SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 21
“Veterinary emergencies and critical
care”
The veterinary emergency service is equipped to deal with any
pet emergency from trauma to severe infection
By: Dr. Mitin chanana
M.V.Sc. 2nd yr
Vety. Surgery and radiology
Typical conditions that are seen by
the emergency service include:
Trauma patients, including those hit by cars, bite, bullet, knife or burn injuries
Animal having trouble breathing
Animals that need a blood transfusion
Shock (signs of shock can include weakness, pale mucous membranes in their
mouth, cold extremities, and an abnormal heart rate)
Animals having trouble urinating, or are not producing urine
Animals in which an abnormal heart rhythm is causing problems
Animals with life-threatening neurologic disease such as coma or severe seizures
Patients that have had surgery and are not recovering well from anesthesia
So a veterinarian should discuss and
understand the:
Aetiologies,
Typical history,
Physical examination findings,
Diagnostic algorithm and
Treatment options for the patient which has acute dysfunction in the
• Cardiovascular,
• Respiratory,
• Haemo-lymphatic,
• Musculoskeletal, or
• Nervous systems
Cardiovascular: mitral valve insufficiency,
congestive heart failure, pericardial effusion,
hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, bacterial
endocarditis, heart base tumours,,etc.
Respiratory: pulmonary oedema, neoplasias,,
pyothorax, pneumothorax, haemothorax, tracheal
collapse, pharyngeal and tracheal injuries,
diaphragmatic hernia, broken ribs, bite wounds to
the chest, pulmonary thromboembolism,etc.
Haemo-Lymphatic: anaemia of any cause, leukaemia,
paracetamol toxicity, methaemoglobinaemia, haemangiosarcoma,
lymphosarcoma, haemorrhage,systemic inflammatory response
syndrome, sepsis, Vitamin K-antagonist toxicity, anaphylactic
reactions, vaccine-associated reactions, etc.
Musculoskeletal: lameness of any cause, repair of abdominal /
inguinal/ umbilical hernia, cellulitis, tendon and pad injuries, acute
myositis, recognition and prognosis of fractures
Neurologic: degenerative myelopathy, intervertebral disc disease,
epilepsy, meningitis, ataxia, tremors, seizures, neurotoxins
including but not limited to organophosphate, carbamate,
metaldehyde, pyrethrin, chocolate, lead, mushroom, illicit drugs.
Other problems that also require
immediate medical attention:
Exposure to toxins (ingested or topical)
Open fractures
Snake bite
Burns
Prolapsed organs
Wound dehiscence
Dystocia
A technique for performing common
emergency procedures is listed below:
1.Airway and breathing
• if the animal has increased breathing rate or
effort.
• animals may assume a posture with the head and
neck extended and the elbows abducted (held
away from the body)
• absent chest wall motion,
• exaggerated breathing effort,
• flaring of the nares,
• open mouth breathing and paradoxical
breathing(opposing movements of the chest and
abdominal walls during inspiration and expiration
• Cyanosis, a blue or purplish tint to the mucous
membranes
• Crepitus about the body may indicate
subcutaneous emphysema, which can be caused
by tracheal tears or chest wall defects
First, patency of
airway and
breathing effort
should be
assessed. This is
done by
visualization,
auscultation, and
palpation.
2.Circulation:
• Mucous membrane
colour
• Capillary refill time
• Heart rate
• Pulse quality
• Extremity
temperature
• Mentation
The focus of
the
cardiovascular
assessment is
the six
perfusion
parameters
Mucous membrane colour
Evaluate the mucous membranes by examining the colour of
the gums.
As an alternative in the fractious animal or patients with
pigmented gums examine the conjunctiva, penis or the vulva.
• The normal colour pink is a result of oxygenated haemoglobin in red blood
cells in the capillary bed.
• Mucous membrane colour may vary with circulatory related problems.
• Mucous membrane colour may be pale or white due to blood loss anaemia or
vasoconstriction.
• Brick red or injected mucous membranes are a result of vasodilation and can
be seen with hyperthermia or sepsis.
• Cyanotic or blue mucous membranes are an indicator of severe hypoxemia.
• Icteric or yellow mucous membranes are due to the breakdown of red cells
(haemolysis) or liver disease.
