Preparing to confront         reality: Intersections of         emerging         technologies, authentic         learning ...
Structure of paper Project on emerging technologies Emerging technologies Qualitative outcomes Authentic learning Met...
Emerging Technologies in SouthAfrican HEIs research projectInvolves the following research partners: A group of eight dif...
The Research Team Members        (May 2011)
The research projectFunded by the National Research Foundation (NRF) for aperiod of three yearsOverarching question:How co...
Qualitative outcomesStimulating learning environments where: learners are empowered, safe to express themselves,  ask and...
Sub-questions addressed by the       project In what ways are emerging technologies (ETs) used in innovative  pedagogical...
Characteristics of ET1.   May or may not be new technologies2.   Evolving organism, that exist in the state of coming into...
Hype Cycle for Education 2011http://www.cloudave.com/14339/hype-cycle-for-emerging-technologies-2011-idea-management-enlig...
Emerging Technologies in SA      youTube                Google family          MXIT lOGO                       Digital sto...
Horizon Report 2012       Johnson, Adams & Cummins, 2012
2010 Social media in South Africahttp://afrographique.tumblr.com/post/4238854267/a-comparative-infographic-of-mxit-faceboo...
Phase 1 of Project - SurveyEthics clearanceLiterature reviews and theoretical frameworks – CHATSurvey of Emerging Technolo...
Focus of the research1.   What are the technologies academics are using?2.   How are SA lecturers using these technologies...
2011 Emerging Technologies Survey Target group: lecturers that are known to be open  to/engaged with technology Sent by ...
Respondents by Institution                 Female Male   TotalUniversity of Stellenbosch                   28    21     49...
Methodology Examined data from survey and identified 21 rich case  studies Used Herrington’s nine elements of authentic ...
Interviews Shortlisted to 70 case studies that could potentially be  classified as authentic learning 21 interviews high...
Profile of participants interviewedThe demographics of the sample who wereinterviewed were as follows:                    ...
Authentic learningLearners to be engaged in an inventive and realistic taskthat provides opportunities for complex collabo...
Herrington’s nine elements ofauthentic learning   Authentic context   Authentic task   Expert performance   Multiple p...
Authentic Context
Authentic taskAnti-oppressive scenarios and roleplays deal with: human right‟s issues Building self esteem „Unlearning‟...
Access to expert performances andmodelling of processes
2012/09/13            http://blogs.sun.ac.za/hopefulpedagogiess            u/                                   Multiple p...
Guest lectures:RemixCompany
Collaborative construction ofknowledge
Collaborative construction ofknowledge
Reflection
Community, Self and Identity:A Virtual Learning Community across two South AfricanUniversities                  Poul Rohle...
Coaching and Scaffolding
UKFIET INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE                                                                13/09/2012SEPTEMBER 2007Ass...
UKFIET INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE                                                                            13/09/2012     ...
Findings
Discussion Evidence of authentic learning Evidence that technology supports authentic learning Quantitative data doesn’...
Authentic learning in Science
Authentic learning using a fish tank
Blog on fish tank
Alette Schoen video
Future Plans Colloquium on authentic learning Invitation of interviewees to become collaborators in  research and presen...
ReferencesHenschke, J. A. (2010). Bringing Together Personal Learning, Higher Education   Institutions Elements, and Globa...
Publications from the project Conference Proceedings   Bozalek, V. (2011) „An investigation into the use of emerging tec...
Any questions? Thanks to the National Research Foundation andthe UWC Teaching and Learning Research Fund for              ...
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Authentic learning and emerging technologies final

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This was a presentation given at the alt-c2012 conference in Manchester on Tuesday 11 September

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  • thanks Viv, really interesting slides on what is 'new' and what is useful.
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  • 6 PhD students – four from UWC, one from CPUT and one from Wits
  • Guided by Henschke’s (2010) principles for stimulating learning, the project seeks to create new knowledge on how the use of emerging technologies alters the teaching and learning interactions and paradigms to create a stimulating learning environment that could generate the following qualitative outcomes:An environment in which learners are empowered, are safe to express themselves, to ask and respond to peers’ questions without feeling oppressed, domesticated or silencedAn environment that encourages intellectual freedom to ‘think-aloud’, ‘try-out’ new things and reflect on lessons learntAn environment in which the psychological distance between knowledgeable others (peers and experts) is reducedAn environment in which learners are equal partners in knowledge production (participatory parity)
  • Emerging and new are not necessarily synonomousWhile for example, Twitter may be an emerging technology, various practices on Twitter platform may already be establishedToday’s ET may become tomorrow’s fad – must remain sceptical about sudden transformation. ETs go through cycles of euphoria, adoption, use, maturity, impact, enthusiasm or even infatuation. Some will remain, others fade into backgroundCan’t yet fully understand the implications and what they offer teaching and learning, what they mean for educators and for institutions. It is not predictable we can’t determine in advance what will happen but only make sense of it after the event (Williams et al. 2011).Initial investigations often evangelical and describe superficial aspects of the technology without understanding the affordances of the technology and how these provide different ways to learn. Newer technologies can also be used in old traditional ways.Lack of research impedes disseminationAccording to Veletsianos (2010:17) emerging technologies are ‘tools, technologies, innovations, and advancements utlized in diverse educational settings to serve varied education-related purposes’. We are still learning and still learners with regard to the affordances of ETs. There is an absence of empirical work or practitioner knowledge base to explore enhancement of practice. Veletsianos (2010:17) personal technologies often sit uneasily with institutions; in some cases they are even banned within the university buildings and networks (Parry, 2005).
