4. 4. Attention Establishing and maintaining attention to tasks, short-term memory, self-monitoring, and the shifting of mental operations.
  5. 5. Students with a psychological processing disorder in attention may demonstrate difficulties in one or more of the following areas: • Making careless mistakes • Organizing tasks • Completing tasks or homework due to poor recall and/or follow through • Easily distracted by irrelevant stimuli • Demonstrates main ideas but misses details or may attend to minor information with difficulty in seeing entire picture • Rushes through work and/or gives up quickly • Uses skills inconsistently • Frequently shifts tasks
  6. 6. Attention Strategies and Accommodations • Physically active students should be allowed to stand by their desk (or in the back of the classroom, as long as they are not disrupting others) • Use low-level music or environmental sounds during independent work time (whole class or with headphones) • Student should not be seated near the door, as he/she may constantly be distracted by who comes and goes • Use visual aids • Break long presentations into "chunks"/small steps • Give frequent checks for understanding • Use highlighters/underlining • Check student understanding of directions by having the student restate • Turn paper so lines go vertically and can line up problems in math • If there are many items on a page, fold the paper so only a small amount shows at a time • Provide “stretch time” and allow for time out of seat • Use cueing techniques to keep the student on task
  7. 7. Visual Processing The ability to make sense of information taken in through the eyes and affects how the information is interpreted or processed by the brain. It is the ability to recognize, track, remember, and interpret visual information.
  8. 8. Students with a psychological processing disorder in visual processing may demonstrate difficulties in one or more of the following areas: • Noting differences and similarities among geometric forms, letters and words • Confusion of letters with similar configurations (h-n, i-j,v-w) or similar words (lap, lip) • Confused if too much information is presented in a small space • Keeping place while reading and copying materials • Remembering the order in • Displaying more difficulty in spelling and writing than in reading • Not remembering the order of letters in words (e.g., "the" may be spelled "het" or "teh") • Reversing letters or symbols • Locating/copying information from the board • Limited word attack skills; trouble blending letters in words visually
  9. 9. Visual Processing Strategies and Accommodations • Use cue card for multistep-step processes • Use color coding, highlighting, and/or underlining to differentiate important parts of a presentation • Provide books on tape • Teach color coding, highlighting, and or underlining • Allow 3 x 5 card (i.e. index card) to assist in tracking when reading • Fold paper to provide boxes for work • Provide calendars and checklists
  10. 10. Auditory Processing The ability to analyze or make sense of information taken in through the ears. It is the perception and use of auditory information including auditory discrimination, memory, sequencing, and integration.
  11. 11. Students with a psychological processing disorder in auditory processing may demonstrate difficulties in one or more of the following areas: • Learning sound symbol relationships • Following complex verbal directions • Attending to lectures/verbal presentations • Hearing the letter sound in the beginning, middle, or end of a word • Recognizing rhyming words • Spelling • Reading comprehension due to decoding and low fluency • Recalling numbers • Recalling information in a systematic, sequential order • Hearing a series of sounds and blending them • Retelling stories - describing events • Remembering what teacher says • Seems to be “lost” about what is being discussed or presented, may seem to daydream or become restless when listening is required • Easily distracted by background noise
  12. 12. Auditory Processing Strategies and Accommodations • Minimize auditory distractions • Ask student to repeat or summarize directions • Use flash cards for vocabulary and spelling words • Use a high degree of visual cues and examples along with auditory information • Keep directions brief • Highlight important information using colored highlighters • Present only one or two tasks/directions at one time • Use books on tape when reading
  13. 13. Sensory Motor Skills Difficulty with perceptual-motor integration, motor proficiency/speed, and perceptual organization.
  14. 14. Students with a psychological processing disorder in sensory motor skills may demonstrate difficulties in one or more of the following areas: • Performing tasks that require eye-hand coordination such as copying from the board; catching a ball; reproducing shapes and figures; drawing and art projects; and handwriting • Pencil control and handwriting • Awkward pencil grip • Switching from far vision to near vision, such as losing place when copying from the board • Writing is cramped, too close together, too far apart, or goes uphill/downhill • Resistant to do written work • Does not edit or re-check work
  15. 15. Sensory Motor Skills Strategies and Accommodations • Seating the student near the board/point of presentation • Use of visual aids with auditory cues • Shorten large tasks into a series of smaller tasks • Allow use of a pencil grip, large pencils, or large lined paper for writing tasks • May need reading material held at a slant
  16. 16. Cognitive Abilities: Association The ability to acquire and store basic units of information in memory (long-term) and to relate these units to one another; and/or register and immediately use information (short-term).
  17. 17. Students with a psychological processing disorder in association may demonstrate difficulties in one or more of the following areas: Long-term memory • After exposure and apparently learning the skill or information, unable to remember information or demonstrate skill • Recalling of facts, details, procedures, skills, methods, and/or events in life • Recalling information quickly, accurately, or easily Short-term memory • Understanding complex directions • Remembering information long enough to process it for comprehension • Maintaining attention • Processing information quickly
  18. 18. Cognitive Abilities: Conceptualization The ability to learn new concepts and use information reason, generalize, problem solve, and use multi-step directions.
  19. 19. Students with a psychological processing disorder in conceptualization may demonstrate difficulties in one or more of the following areas: • Keeping two or more ideas in mind • Applying previously learned information to the solution of new problems • Selecting and verbalizing appropriate relationships between two objects or concepts • Verbalizing what has been learned • Creative problem solving, flexibility in thinking, math problem solving, and reading comprehension
  20. 20. Cognitive Abilities: Expression The process of ordering thought in a form that can be understood by others and to effectively communicate ideas through language.
  21. 21. Students with a psychological processing disorder in expression may demonstrate difficulties in one or more of the following areas: • Word retrieval when speaking or writing • Listening comprehension • Verbally recalling information/facts • Expressing ideas verbally
  22. 22. Association, Conceptualization, and Expression Strategies and Accommodations • Label areas of room used for specific items or tasks • Use a multi-sensory approach to learning (visual, auditory, hands-on) • Use cooperative learning strategies • Give ample time for responses or preparation • Give written questions to think about before answering oral questions • Offer story starters to promote creative writing • Use verbal enrichment activities including Scrabble, analogy, and other word games • Allow the student to use cue cards, manipulatives, number lines, or math fact charts • Use verbal rehearsal (Mnemonics) to retrieve information
  23. 23. Activity 1. Form 4 groups of 3 to 4 people. 2. Get to know your hypothetical student. 3. Determine appropriate strategies and accommodations that can be used in the classroom to support your student’s needs. 4. Share back with the rest of the group.

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