• Methemoglobinemia results in brown or chocolate - coloured mucous
membranes.
Capillary refill time
( CRT )
Evaluation of CRT is done by applying digital
pressure to the surface of the mucous membranes
and forcing the blood from the capillary bed and
observing the return stimulation.
Normal CRT is 1 – 2 seconds.
A shortened CRT ( < 1/2 second) is suggestive of
vasodilation.
A prolonged capillary refill time ( > 2 seconds) is
also a result of peripheral vasoconstriction and
causes decreased peripheral perfusion.
Heart rate
It is usually measured by auscultation of the heart, palpation of
the apex beat, or palpation of an artery.
Tachycardia:-
• may be caused by hypovolemia , hypoxemia, hypotension, drugs,
fever, excitement, exercise, and pain.
• It is generally defined as a heart rate > 160 beats per minutes
(bpm) in the dog or 200 bpm in the cat.
Bradycardia:-
• may be caused by increased vagal tone, severe electrolyte
disturbances and hypothermia, drugs, or disturbances of the
cardiac conduction system.
• It is generally defined as a heart rate < 60 bpm in the dog and
140 bpm in the cat.
Auscultation of the heart and palpation of an artery should occur
simultaneously, so that pulse deficits (the difference between
heart and pulse rate; they should be the same) can be determined.
Pulse deficits are suggestive of arrhythmias.
Pulse quality
Palpation of the artery provides information about the animal’s
heart rate and rhythm.
The femoral or dorsal pedal arteries are the commonly palpated
arteries.
Pulse quality is an indicator of stroke volume, the amount of
blood pumped out of the heart with each beat.
Ideally, the pulse should be full, regular, and strong, indicating
a normal stroke volume.
A thready pulse is defined as a narrow waveform and a weak
pulse refers to a small amplitude pulse difference, both of which
are indicative of a decreased stroke volume.
Bounding pulses have a large pulse pressure difference and wide
waveforms usually associated with increased stroke volume and
vasodilation.
Extremity temperature
• The paws, limbs, or ears should normally feel warm
to the touch. Cool extremities are a result of
vasoconstriction.
Mentation
• As previously mentioned, evaluation of mentation
starts from a far. Observe the attitude of the
patient.
• Are there any fractures?
• Is the abdomen painful or distended?
• Is there evidence of debilitation or other signs of
disease?
Common emergency procedures:
Perform pericardiocentesis to relieve pericardial
tamponade
Measure blood pressure indirectly using a Doppler
probe and sphygmomanometer with cuff
Obtain Lead II ECG trace and assess it for life-
threatening arrhythmias
Manage a cardiopulmonary arrest and
resuscitation
Use ultrasouund to access a possible pericardial
effusion
Cardiovascular:
Respiratory:
Place a nasal catheter for intranasal oxygen administration
Place an indwelling chest tube
Perform thoracocentesis
Interpret the spO2 from blood gas measurements
Interpret pH, HCO3 and pCO2 on blood gases
Perform the anaesthesia to repair a diaphragmatic hernia
Perform the surgical repair of a diaphragmatic hernia
Some of the Oxygen Delivery Methods used:
Nasal catheters
• Place 3-5 drops of Proparacaine into nostril
• Insert suture at caudoventral aspect of alar groove max. 1 cm from
naris
• Use 3.5 to 8 Fr tube
Nasotracheal tubes
• Same as for nasal catheter but head is hyperextended when catheter
reaches level of pharynx
• Insert tube rapidly as patient takes breath
• Radiographs may be required to confirm location
• Deliver O2 at 50 ml/kg/min (always humidify)
Transtracheal catheters
• Use 14-16 G IV Catheter
• Insert catheter between rings in the mid cervical region
• Aspirate to ensure location in trachea; Attach Oxygen at 50 ml/kg/min
Haemo-Lymphatic:
Perform and interpret a platelet estimate from a
blood smear
Evaluate red blood cell morphology on a blood
smear for an anaemic patient
Interpret coagulation parameters on a
coagulopathy suspect
Administer a blood or plasma transfusion
• Musculo-Skeletal •Neurologic:
Replace a dislocated hip under
anaesthesia
Place an Ehmer sling or
perform any other kind of
external or internal coaptation
technique as per the type of
fracture or injury
Localise an acute
intervertebral disk lesion and
assess the prognosis
Vety.emergency and critical care