  • he latest hype cycle is below, and here are the descriptions of the major stages of it.1. Technology TriggerA breakthrough, public demonstration, product launch or other event generates significant press and industry interest.2. Peak of Inflated ExpectationsDuring this phase of overenthusiasm and unrealistic projections, a flurry of well-publicized activity by technology leaders results in some successes, but more failures, as the technology is pushed to its limits. The only enterprises making money are conference organizers and magazine publishers.3. Trough of DisillusionmentBecause the technology does not live up to its overinflated expectations, it rapidly becomes unfashionable. Media interest wanes, except for a few cautionary tales.4. Slope of EnlightenmentFocused experimentation and solid hard work by an increasingly diverse range of organizations lead to a true understanding of the technology’s applicability, risks and benefits. Commercial off-the-shelf methodologies and tools ease the development process.5. Plateau of ProductivityThe real-world benefits of the technology are demonstrated and accepted. Tools and methodologies are increasingly stable as they enter their second and third generations. Growing numbers of organizations feel comfortable with the reduced level of risk; the rapid growth phase of adoption begins. Approximately 20% of the technology’s target audience has adopted or is adopting the technology as it enters this phase.
  • Parry, W., “School orders students to remove blogs”. USA Today, 26/10/2005. Downloaded from: http://www.usatoday.com/tech/news/techpolicy/2005-10-26-school-bans-blogs_x.htmThe over-adoption of tools can lead to what has been termed ‘creepy tree house’ syndrome (Stein 2008) when authority is seen to try and invade a young person's social space. There is strong resistance from students to universities and lecturers making formal use of social networks as this is seen as an invasion of their social space (e.g. Madge 2009). When parents and professors start inhabiting these spaces it creates a role conflict (Selwyn 2009) for students, as they struggle to know which face to present and find their communication stifled. These tools may have significant potential for learning, but students don't want them to become the next LMS: organisationally controlled, bland and singular in focus (i.e. teaching). For the teaching function of scholarship then the question is ‘How can educators utilise the potential of these tools without destroying what makes them valuable to students?’ Weller,2011:
  • Cloud computing has become the unifying factor among content and applications on the many devices people use in everyday life. Whether connecting at home, work, school, on the road, or in social spaces, nearly everyone who uses computers relies on cloud computing to access their information and applications. This ability to access services and files from any location and on any device is driving development of cloud computing applications in the consumer space.Mobile phones — distinct from new sorts of larger format mobile devices such as tablets — have as a category proven more interesting and more capable with each passing year. According to a report from mobile manufacturer Ericsson, by 2015 80% of people accessing the Internet worldwide will be doing so from a mobile device. At the 2011 Mobile World Congress, Google CEO Eric Schmidt noted that for every baby born that year, 30 Android phones would be activated. Mobiles are becoming better understood in the academic world; there has been a significant amount of time spent finding creative ways to incorporate them both in the physical space and as a tool to help students learn from a distance. As educational institutions become more adept at developing and using mobile apps, their utility and pervasiveness is only due to increase. Current examples of mobile apps span functions from interpretation and education to campus service directories to specialized apps tied to specific courses. Learners can share their findings on topics and they facilitate content creation through the use of recorders, cameras etcSocial reading is a relatively new phenomenon emerging at the intersection of electronic books and social networking. When e-books began to take hold in the consumer sector over the past two years, the devices and content were constrained with digital rights management that effectively made sharing content impossible. Some publishers, along with a mix of start-ups, saw another way, and began to find ways to enhance content to make it more interactive, to mirror the qualities of a print publication — and to make aspects of the experience sharable. Today a variety of websites and ereading tools allow users to annotate their e-books, highlight passages, bookmark — and notably —share sections with friends via email, Facebook and Twitter. Several of the new services allow users to store their entire reading experience on any device they want by syncing their tablet or dedicated eReader with a social reading service, such as Amazon or Float. These services can record actions taken by the reader and ultimately create for them a personal virtual bookshelf. People who are subscribed to the service are able to share their e-books and comments with each other, as well as people within their social networks. Social reading tools could be used to allow study groups to easily exchange notes on electronic books they are reading in their classes, and spur meaningful virtual discussions.In the past year, advances in tablet computers have captured the imagination of educators and museum professionals around the world. Led by the incredible success of the iPad, which in 2011 was selling at the rate of more than 3 million units a month, other similar devices such as the Samsung Galaxy and Sony's Tablet S, have also begun to enter this rapidly growing new market. In the process, tablets (a form that is distinct from tablet PCs) have come to be viewed as not just a new category of mobile devices, but indeed a new technology in its own right, one that blends features of laptops, smart phones, and earlier tablet computers with always-connected Internet, and thousands of apps with which to personalize the experience. As these new devices have become more used and understood, it is clear that they are independent and distinct from other mobile devices such as smart phones, eReaders, or tablet PCs. With significantly larger screens and richer gestured-based interfaces than their smartphone predecessors, they are ideal tools for sharing content, videos, images, and presentations because