AUTOMATION What is AUTOMATION ?• As the name suggest ―Automation‖ means to perform automatic operations by means of different kinds of machines.• Automation is the use of control systems and information technologies to reduce the need for human work in the production of goods and services. In the scope of industrialization, automation is a step beyond mechanization.• It is used to reduce human interference and an efforts.
AUTOMATION Tools of Automation• Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)• Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition (SCADA)• Human Machine Interface (HMI) or Touch Screen (TS)• Variable Frequency Drive (VFD)
AUTOMATION ADVANTAGES : ~• Replacing human operators in tasks that involve hard physical or monotonous work.• Replacing humans in tasks done in dangerous environments.• Performing tasks that are beyond human capabilities of size, weight, speed, endurance, etc.• Economy improvement: Automation may improve in economy of enterprises, society or most of humanity.
AUTOMATION DISADVANTAGES : ~• Unemployment rate increases due to machines replacing humans and putting those humans out of their jobs.• Technical Limitation• Security Threats• High initial cost.
PLC What is PLC ?• PLC - programmable logic controller• A Programmable Logic Controller, or PLC for short, is simply a special computer device used for industrial control systems. They are used in many industries such as oil refineries, manufacturing lines, conveyor systems and so on.• PLC implements logic control functions by means of a program.
PLC How does a PLC differ from a computer ?• A computer is optimized for calculation and display tasks.• A computer is programmed by specialists• A PLC is designed for (logic) control and regulation tasks.• A PLC is programmed by non-specialists• A PLC is well adapted to industrial environment.
PLC Components of PLC : ~1. Inputs Circuits2. Outputs Circuits3. CPU (Central Processing Unit )4. Memory for program and data storage5. Programming device6. Communication Device7. Power Supply
PLC 1. PLC inputs : ~ ANALOG inputs DIGITAL inputs• Pressure Transducer Push buttons• Flow meter Sensors• Thermocouples Selector switches
PLC PLC outputs : ~ANALOG outputs DIGITAL outputs• Mass flow controller • LED’s• Pressure regulator • Small motors• Position controller • Relays
PLC Memory for program and data storage : ~Memories used: -• RAM – Random access memory Volatile Made up of metal oxide semiconductor lose its information if power is removed.• ROM – Read only memory Non-volatile dont need an external power source to keep information
PLC Power Supply : ~• A power supply of 120v ac is typically used to drive the PLC (some units operate on 240v ac).• The power supply converts the 120v ac into dc voltages of +5v.• These low voltages are used to operate equipment that many have much higher voltage and power ratings than the PLC itself.
PLC Programming In PLC :~Languages used in PLC for the purpose of programming are1. Ladder language2. Functional Block Diagram (FBD)3. Instructional List (IL)4. Drive Functional Block (DFB)5. Structural test language
PLC Ladder language used in PLC programmingThere are two PLC in which ladder programmingis used : -• ZELIO PLC : - It uses Zelio soft 2 software for the programming.• DELTA PLC : - It uses WPL soft software for their programming.
PLC ZELIO PLCThe software’s used for different types of Zelio PLC’s areas follows:-• Zelio 1- non expandable- zelio soft 1• Zelio 2- non expandable- zelio soft 2• Zelio 3- expandable- zelio soft 2
PLC Parameters used in Zelio and delta PLC in ladder programmingParameters ZELIO plc DELTA plcInputs In XnOutputs Qn YnNC of inputNO of inputTimer Tt1, t1 command has to be provided (e.g.- TMR T0 k150)
PLC Zelio soft 2 ladder programmingThe various parameters used in zelio soft 2 whileoperating ladder program and their relationshipamongst them are as follows:-• INPUT CONTACT• OUTPUT CONTACT• INTERLOCKING• MEMORY COIL• LATCHING• TIMER• COUNTER
PLC INPUT AND OUTPUT CONTACT• Inputs in Zelio soft 2 is represented by I1, I2, I3,I5,I6.• Inputs are further classified as: - NORMALLY CLOSED NORMALLY OPEN
PLC INTERLOCKING• Interlocking means to interlock something by placing NC of coil or input in front. The concept of interlocking reduces the complexity in PLC programming• Interlocking in ladder programming means whenever we want to off some output by input or any type coil, then we have to place NC of that input or a coil in front of output which we want to off.