More Related Content

What's hot

Presetation on rumen impaction lactic acidosis final osr
Presetation on rumen impaction lactic acidosis final osrPresetation on rumen impaction lactic acidosis final osr
Presetation on rumen impaction lactic acidosis final osrHarshit Saxena
 
Common diseases and affections of laboratroy rabbits, quick review guide
Common diseases and affections of laboratroy rabbits, quick review guideCommon diseases and affections of laboratroy rabbits, quick review guide
Common diseases and affections of laboratroy rabbits, quick review guidePavulraj Selvaraj
 
Equine trypanosomiasis(dourine)
Equine trypanosomiasis(dourine)Equine trypanosomiasis(dourine)
Equine trypanosomiasis(dourine)fraol birhanu
 
Downer's cow syndrome
Downer's cow syndromeDowner's cow syndrome
Downer's cow syndromesaurabh gupta
 
Cystitis in domestic animals
Cystitis in domestic animalsCystitis in domestic animals
Cystitis in domestic animalsAjith Y
 
Ovariohysterectomy in bitch
Ovariohysterectomy in bitchOvariohysterectomy in bitch
Ovariohysterectomy in bitchDr.Jigdrel Dorji
 
Bovine tropical theileriosis-Dr.Jibachha Sah,M.V.SC
Bovine tropical theileriosis-Dr.Jibachha Sah,M.V.SCBovine tropical theileriosis-Dr.Jibachha Sah,M.V.SC
Bovine tropical theileriosis-Dr.Jibachha Sah,M.V.SCDr. Jibachha Sah
 

What's hot (20)

Presetation on rumen impaction lactic acidosis final osr
Presetation on rumen impaction lactic acidosis final osrPresetation on rumen impaction lactic acidosis final osr
Presetation on rumen impaction lactic acidosis final osr
 
Common diseases and affections of laboratroy rabbits, quick review guide
Common diseases and affections of laboratroy rabbits, quick review guideCommon diseases and affections of laboratroy rabbits, quick review guide
Common diseases and affections of laboratroy rabbits, quick review guide
 
Downer cow syndrome
Downer cow syndromeDowner cow syndrome
Downer cow syndrome
 
Therapeutic management of skin diseases in animals
Therapeutic management of skin diseases in animalsTherapeutic management of skin diseases in animals
Therapeutic management of skin diseases in animals
 
Canine Distemper
Canine DistemperCanine Distemper
Canine Distemper
 
Clinical examination of Cattle
Clinical examination of CattleClinical examination of Cattle
Clinical examination of Cattle
 
Fluid therapy in animals
Fluid therapy in animalsFluid therapy in animals
Fluid therapy in animals
 
Equine trypanosomiasis(dourine)
Equine trypanosomiasis(dourine)Equine trypanosomiasis(dourine)
Equine trypanosomiasis(dourine)
 
Leptospirosis dogs
Leptospirosis  dogsLeptospirosis  dogs
Leptospirosis dogs
 
Ear affections
Ear affectionsEar affections
Ear affections
 
Downer's cow syndrome
Downer's cow syndromeDowner's cow syndrome
Downer's cow syndrome
 
Equine diseases
Equine diseasesEquine diseases
Equine diseases
 
Equine strangles
Equine stranglesEquine strangles
Equine strangles
 
Blood transfusion in animals
Blood transfusion in animalsBlood transfusion in animals
Blood transfusion in animals
 
Anaplasmosis
AnaplasmosisAnaplasmosis
Anaplasmosis
 
Kennel cough
Kennel cough Kennel cough
Kennel cough
 
Cystitis in domestic animals
Cystitis in domestic animalsCystitis in domestic animals
Cystitis in domestic animals
 
UTERINE TORSION
UTERINE TORSIONUTERINE TORSION
UTERINE TORSION
 
Ovariohysterectomy in bitch
Ovariohysterectomy in bitchOvariohysterectomy in bitch
Ovariohysterectomy in bitch
 
Bovine tropical theileriosis-Dr.Jibachha Sah,M.V.SC
Bovine tropical theileriosis-Dr.Jibachha Sah,M.V.SCBovine tropical theileriosis-Dr.Jibachha Sah,M.V.SC
Bovine tropical theileriosis-Dr.Jibachha Sah,M.V.SC
 

Viewers also liked

Canine radiographs
Canine radiographsCanine radiographs
Canine radiographsblankita2010
 
Interpretation of appendicular skeleton (veterinary)
Interpretation of appendicular skeleton (veterinary)Interpretation of appendicular skeleton (veterinary)
Interpretation of appendicular skeleton (veterinary)girjesh upmanyu
 
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dogRkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dogVikash Babu Rajput
 
Veterinary Oral Surgery for Dogs and Cats Part II
Veterinary Oral Surgery for Dogs and Cats Part IIVeterinary Oral Surgery for Dogs and Cats Part II
Veterinary Oral Surgery for Dogs and Cats Part IIBrett Beckman
 