they are easy for anyone to use, visually compelling, and highly portable.Tablets are easily adaptable to almost any learning environment, with tens of thousands of educational applications emerging as part of a new software distribution model.! As a one-to-one solution, tablets present an economic, flexible alternative to laptops and desktops due to their lower cost, greater portability, and access to apps.! Tablets are conducive to engaging in learning outside the classroom, with a suite of tools for capturing data in real-time and collaborating on projects.Adaptive learning environments (ALEs) are seen as the next logical step in the continuum that begins with personal learning environments by first incorporating data from learning analytics, and then using software to modify the learning environment as needed. While personal learning environments are seen by many as primarily a way of organizing tools, content, examples, and concepts to support self-directed and group-based learning, adaptive learning environments are envisioned as responsive, allowing the tools, content, examples, and concepts to be modified in real-time based on how the students are actually learning. The term itself was coined in 1998, but 14 years hence, adaptive learning environments still remain more of a vision than a reality.The topic has resurfaced recently as a potential application for learning analytics, but work that bridges the two concepts is hard to locate, and the editors were unable to locate any prototypes or examples in which this idea is being explored. Relevance for Teaching, Learning, or Creative Inquiry! Adaptive learning environments may cater to students with differing learning styles.! ALEs enable modifications to learning environments based on how each student is performing, catering to their specific learning needs.! As ALEs become more in tune with various learners’ needs, educators can use the data to develop new courses and new materials that cater to different learning styles.! Ongoing online courses can be changed in real-time with little manual, time-consuming intervention. Augmented reality (AR), a capability that has been around for decades, is shifting from what was once seen as a gimmick to a tool with tremendous potential. The layering of information over 3D space produces a new experience of the world, sometimes referred to as “blended reality,” and is fueling the broader migration of computing from the desktop to the mobile device, bringing with it new expectations regarding access to information and new opportunities for learning. While the most prevalent uses of augmented reality so far have been in the consumer sector (for marketing, social engagement, amusement, or location-based information), new uses seem to emerge almost daily, as tools for creating new applications become even easier to use. A key characteristic of augmented reality is its ability to respond to user input. This interactivity confers significant potential for learning and assessment; students can construct new understanding based on interactions with virtual objects that bring underlying data to life. Dynamic processes, extensive datasets, and objects too large or too small to be manipulated can be brought into a student’s learning space at a scale and in a form easy to understand and manipulate.Relevance for Teaching, Learning, or Creative Inquiry! Augmented reality has strong potential to provide both powerful contextual, in situ learning experiences and serendipitous exploration and discovery of the connected nature of information in the real world.! Students visiting historic sites can access AR applications that overlay maps and information about how the location looked at different points of history.! Games that are based in the real world and augmented with networked data can give educators powerful new ways to show relationships and connections.Game-based learning has gained considerable traction since 2003, when James Gee began to describe the impact of game play on cognitive development. Since then, research — and interest in — the potential of gaming on learning has exploded, as has the diversity of games themselves, with the emergence of serious games as a genre, the proliferation of gaming platforms, and the evolution of games on mobile devices. Developers and researchers are working in every area of game-based learning, including games that are goal-oriented; social game environments; non-digital games that are easy to construct and play; games developed expressly for education; and commercial games that lend themselves to refining team and group skills. Role-playing, collaborative problem solving, and other forms of simulated experiences are recognized for having broad applicability across a wide range of disciplines.Relevance for Teaching, Learning, or Creative Inquiry! Educational games offer opportunities for both discovery-based and goal-oriented learning, and can be very effective ways to develop teambuilding skills.! Simulations and role-playing games allow students to re-enact difficult situations to try new responses or pose creative solutions.! Educational games can be used to teach cross-curricular concepts that touch on many subjects in an engaging wayLearning analytics refers to the interpretation of a wide range of data produced by and gathered on behalf of students in order to assess academic progress, predict future performance, and spot potential issues. Data are collected from explicit student actions, such as completing assignments and taking exams, and from tacit actions, including online social interactions, extracurricular activities, posts on discussion forums, and other activities that are not directly assessed as part of the student’s educational progress. The goal of learning analytics is to enable teachers and schools to tailor educational opportunities to each student’s level of need and ability. Learning analytics promises to harness the power of advances in data mining, interpretation, and modeling to improve understandings of teaching and learning, and to tailor education to individual students more effectively. Still in its early stages, learning analytics responds to calls for accountability on campuses and leverages the vast amount of data produced by students in academic activities.Relevance for Teaching, Learning, or Creative Inquiry! The promise of learning analytics is that when correctly applied and interpreted, it will enable teachers to more precisely identify students’ learning needs and tailor instruction appropriately.! If used effectively, learning analytics can help surface early signals that