PLC MEMORY COIL• Memory coil in ladder programming is used for reversing the contacts whenever coil is get energized.• In ladder programming memory coil is represented by M1 and its contact is represented by m1.• When memory coil M1 gets the signal it gets energized and then it reverses the terminal of its contact m1 which reverses the operation.
PLC LATCHING• Latching is the process in which once output or a coil is energized it remains energized forever. Latching is done by the contact of output or coil which we want to switch ON permanently.
PLC COUNTER • Counter is same as timer. Counter works on the method of counting the number of pulse. Types of counter : -• UP counter- UP counter counts in increment order. Ex . 1, 2, 4….n.• DOWN counter- DOWN counter counts in decrement order. Ex. 5,4,3,2,1
PLC DELTA PLC• It is high-speed, stable and highly reliable PLCs are applied in various automation machines.• it is totally similar to zelio plc programming but the specifications of DELTA plc are different from zelio plc as shown above.• In DELTA plc memory space has been allotted according to the types of plc.
PLC Timers in Delta PLCTimers in DELTA plc are used to add some delay in thecircuit, timers can be of two types as follows: -• ON delay timer.• OFF delay timer. Commands for applying timer are as follows: - TMR<space>t0<space>k100
PLC WIRING OF PLC• The operating voltage of plc is 220v (Ac) / 24v (dc)/10v (dc). The operating voltage of plc is 220v (Ac) / 24v (dc)/10v (dc).Components used in wiring of plc are: -• SMPS- Switch Mode Power Supply• OUTPUT- Y0 ,C0• SOURCE/SINK (S/S)- S0,S1.........
PLC COMPONENTS • SWITCH MODE POWER SUPPLY: - SMPS is used to provide power supply to plc; SMPS can be of different power supply mode. Ex - 220v (Ac) / 24v (dc)/10v (dc).• OUTPUT: - Output Y0 actually connected to C0 the pair of Y0 C0 is responsiblefor working of plc. C0 Y0 C1 Y1
PLC Applications of PLC• Gate Control : -• PLC can sense a vehicle at the entrance or exit, and open and close the gate automatically.• The current vehicle count is easily determined by programming a simple counter.• Gate control system can also be used for domestic purpose.
PLC Applications of PLC• Conveyor System: -• PLC can be used to start/stop latching logic for motor control• Counters can be used for monitoring product amounts• Conveyor system using plc can be used in car washing system
VFD VARIABLE FREQUENCY DRIVE (VFD) • VFD or Variable Frequency Drives are used to run the motors of single phase or three phase supply. • VFD is used to accelerate and deaccelerate the speed of motor with in a particular time. Drives commands: - • Start/Stop • Speed reference • Acceleration/ deacceleration
VFD Parameters of VFDP = 2—00 = 0 (digital keypad) = 3 (potentiometer on drive) P = 2—01 = 0 (digital keypad) = 1 (external terminal) / keypad stop/enable = 2 (external terminal)/keypad stop/disableSTART/STOP command = 0 (on board) = 1 (ext M0=forward, M1= reverse) = 3(M0=forward, M1= reverse, M2=stop) P = 1—09 = acceleration time P = 1—10 = deacceleration time
VFD Advantages of VFD• Dynamic braking : -Dynamic braking stops the system more quickly than coasting• Highly efficient• Low power consumption• Small space consumption• Low cost• Easy to use• Highly specific
SCADA SCADA System• SCADA is ―Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition‖ – real time industrial process control systems used to centrally monitor and control remote or local industrial equipment such as motors, valves, pumps, relays, etc• A SCADA system gathers information (such as where a leak on a pipeline has occurred), transfers the information back to a central site, then alerts the home station that a leak has occurred, carrying out necessary analysis and control, such as determining if the leak is critical, and displaying the information in a logical and organized fashion.
SCADA Why SCADA?• Saves Time and Money • Less traveling for workers (e.g. helicopter ride) • Reduces man-power needs • Increases production efficiency of a company • Cost effective for power systems • Saves energy• Reliable• Supervisory control over a particular system
HMI HUMAN MACHINE INTERFACE (HMI) • A human machine interface (HMI) is an interface which permits interaction between a human being and a machine. • . Human machine interfaces vary widely, from control panels for nuclear power plants to the screen and input buttons on a cell phone. • Two components are needed in a human machine interface. The first is an input. A human user needs some way to tell the machine what to do, to make requests of the machine, or to adjust the machine. Examples of input devices include keyboards, toggles, switches, touch screens,