Equine Radiography: Positioning Techniques & Tips for Acquiring Good Images
Equine Radiography: Positioning Techniques & Tips for Acquiring Good ImagesEquine Radiography: Positioning Techniques & Tips for Acquiring Good Images
Equine Radiography: Positioning Techniques & Tips for Acquiring Good ImagesShalyn Crawford-Garman
 
BLACK'S VETERINARY DICTIONARY (World's Biggest Veterinary Dictionary)
 BLACK'S VETERINARY DICTIONARY (World's Biggest Veterinary Dictionary) BLACK'S VETERINARY DICTIONARY (World's Biggest Veterinary Dictionary)
BLACK'S VETERINARY DICTIONARY (World's Biggest Veterinary Dictionary)Growel Agrovet Private Limited
 
Anatomia bovinos
Anatomia bovinosAnatomia bovinos
Anatomia bovinosFmodri3
 
Risk factors affecting parturition and neonatal mortality: a retrospective st...
Risk factors affecting parturition and neonatal mortality: a retrospective st...Risk factors affecting parturition and neonatal mortality: a retrospective st...
Risk factors affecting parturition and neonatal mortality: a retrospective st...Emmanuel Fontaine
 
Anatomy of the horse
Anatomy of the horseAnatomy of the horse
Anatomy of the horseRaquel Rabelo
 

Viewers also liked (14)

Canine radiographs
Canine radiographsCanine radiographs
Canine radiographs
 
Orlando Aca 115
Orlando Aca 115Orlando Aca 115
Orlando Aca 115
 
Interpretation of appendicular skeleton (veterinary)
Interpretation of appendicular skeleton (veterinary)Interpretation of appendicular skeleton (veterinary)
Interpretation of appendicular skeleton (veterinary)
 
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dogRkvy radiographic positioning of dog
Rkvy radiographic positioning of dog
 
Veterinary Oral Surgery for Dogs and Cats Part II
Veterinary Oral Surgery for Dogs and Cats Part IIVeterinary Oral Surgery for Dogs and Cats Part II
Veterinary Oral Surgery for Dogs and Cats Part II
 
पशुपालन कैलेंडर
पशुपालन कैलेंडरपशुपालन कैलेंडर
पशुपालन कैलेंडर
 
Equine Radiography: Positioning Techniques & Tips for Acquiring Good Images
Equine Radiography: Positioning Techniques & Tips for Acquiring Good ImagesEquine Radiography: Positioning Techniques & Tips for Acquiring Good Images
Equine Radiography: Positioning Techniques & Tips for Acquiring Good Images
 
BLACK'S VETERINARY DICTIONARY (World's Biggest Veterinary Dictionary)
 BLACK'S VETERINARY DICTIONARY (World's Biggest Veterinary Dictionary) BLACK'S VETERINARY DICTIONARY (World's Biggest Veterinary Dictionary)
BLACK'S VETERINARY DICTIONARY (World's Biggest Veterinary Dictionary)
 
Basics of Veterinary Anatomy & Physiology
Basics of Veterinary Anatomy & PhysiologyBasics of Veterinary Anatomy & Physiology
Basics of Veterinary Anatomy & Physiology
 
Anatomia bovinos
Anatomia bovinosAnatomia bovinos
Anatomia bovinos
 
Anatomy & Physiology of Animals
Anatomy & Physiology of AnimalsAnatomy & Physiology of Animals
Anatomy & Physiology of Animals
 
Risk factors affecting parturition and neonatal mortality: a retrospective st...
Risk factors affecting parturition and neonatal mortality: a retrospective st...Risk factors affecting parturition and neonatal mortality: a retrospective st...
Risk factors affecting parturition and neonatal mortality: a retrospective st...
 
Front & Hind Limb Radiology
Front & Hind Limb RadiologyFront & Hind Limb Radiology
Front & Hind Limb Radiology
 
Anatomy of the horse
Anatomy of the horseAnatomy of the horse
Anatomy of the horse
 

Similar to Vety.emergency and critical care

Pulmonary edema
Pulmonary edemaPulmonary edema
Pulmonary edemaanishcrist
 
Breathlessness and tachycardia
Breathlessness and tachycardiaBreathlessness and tachycardia
Breathlessness and tachycardiaDr Rakesh Solanki
 
Cardiovascular assessment and diagnostic investigations ppt slideshare
Cardiovascular assessment and diagnostic investigations ppt slideshareCardiovascular assessment and diagnostic investigations ppt slideshare
Cardiovascular assessment and diagnostic investigations ppt slidesharesonam
 