indicate a student is struggling, allowing teachers and schools to address issues quicklyDigital identity management focuses on enabling users to create a single digital identity that can be used in any place where a login is required to access a website or service. It is not a single technology, but a group of related technologies and ideas. In the simplest terms, one’s digital identity is a method that allows recognition any place where a log-in is needed. A variety of different systems are being developed, and though they have the same broad purpose of creating a sign-on system that is convenient and secure for an individual rather than a company or organization, ideas about what precisely defines a user-centric identity system and how that would be implemented are still widely varied. Both Google and Facebook are positioning their systems to be the “home” of one’s digital identity.Relevance for Teaching, Learning, or Creative Inquiry! Digital identity allows for broader control beyond information systems; there is one path to trace when profiling an individual’s digital footprint, i.e. content delivery.! Digital identity has the potential to personalize curriculum through profiling learners’ interests based on their historic content consumption.! A single ID and password helps educators and students seamlessly connect to resources across multiple devices and websites.It is already common to interact with a new class of devices entirely by using natural gestures. The Microsoft Surface, iPad, iPhone and iPod Touch, the Nintendo Wii, and other gesture-based systems accept input in the form of taps, swipes, and other ways of touching, hand and arm motions, or body movement. These are the first in a growing array of alternative input devices that allow computers to recognize and interpret natural physical gestures as a means of control. We are seeing a gradual shift towards interfaces that adapt to — or are built for — humans and human movements. Gesture-based computing allows users to engage in virtual activities with motion and movement similar to what they would use in the real world, manipulating content intuitively. The idea that natural, comfortable motions can be used to control computers is opening the way to a host of input devices that look and feel very different from the keyboard and mouse — and that enable our devices to infer meaning from the movements and gestures we make.Relevance for Teaching, Learning, or Creative Inquiry! Gestural interfaces allow users to easily perform precise manipulations that can be difficult to manage with a mouse or controller.! Gesture-based computing facilitates the convergence of a user’s thoughts with their movements, which appeals to kinetic learners who learn by acting.! Large multi-touch displays support collaborative work, allowing multiple users to interact with content simultaneously.Haptic interfaces are a well-understood, mature technology; the topic first appeared in the NMC Horizon Report: 2004 Higher Ed Edition, where it was highlighted as an example of multimodal interfaces and placed on the mid-term horizon. Since then, haptic interfaces have found broad use in medical, engineering, military and other simulations, theme parks, and games. The most common haptic interfaces use vibration as a sensory cue, but haptics also make use of sensations such as movement, temperature, texture, and pressure to convey non-verbal cues and information to the user. Often, very subtle cues can make an experience much more authentic, a feature that has broad use in medical and flight simulators, as well as in the popular simulator rides found in theme parks, but such feedback is expensive to produce. Sometimes discussed in the same conversation as gesture-based computing, the two are distinctly different. Gesture-based computing is centered on input to a device — it does not require direct touch and does not generate any feedback from the device. On the other hand, haptic interfaces are output-oriented, used to pull information out of the device. Relevance for Teaching, Learning, or Creative Inquiry! Haptic interfaces help in medical simulations, enabling students to perform mock surgeries while learning the different sensation of actions, such as cutting through tissue and muscle.! Haptic interfaces have much potential for aiding the visually impaired, allowing users to touch a surface to hear a specific audio explanation.! Resistance, heat, and traction are features of haptic interfaces that mirror physical reality, allowing learners to immerse themselves in new environments they otherwise may not have access toThe “Internet of Things” has become a sort of shorthand for network-aware smart objects that connect the physical world with the world of information. A smart object has four key attributes: it is small, and thus easy to attach to almost anything; it has a unique identifier; it has a small store of data or information; and it has a way to communicate that information to an external device on demand. The Internet of Things extends that concept by using TCP/IP as the means to convey the information, thus making objects addressable (and findable) on the Internet. Objects that carry information with them have long been used for the monitoring of sensitive equipment or materials, point-of-sale purchases, passport tracking, inventory management, identification, and similar applications. Smart objects are the next generation of those technologies — they “know” about a certain kind of information, such as cost, age, temperature, color, pressure, or humidity — and can pass that information along easily and instantly. They can be used to digitally manage physical objects, monitor their status, track them throughout their lifespan, alert someone when they are in danger of being damaged or spoiled — or even to annotate them with descriptions, instructions, warranties, tutorials, photographs, connections to other objects, and any other kind of contextual information imaginable. The Internet of Things would allow easy access to these data.Relevance for Teaching, Learning, or Creative Inquiry! Attached to scientific samples, the Internet of Things can alert scientists and researchers to conditions that may impair the quality or utility of the samples.! Pill-shaped microcameras are used in medical diagnostics and teaching to traverse the human digestive tract and send back thousands of images to pinpoint sources of illness.! QR codes bridge the gap between physical and digital content as people can “scan” printed materials with their mobiles and be immediately directed to the corresponding place on the web.
