This power-point presentation provides basic information about state and non-state societies as well as the nature and powers of the state. The nature and types of government are also included in the slides.
The state and government (Follow me on Twitter @detectivebogart)
1. Juridical-Normative (Jurisprudence)
-understands the state as “it should
be” based on some epistemological
-understands the state based on
empirical findings of anthropology and
“A community of persons, more or less,
permanently occupying a definite portion of
territory, having a government of their own
to which the great body of inhabitants
render obedience, and enjoying freedom
from external control” (De Leon 1997: 5).
1. PEOPLE: inhabitants,
citizens, aliens, permanent
2. TERRITORY: includes aerial,
3. GOVERNMENT: totality of
rule a society.
4. SOVEREIGNTY: the supreme power
of the state that
INTERNAL: Power of the state to rule itself.
EXTERNAL: Freedom of the state to run its
affairs without interference of other
A. HUNTING AND GATHERING TRIBE: Nomadic, travels by band, men
engage in hunting, women
gather fruits and vegetables,
B. HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY: Semi-nomadic, engages in swidden
or “slush and burn” agriculture,
burns the forest, create temporary
garden & plant root crops.
C. PASTORAL SOCIETY : HIGHER POPULATION, CONSISTS
MOSTLY OF CLANS AND RELATIVES,
ENGAGES IN CATTLE RAISING, THERE
PRIVATE OWNERSHIP OF ANIMALS,
D. AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY: OWNERSHIP OF LAND RESULTING
TO SOCIAL CLASSES AND STATE
FORMATION, USE OF PLOW & BEAST
OF BURDEN, RISE OF PRIVATE
OWNERSHIP, EXISTENCE OF SOCIAL
INEQUALITY, PRODUCTION OF
E. INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY: HIGH POPULATION, URBAN & STATE
SOCIETY, USE OF TRACTOR OR
MACHINERY FOR AGRICULTURE,
EXISTENCE OF SOCIAL CLASSES
HIGHER LEVEL OF SOCIAL
HYDRAULIC: state emerged from arid areas to manage
systems of irrigation, drainage and flood control.
ECOLOGICAL DIVERSITY: state emerged because of the
need to regulate production and exchange of products
LONG-DISTANCE TRADE ROUTES: state emerged to create
centers of trade, exchange or supply between long trade
MULTIVARIATE: state emerged because of circumscription
(resource concentration), increasing population and warfare.
1.DIVINE RIGHT: emerged because of divine
intervention. God gave monarchs authority to rule.
2.NECESSITY OR FORCE: created by warfare or
annexation of territories by great warriors.
3.PATERNATISTIC: originated from one family
which grew into lineage, clans, and ultimately a
4. SOCIAL CONTRACT: created through voluntary
agreement of the people to create a state.
POWER TO REGULATE FREEDOMS
AND PROPERTY OF CITIZENS FOR THE
PROMOTION OF: PUBLIC SAFETY,
POWER OF TAXATION
POWER OF THE STATE TO IMPOSE
CHARGES AND BURDENS UPON
PERSONS, PROPERTY OR PROPERTY
RIGHTS FOR THE USE AND SUPPORT
POWER OF EMINENT DOMAIN
THE RIGHT OF THE GOVERNMENT TO
TAKE AWAY AND APPROPRIATE
PRIVATE PROPERTY FOR PUBLIC USE
UPON JUST COMPENSATION.
STATE: a complex society with a centralized
government, fixed territory, high population, and
GOVERNMENT: a political organ that provides
direction to the state, the totality of authorities that
govern a state; only a part or element of a state.
NATION: an ethnic concept which primarily refers
to the ethnic background of the people in the state.
The US is a multicultural nation.
RULED BY ONE OR TWO MONARCHS (KING OR QUEEN OR BOTH)
1. ABSOLUTE: MONARCH AS HEAD OF STATE & GOVERNMENT, E.G.
SAUDI ARABIA, BRUNEI
2. LIMITED OR CONSTITUTIONAL:
MONARCH ACTS ONLY AS CEREMONIAL HEAD OF
STATE; THE HEAD OF GOVERNMENT IS USUALLY THE PRIME
MINISTER, E.G. ENGLAND, JAPAN
RULED BY THE PEOPLE EITHER DIRECTLY OR THROUGH
SUB-TYPES: DIRECT OR INDIRECT (REPUBLICAN)
ARISTOCRACY RULED BY FEW RICH PEOPLE OR ELITE
1 SET OF GOVERNMENT
2 SETS OF GOVERNMENT: FEDERAL &
E.G. USA, MEXICO
GOVERNMENT OWNS LITTLE OR NO
INDUSTRY AT ALL AND REDISTRIBUTES
LITTLE IN WELFARE PROGRAMS.
GOVERNMENT OWN LITTLE OR NO
INDUSTRY BUT REDISTRIBUTES WEALTH
OR AID TO THE POOR; SOCIAL
BENEFITS FOR THE CITIZENS.
THE STATE AS NUMBER 1 CAPITALIST,
OWNING AND CONTROLLING BUSINESS
HEAD OF STATE
(Usually ceremonial or
President President Prime Minister
MANNER OF SELECTION Highest vote in a
from the leading
Usually Appointed by the
(Usually the chief executive
of the country)
President Prime Minister President
MANNER OF SELECTION Highest vote in a
Members of the
TYPE BICAMERAL: 2 houses
making laws or
statutes: Senate &
UNICAMERAL: 1 legislative
house—the House of Parliament
or General Assembly
Upper house: senators
Members of the Parliament