PERICARDIAL TEMPONADE drmousa.pdf
PERICARDIAL TEMPONADE drmousa.pdfPERICARDIAL TEMPONADE drmousa.pdf
PERICARDIAL TEMPONADE drmousa.pdfmousaderhem1
 
Pulse &amp; hypertension
Pulse &amp; hypertensionPulse &amp; hypertension
Pulse &amp; hypertensionSravan Kumar
 
CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION 2017
CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION 2017CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION 2017
CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION 2017opusramesh
 
CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION
CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATIONCARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION
CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATIONopusramesh
 
Paediatric Drowning.pptx
Paediatric Drowning.pptxPaediatric Drowning.pptx
Paediatric Drowning.pptxzeeshanBashir26
 
PERICARDIAL TEMPONADE drmousa.pptx
PERICARDIAL TEMPONADE drmousa.pptxPERICARDIAL TEMPONADE drmousa.pptx
PERICARDIAL TEMPONADE drmousa.pptxmousaderhem1
 
General survey and vital signs
General survey and vital signsGeneral survey and vital signs
General survey and vital signsmchibuzor
 
Recording of arterial blood pressure and Special circulation
Recording of arterial blood pressure and Special circulationRecording of arterial blood pressure and Special circulation
Recording of arterial blood pressure and Special circulationkamla13
 
Arterial hypertension pratyasha paripurna
Arterial hypertension pratyasha paripurnaArterial hypertension pratyasha paripurna
Arterial hypertension pratyasha paripurnaParipurnaPradhan
 
Basics of nursing of patient with heart disease 1.pptx
Basics of nursing of patient with heart disease 1.pptxBasics of nursing of patient with heart disease 1.pptx
Basics of nursing of patient with heart disease 1.pptxsneha334357
 
diagnostic procedures of cardiovascular system
diagnostic procedures of cardiovascular systemdiagnostic procedures of cardiovascular system
diagnostic procedures of cardiovascular systemAIIMS, Rishikesh
 
Palpitation, Breathlessness, arrhythmia
Palpitation, Breathlessness, arrhythmiaPalpitation, Breathlessness, arrhythmia
Palpitation, Breathlessness, arrhythmiaDoha Rasheedy
 

Similar to Vety.emergency and critical care (20)

Pulmonary edema
Pulmonary edemaPulmonary edema
Pulmonary edema
 
Breathlessness and tachycardia
Breathlessness and tachycardiaBreathlessness and tachycardia
Breathlessness and tachycardia
 
Cardiovascular assessment and diagnostic investigations ppt slideshare
Cardiovascular assessment and diagnostic investigations ppt slideshareCardiovascular assessment and diagnostic investigations ppt slideshare
Cardiovascular assessment and diagnostic investigations ppt slideshare
 
PERICARDIAL TEMPONADE drmousa.pdf
PERICARDIAL TEMPONADE drmousa.pdfPERICARDIAL TEMPONADE drmousa.pdf
PERICARDIAL TEMPONADE drmousa.pdf
 
Approach To Dyspnea
Approach To DyspneaApproach To Dyspnea
Approach To Dyspnea
 
Pulse &amp; hypertension
Pulse &amp; hypertensionPulse &amp; hypertension
Pulse &amp; hypertension
 
CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION 2017
CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION 2017CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION 2017
CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION 2017
 
CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION
CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATIONCARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION
CARDIOPULMONARY RESUSCITATION
 
Paediatric Drowning.pptx
Paediatric Drowning.pptxPaediatric Drowning.pptx
Paediatric Drowning.pptx
 
PERICARDIAL TEMPONADE drmousa.pptx
PERICARDIAL TEMPONADE drmousa.pptxPERICARDIAL TEMPONADE drmousa.pptx
PERICARDIAL TEMPONADE drmousa.pptx
 
General survey and vital signs
General survey and vital signsGeneral survey and vital signs
General survey and vital signs
 
Recording of arterial blood pressure and Special circulation
Recording of arterial blood pressure and Special circulationRecording of arterial blood pressure and Special circulation
Recording of arterial blood pressure and Special circulation
 
Arterial hypertension pratyasha paripurna
Arterial hypertension pratyasha paripurnaArterial hypertension pratyasha paripurna
Arterial hypertension pratyasha paripurna
 
shock ppt final.pptx
shock ppt final.pptxshock ppt final.pptx
shock ppt final.pptx
 