  • The survey has involved designing and prototyping a scoping questionnaire prior to administering this to academics in all HEIs in South Africa to establish current practices regarding emergent technologies to enhance teaching and learning. The online questionnaire comprises of closed and open ended questions. The objective of the survey will be to establish the contexts and conditions that frame current practices of use of emerging technologies within South Africans HEIs.
  • Updated Daniela
  • Updated kathy
  • CHAT has been used as a tool to design teaching and learning and also as an heuristic to analyse data (Amory, 2012)
  • Not enough to provide suitable e.g.s from real world situations to illustrate the concept or issue being taught – context needs to be all-embracing to provide purpose or motivation for learning and a sustained, complex learning environment that can be explored at length. One has to avoid oversimplifying context by breaking up complex processes and ideas into step-by-step sequences. Examples must be given as they naturally occur. A physical environment that reflects the way that knowledge will ultimately be used. Preserving the complexity of the real-life setting. The complexity of the environment should reflect the complexity expected in the final performance – the aim should be to assist the learner to function in the environment rather than simplify it.‘Simulation learning has an “immersive” quality quite different from the classroom or home study experiences. It can create the experience Csiksentmihalyi (1992) described as flow – an intense feeling of engagement more easily observed amongst students playing computer games, board games, watching a movie or reading a novel than in classroom learning' (Herrington et al. 2010:87). Herrington et al. (2010:92) refer to the ‘willing suspension of disbelief’. physical or virtual environment that reflects the way the knowledge will be useful in real life. Characteristics of an authentic context – a design to preserve the complexity of the real life setting, purpose or motivation for learning, a space where ideas can be explored at length in the context of real situations.
  • Access to expert thinking and modeling of processes, access to learners of different levels of expertise, and access to the social periphery and real-life episodes as they occur. The facility of the web o create global communities of learners who can interact via participaatory technologies, also enables sharing of narratives and stories. Often it is the person who has only recently acquired the knowledge or skill who is in the best position to share the key elements of the constructs or correct misconceptions that may be hindering understanding. The lecture can play a role here but it is insufficient to provide the elements of authentic learning.Expert performance – provide students with access to expert thinking and acting the way an expert would think and act – access to learners at various levels of expertise. Sometimes students learn best from someone whose knowledge is a little bit more advanced than there own. Stories shared about how we perform in our roles. Expertise is increasingly distributed through technology.
  • The courses were all based on Megan Boler’s and MichalinosZembylas’s notion of a pedagogy of discomfort which demands that everyone, irrespective of their identity or their privilege or disadvantage, interrogate their own assumptions regarding their cherished values and beliefs
  • In order for students to be able to investigate a problem or task from more than a single perspective, it is important to enable and encourage students to explore different perspectives on the topics from various points of view, and to “criss-cross”the learning environment repeatedly. From a pedagogical point of view, teachers and designers need to think about the key perspectives that exist in the subject area, and to also research controversies, debates and discussion that have characterised the area in its recent history. The examination of issues and problems from multiple perspectives has been defined as an important cognitive activity. Simple accumulation of practice from a single perspective is not sufficient to ensure expertise. Instead of being exposed to a single expert view, students can become aware of the differences of opinion that characterise all fields and to assess these complex and competing perspectives. Also need to visit the same material at different times and different contexts for different purposes from different conceptual perspectives for gaining advanced knowledge acquistion (mastery of complexity and preparation for transfer).Multiple perspectives – allow different perspectives to be examined by students from many different points of view. Different kinds of search engines that are around e.g. digital library.