Basics of nursing of patient with heart disease 1.pptx
Basics of nursing of patient with heart disease 1.pptxBasics of nursing of patient with heart disease 1.pptx
Basics of nursing of patient with heart disease 1.pptx
 
diagnostic procedures of cardiovascular system
diagnostic procedures of cardiovascular systemdiagnostic procedures of cardiovascular system
diagnostic procedures of cardiovascular system
 
Cardiac catheterization
Cardiac catheterizationCardiac catheterization
Cardiac catheterization
 
vasospastic.pptx
vasospastic.pptxvasospastic.pptx
vasospastic.pptx
 
Palpitation, Breathlessness, arrhythmia
Palpitation, Breathlessness, arrhythmiaPalpitation, Breathlessness, arrhythmia
Palpitation, Breathlessness, arrhythmia
 
Cardiac tamponade
Cardiac tamponadeCardiac tamponade
Cardiac tamponade
 

More from Vikash Babu Rajput

Urethral catheterization – male dog
Urethral catheterization – male dogUrethral catheterization – male dog
Urethral catheterization – male dogVikash Babu Rajput
 
Nov 2013 radiographic exposure and processing technique sp tyagi
Nov 2013 radiographic exposure and processing technique sp tyagiNov 2013 radiographic exposure and processing technique sp tyagi
Nov 2013 radiographic exposure and processing technique sp tyagiVikash Babu Rajput
 
Neurological examination of vety patient.
Neurological examination of vety patient.Neurological examination of vety patient.
Neurological examination of vety patient.Vikash Babu Rajput
 
Nasogastric intubation in equine
Nasogastric intubation in equineNasogastric intubation in equine
Nasogastric intubation in equineVikash Babu Rajput
 
Management of renal disease in dog
Management of renal disease in dogManagement of renal disease in dog
Management of renal disease in dogVikash Babu Rajput
 
Injection techniques in equines and canines
Injection techniques in equines and caninesInjection techniques in equines and canines
Injection techniques in equines and caninesVikash Babu Rajput
 
Field anesthesia canine feline
Field anesthesia canine felineField anesthesia canine feline
Field anesthesia canine felineVikash Babu Rajput
 
Endotracheal intubation in pets
Endotracheal intubation in petsEndotracheal intubation in pets
Endotracheal intubation in petsVikash Babu Rajput
 
Dr pardeep canine hepatopathy v o capacity tvcc
Dr pardeep canine hepatopathy v o capacity  tvccDr pardeep canine hepatopathy v o capacity  tvcc
Dr pardeep canine hepatopathy v o capacity tvccVikash Babu Rajput
 

More from Vikash Babu Rajput (20)

ACL Profile
ACL ProfileACL Profile
ACL Profile
 
Naac ppt klb (2)
Naac ppt klb (2)Naac ppt klb (2)
Naac ppt klb (2)
 
Seminar
SeminarSeminar
Seminar
 
Vaginal prolapse arvind
Vaginal prolapse   arvindVaginal prolapse   arvind
Vaginal prolapse arvind
 
Urethral catheterization – male dog
Urethral catheterization – male dogUrethral catheterization – male dog
Urethral catheterization – male dog
 
Teat surgery
Teat surgeryTeat surgery
Teat surgery
 
Radiology interpretation
Radiology interpretationRadiology interpretation
Radiology interpretation
 
Ocular emergencies
Ocular emergenciesOcular emergencies
Ocular emergencies
 
Nov 2013 radiographic exposure and processing technique sp tyagi
Nov 2013 radiographic exposure and processing technique sp tyagiNov 2013 radiographic exposure and processing technique sp tyagi
Nov 2013 radiographic exposure and processing technique sp tyagi
 
Neurological examination of vety patient.
Neurological examination of vety patient.Neurological examination of vety patient.
Neurological examination of vety patient.
 