  • The opportunity for users to collaborate is an important design element. Just by placing students in groups doesn’t necessarily result in collaboration. Students must work on a common task with a common incentive structure – rewards based on the performance of the groups. It is also solving a problem that could not have been completed independently. in the learning environment you provide joint problem solving and social support. Collaboration can be provided in a learning environment by arranging students into teams or pairs rather than as individuals. It can be encouraged by technology even if they aren’t on campus physically or there in the classroom using a whole range of resources such as wikis, digital stories.
  • Returning to the experience, attending to the feelings, re-evaluating the experience (Boud, Keogh and Walker, 1985) – associating and integrating new knowledge into the learner’s conceptual framework. Reflection – provides opportunities for students to think about, reflect and discuss choices. Reflection in action and reflection on action (Schon’s differentiation). Not necessarily solitary activity but social process. Opportunities to reflect can be in journals, diaries. Questions: Are students required to make decisions about how to complete the task (reflection-in-action)? Are students able to move freely in the environment and return to any element to act upon reflection? So if it’s a very linear one-way kind of environment then it possibly doesn’t provide opportunities for reflection as well as it could because people can’t act on something and return back to where they were before. Can students compare their thoughts and ideas to experts, teachers, guides and to other students? Do students work in collaborative groups that enable discussion and social reflection?
  • The opportunity for more able partners to assist with scaffolding and coaching, as well as the means for the teacher to support the learning via appropriate communication technologiesCoaching and scaffolding – the teacher’s scaffolding role means that there is no attempt to transmit knowledge. The teacher’s role is more supportive rather than a didactic one – answer a question with another question. It is not always conducted by a teacher, sometimes a more able partners or people in a group can assist very well with the scaffolding role e.g. track changes to provide feedback and support or twitter – students can ask questions and request help. Questions: Does your learning environment allow for coaching and scaffolding? Is the teacher’s role more supportive than didactic? Are more knowledgable students able to assist with coaching? Is a teacher, guide or helper available to provide contextualised support?
  • task is integrated with the assessment rather than having separate testing. You have seamless integration of assessment with the task. What you assess is a generally a very polished product. It has taken significant time and effort in collaboration with other students. Can use portfolios over a period of time. Important to align the task with the assessment. The assessment should use the purpose of the work as a guide for the assessment criteria. Questions to ask: Are products and performances polished and refined rather than incomplete or rushed drafts? Do students participate in the activity for extended periods of time? Are students assessed on the product of the investigation rather than by separate testing? Are there multiple assessment measures rather than a single measure? You have varied products so different kind of measures is preferable to just a single measure.
  • Authentic learning and emerging technologies final

    1. 1. Preparing to confront reality: Intersections of emerging technologies, authentic learning and practice in the South African Higher Education contextVivienne BozalekDaniela GachagoKathy WattersLucy Alexander
    2. 2. Structure of paper Project on emerging technologies Emerging technologies Qualitative outcomes Authentic learning Methodology Findings Conclusion
    3. 3. Emerging Technologies in SouthAfrican HEIs research projectInvolves the following research partners: A group of eight differently placed HEIs in South Africa four in the Western Cape (Cape Peninsular University of Technology (CPUT), Stellenbosch University (SU), University of Cape Town (UCT) and the University of the Western Cape (UWC), Rhodes University, Fort Hare in Eastern Cape, Wits University and Pretoria University in Gauteng An international NGO – the Open Courseware Consortium
    4. 4. The Research Team Members (May 2011)
    5. 5. The research projectFunded by the National Research Foundation (NRF) for aperiod of three yearsOverarching question:How could qualitative outcomes in education be realisedby using emerging technologies to transform teaching andlearning interactions and paradigms across highereducation institutions in South Africa?
    6. 6. Qualitative outcomesStimulating learning environments where: learners are empowered, safe to express themselves, ask and respond to peers’ questions without feeling oppressed, domesticated or silenced; there is encouragement to ‘think aloud’, try out new things and reflect on lessons learnt the psychological distance between knowledgeable others (peers and experts) is reduced Learners are equal partners in knowledge production (participatory parity) (Henschke, 2010)
    7. 7. Sub-questions addressed by the project In what ways are emerging technologies (ETs) used in innovative pedagogical practices to transform teaching and learning across South African HEIs? What can be learnt from an in-depth examination of case studies of innovative practice in a sample of HEIs in which these emergent technologies are being used? What are the conscious and tacit theoretical assumptions guiding higher educators teaching and learning practices? What models of innovative theory and practice can be developed from the identification of transformative teaching and learning interactions and paradigms across the HEIs?
    8. 8. Characteristics of ET1. May or may not be new technologies2. Evolving organism, that exist in the state of coming into being3. Go through hype cycles4. They are not yet fully understood5. They are not yet fully researched6. They are potentially disruptive, but that potential is mostly unfulfilled Veletsianos, 2010:13-17
    9. 9. Hype Cycle for Education 2011http://www.cloudave.com/14339/hype-cycle-for-emerging-technologies-2011-idea-management-enlightenment/
    10. 10. Emerging Technologies in SA youTube Google family MXIT lOGO Digital stories wiki BLOGGER
    11. 11. Horizon Report 2012 Johnson, Adams & Cummins, 2012
    12. 12. 2010 Social media in South Africahttp://afrographique.tumblr.com/post/4238854267/a-comparative-infographic-of-mxit-facebook-and
    13. 13. Phase 1 of Project - SurveyEthics clearanceLiterature reviews and theoretical frameworks – CHATSurvey of Emerging Technologies and Teaching and LearningPractices in SA HEIsThis survey answered sub-question 1: In what ways are emergingtechnologies used in innovative pedagogical practices totransform teaching and learning across South African HEIs? Designed and piloted of questionnaire (May-July 2011) Administered July – September 2011
    14. 14. Focus of the research1. What are the technologies academics are using?2. How are SA lecturers using these technologies?3. Is the use of these technologies transforming teaching and learning practices?4. Are they leading to qualitative outcomes for students?
    15. 15. 2011 Emerging Technologies Survey Target group: lecturers that are known to be open to/engaged with technology Sent by email to contacts in all public HEIs institution, snowball sampling Content: 3 parts, demographic, tools and open ended questions around practice with ET Respondents: 262 (by 30 September 2011) Selection of 15 respondents for in depth analysis based on richness of responses
    16. 16. Respondents by Institution Female Male TotalUniversity of Stellenbosch 28 21 49University of Cape Town 25 10 35 56%University of the Western Cape 21 13 34Cape Peninsula University of Technology 14 16 30Rhodes University 12 3 15University of Fort Hare 7 8 15Durban University of Technology 10 4 14Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University 6 5 11University of Johannesburg 4 5 9Walter Sisulu University of Technology &Science 2 6 8University of Limpopo 5 2 7University of the Free State 6 1 7Mangosuthu University of Technology 1 4 5Central University of Technology 1 3 4North-West University 4 0 4Vaal University of Technology 1 3 4University of KwaZulu-Natal 3 0 3University of South Africa 3 0 3University of Pretoria 0 2 2Tshwane University of Technology 1 0 1University of the Witwatersrand 0 1 1University of Venda for Science andTechnology 0 1 1Grand Total 154 108 262
    17. 17. Methodology Examined data from survey and identified 21 rich case studies Used Herrington’s nine elements of authentic learning to collect data by interviewing 21 respondents face-to-face and online Five members of research team analysed all case studies using nine elements and use of emerging technologies
    18. 18. Interviews Shortlisted to 70 case studies that could potentially be classified as authentic learning 21 interviews highest potential Interviews along 9 elements, summary of data Presented as case studies 5 people rated along 9 elements and role of technology
    19. 19. Profile of participants interviewedThe demographics of the sample who wereinterviewed were as follows: Years teaching Level of HighestGender Discipline experience appointment qualification HEIFemale 11 Natural Sc. 4 1-5 years 6 Ass/Prof 6 Doctorate 11 UWC 10Male 10 Applied Sc. 11 6-10 years 7 Snr lecturer 1 Masters 7 UJ 2 Humanities 2 11-20 years 4 Lecturer 10 Honours 2 Rhodes 3 Non- Education 3 >20 years 4 academic 4 Bachelor 1 UCT 2 Commerce 1 CPUT 2 SUN 1 DUT 1Total 21 21 21 21 21 21
    20. 20. Authentic learningLearners to be engaged in an inventive and realistic taskthat provides opportunities for complex collaborativeactivities (Herrington et al., 2011)
    21. 21. Herrington’s nine elements ofauthentic learning Authentic context Authentic task Expert performance Multiple perspectives Collaboration Reflection Articulation Coaching and scaffolding Assessment
    22. 22. Authentic Context
    23. 23. Authentic taskAnti-oppressive scenarios and roleplays deal with: human right‟s issues Building self esteem „Unlearning‟ prejudice Developing empathy Problem solving Developing emotional literacy and language Conflict management Supporting ‟victims‟ e.g abuse, bullying, xenophobic attacks Collectivising issues: Feeling „not alone‟
    24. 24. Access to expert performances andmodelling of processes
    25. 25. 2012/09/13 http://blogs.sun.ac.za/hopefulpedagogiess u/ Multiple perspectivesHere is Michalinos’s contribution:Pedagogy of discomfort has been first used andtheorized by Megan Boler in her landmark book FeelingPower (1999). Then, Megan and I have made an attemptto further build on her earlier analysis by emphasizing therole that discomfort plays in teaching and learning about‘difficult’ issues such as racism, oppression and socialinjustice. For me, pedagogy of discomfort still remains apowerful pedagogical tool able to produce action,because teachers and students can utilize theirdiscomfort to construct new emotional understandingsinto ways of living with others—the ultimate vision of thispedagogy, in my view.