Nasogastric intubation in equine
Nasogastric intubation in equineNasogastric intubation in equine
Nasogastric intubation in equine
 
Management of renal disease in dog
Management of renal disease in dogManagement of renal disease in dog
Management of renal disease in dog
 
Intravenous catheter
Intravenous catheterIntravenous catheter
Intravenous catheter
 
Injection techniques in equines and canines
Injection techniques in equines and caninesInjection techniques in equines and canines
Injection techniques in equines and canines
 
Field anesthesia horse
Field anesthesia horseField anesthesia horse
Field anesthesia horse
 
Field anesthesia canine feline
Field anesthesia canine felineField anesthesia canine feline
Field anesthesia canine feline
 
Endotracheal intubation in pets
Endotracheal intubation in petsEndotracheal intubation in pets
Endotracheal intubation in pets
 
Dr pardeep canine hepatopathy v o capacity tvcc
Dr pardeep canine hepatopathy v o capacity  tvccDr pardeep canine hepatopathy v o capacity  tvcc
Dr pardeep canine hepatopathy v o capacity tvcc
 
Canine pyometra complex
Canine pyometra complexCanine pyometra complex
Canine pyometra complex
 
Blood transfusion
Blood transfusionBlood transfusion
Blood transfusion
 

Vety.emergency and critical care

  • 1. “Veterinary emergencies and critical care” The veterinary emergency service is equipped to deal with any pet emergency from trauma to severe infection By: Dr. Mitin chanana M.V.Sc. 2nd yr Vety. Surgery and radiology
  • 2. Typical conditions that are seen by the emergency service include: Trauma patients, including those hit by cars, bite, bullet, knife or burn injuries Animal having trouble breathing Animals that need a blood transfusion Shock (signs of shock can include weakness, pale mucous membranes in their mouth, cold extremities, and an abnormal heart rate) Animals having trouble urinating, or are not producing urine Animals in which an abnormal heart rhythm is causing problems Animals with life-threatening neurologic disease such as coma or severe seizures Patients that have had surgery and are not recovering well from anesthesia
  • 3. So a veterinarian should discuss and understand the: Aetiologies, Typical history, Physical examination findings, Diagnostic algorithm and Treatment options for the patient which has acute dysfunction in the • Cardiovascular, • Respiratory, • Haemo-lymphatic, • Musculoskeletal, or • Nervous systems
  • 4. Cardiovascular: mitral valve insufficiency, congestive heart failure, pericardial effusion, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, bacterial endocarditis, heart base tumours,,etc. Respiratory: pulmonary oedema, neoplasias,, pyothorax, pneumothorax, haemothorax, tracheal collapse, pharyngeal and tracheal injuries, diaphragmatic hernia, broken ribs, bite wounds to the chest, pulmonary thromboembolism,etc.
  • 5. Haemo-Lymphatic: anaemia of any cause, leukaemia, paracetamol toxicity, methaemoglobinaemia, haemangiosarcoma, lymphosarcoma, haemorrhage,systemic inflammatory response syndrome, sepsis, Vitamin K-antagonist toxicity, anaphylactic reactions, vaccine-associated reactions, etc. Musculoskeletal: lameness of any cause, repair of abdominal / inguinal/ umbilical hernia, cellulitis, tendon and pad injuries, acute myositis, recognition and prognosis of fractures Neurologic: degenerative myelopathy, intervertebral disc disease, epilepsy, meningitis, ataxia, tremors, seizures, neurotoxins including but not limited to organophosphate, carbamate, metaldehyde, pyrethrin, chocolate, lead, mushroom, illicit drugs.
  • 6. Other problems that also require immediate medical attention: Exposure to toxins (ingested or topical) Open fractures Snake bite Burns Prolapsed organs Wound dehiscence Dystocia
  • 7. A technique for performing common emergency procedures is listed below:
  • 8. 1.Airway and breathing • if the animal has increased breathing rate or effort. • animals may assume a posture with the head and neck extended and the elbows abducted (held away from the body) • absent chest wall motion, • exaggerated breathing effort, • flaring of the nares, • open mouth breathing and paradoxical breathing(opposing movements of the chest and abdominal walls during inspiration and expiration • Cyanosis, a blue or purplish tint to the mucous membranes • Crepitus about the body may indicate subcutaneous emphysema, which can be caused by tracheal tears or chest wall defects First, patency of airway and breathing effort should be assessed. This is done by visualization, auscultation, and palpation.
  • 9. 2.Circulation: • Mucous membrane colour • Capillary refill time • Heart rate • Pulse quality • Extremity temperature • Mentation The focus of the cardiovascular assessment is the six perfusion parameters
  • 10. Mucous membrane colour Evaluate the mucous membranes by examining the colour of the gums. As an alternative in the fractious animal or patients with pigmented gums examine the conjunctiva, penis or the vulva. • The normal colour pink is a result of oxygenated haemoglobin in red blood cells in the capillary bed. • Mucous membrane colour may vary with circulatory related problems. • Mucous membrane colour may be pale or white due to blood loss anaemia or vasoconstriction. • Brick red or injected mucous membranes are a result of vasodilation and can be seen with hyperthermia or sepsis. • Cyanotic or blue mucous membranes are an indicator of severe hypoxemia. • Icteric or yellow mucous membranes are due to the breakdown of red cells (haemolysis) or liver disease. • Methemoglobinemia results in brown or chocolate - coloured mucous membranes.
  • 11. Capillary refill time ( CRT ) Evaluation of CRT is done by applying digital pressure to the surface of the mucous membranes and forcing the blood from the capillary bed and observing the return stimulation. Normal CRT is 1 – 2 seconds. A shortened CRT ( < 1/2 second) is suggestive of vasodilation. A prolonged capillary refill time ( > 2 seconds) is also a result of peripheral vasoconstriction and causes decreased peripheral perfusion.
  • 12. Heart rate It is usually measured by auscultation of the heart, palpation of the apex beat, or palpation of an artery. Tachycardia:- • may be caused by hypovolemia , hypoxemia, hypotension, drugs, fever, excitement, exercise, and pain. • It is generally defined as a heart rate > 160 beats per minutes (bpm) in the dog or 200 bpm in the cat. Bradycardia:- • may be caused by increased vagal tone, severe electrolyte disturbances and hypothermia, drugs, or disturbances of the cardiac conduction system. • It is generally defined as a heart rate < 60 bpm in the dog and 140 bpm in the cat. Auscultation of the heart and palpation of an artery should occur simultaneously, so that pulse deficits (the difference between heart and pulse rate; they should be the same) can be determined. Pulse deficits are suggestive of arrhythmias.
  • 13. Pulse quality Palpation of the artery provides information about the animal’s heart rate and rhythm. The femoral or dorsal pedal arteries are the commonly palpated arteries. Pulse quality is an indicator of stroke volume, the amount of blood pumped out of the heart with each beat. Ideally, the pulse should be full, regular, and strong, indicating a normal stroke volume. A thready pulse is defined as a narrow waveform and a weak pulse refers to a small amplitude pulse difference, both of which are indicative of a decreased stroke volume. Bounding pulses have a large pulse pressure difference and wide waveforms usually associated with increased stroke volume and vasodilation.
  • 14. Extremity temperature • The paws, limbs, or ears should normally feel warm to the touch. Cool extremities are a result of vasoconstriction. Mentation • As previously mentioned, evaluation of mentation starts from a far. Observe the attitude of the patient. • Are there any fractures? • Is the abdomen painful or distended? • Is there evidence of debilitation or other signs of disease?
  • 15. Common emergency procedures: Perform pericardiocentesis to relieve pericardial tamponade Measure blood pressure indirectly using a Doppler probe and sphygmomanometer with cuff Obtain Lead II ECG trace and assess it for life- threatening arrhythmias Manage a cardiopulmonary arrest and resuscitation Use ultrasouund to access a possible pericardial effusion Cardiovascular:
  • 16. Respiratory: Place a nasal catheter for intranasal oxygen administration Place an indwelling chest tube Perform thoracocentesis Interpret the spO2 from blood gas measurements Interpret pH, HCO3 and pCO2 on blood gases Perform the anaesthesia to repair a diaphragmatic hernia Perform the surgical repair of a diaphragmatic hernia
  • 17. Some of the Oxygen Delivery Methods used:
  • 18. Nasal catheters • Place 3-5 drops of Proparacaine into nostril • Insert suture at caudoventral aspect of alar groove max. 1 cm from naris • Use 3.5 to 8 Fr tube Nasotracheal tubes • Same as for nasal catheter but head is hyperextended when catheter reaches level of pharynx • Insert tube rapidly as patient takes breath • Radiographs may be required to confirm location • Deliver O2 at 50 ml/kg/min (always humidify) Transtracheal catheters • Use 14-16 G IV Catheter • Insert catheter between rings in the mid cervical region • Aspirate to ensure location in trachea; Attach Oxygen at 50 ml/kg/min
  • 19. Haemo-Lymphatic: Perform and interpret a platelet estimate from a blood smear Evaluate red blood cell morphology on a blood smear for an anaemic patient Interpret coagulation parameters on a coagulopathy suspect Administer a blood or plasma transfusion
  • 20. • Musculo-Skeletal •Neurologic: Replace a dislocated hip under anaesthesia Place an Ehmer sling or perform any other kind of external or internal coaptation technique as per the type of fracture or injury Localise an acute intervertebral disk lesion and assess the prognosis