    26. 26. Guest lectures:RemixCompany
    27. 27. Collaborative construction ofknowledge
    28. 28. Collaborative construction ofknowledge
    29. 29. Reflection
    30. 30. Community, Self and Identity:A Virtual Learning Community across two South AfricanUniversities Poul Rohleder Wendy Lee Fish Amanda Ismael Lisa Padfield Deborah Platen
    31. 31. Coaching and Scaffolding
    32. 32. UKFIET INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE 13/09/2012SEPTEMBER 2007Assessmenthttps://wiki.math.umd.edu/arhu_wmst498k/Main_Page Womens Health and Well-Being WIKI Welcome to the Final Course Project for Womens Health and Well- Being: Transcultural Perspectives (Spring 2007). Our online course was jointly coordinated in Israel, South Africa, Uganda, and the U.S.A. For a brief introduction to the the course, the international team of instructors and students, and information about the video conference held between the four sites to share our work together, select the link at the bottom of this page: About Arhu_wmst498k. You may navigate this site freely without a log in. The associated e-course space is located on an open source Learning Management System at the University of the Western Cape, South Africa. KNG links you to their e-learning site; however, in order to access our course module there you would need a user name and password. Please contact this site administrator if you wish to view the module on the UWC site at kimart (at) umd (dot) edu. Comments about this site may also be directed to the site administrator. 32
    33. 33. UKFIET INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE 13/09/2012 SEPTEMBER 2007 EXAMPLE OF A WIKI GROUPMENTAL HEALTHInterview Reflections Given the complexity of womens experiences, we also examinedour data from a “local” perspective to resist extreme generalizations. This sectioncontains our individual interview descriptions and evaluations.Annotations: Mental Health Group This link contains our descriptions of several helpfulwebsites, scholarly journals and articles all related to our topic.Group Project: Mental Health Our "global" analysis and the rest of our hard work canbe found here ;-)We suggest others to think about the world as a community, rather than a worldseparated by nations. Changing the way we think about our political connectionsprovide a wider range of possibilities. We hope our module encourages others toactively engage in the production and propagation of knowledge of the cultural andpolitical implications of women and mental health. 33
    34. 34. Findings
    35. 35. Discussion Evidence of authentic learning Evidence that technology supports authentic learning Quantitative data doesn’t do justice to richness of case studies Similarities in positioning of these pioneers, in terms of e.g. isolation and lack of recognition
    36. 36. Authentic learning in Science
    37. 37. Authentic learning using a fish tank
    38. 38. Blog on fish tank
    39. 39. Alette Schoen video
    40. 40. Future Plans Colloquium on authentic learning Invitation of interviewees to become collaborators in research and present their courses Development of case studies Dissemination and networking
    41. 41. ReferencesHenschke, J. A. (2010). Bringing Together Personal Learning, Higher Education Institutions Elements, and Global Support for a Re-Orientation towards a Focus on Lifelong Learning and Education. In Wang, V., (Ed.), Encyclopedia for Using Technology in Adult and Career Education. IGI Global, Hershey, PA. June, 2010.Herrington, J., Reeves, T. and Oliver, R. (2010) A Guide to Authentic e-Learning. New York & London: Routledge.Veletsianos, G. 2010. A Definition of Emerging Technologies for Education. . In G. Veletsianos (ed.) Emerging Technologies in Distance Education. Theory and Practice. Edmonton: AU Press, pp1-22
    42. 42. Publications from the project Conference Proceedings Bozalek, V. (2011) „An investigation into the use of emerging technologies to transform teaching and learning across differently positioned higher education institutions in South Africa‟, Ascilite 2011 Conference, Hobart, Tasmania, 2-7 December 2011 Ng‟ambi, D. Gachago, D., Ivala, E., Bozalek, V. and Watters, K. (2012) Emerging „Technologies in South African Higher Education Institutions: towards a teaching and learning practice framework.‟ International Conference of Elearning 7th International Conference on e-Learning ICEL-2012 at The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China, 21-22 June 2012 Articles in journals Bozalek, V., Ng‟ambi, D. & Gachago, D.(in press) Transforming teaching with emerging technologies: Implications for Higher Education Institutions, South African Journal of Higher Education Special edition of British Journal of Educational Technologies on Emerging Technologies Dick Ng‟ambi and Vivienne Bozalek co-editors July 2013
    43. 43. Any questions? Thanks to the National Research Foundation andthe UWC Teaching and Learning Research Fund for funding this project See more information on our project on our blog:http://emergingicts.blogspot.com/

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