EUROPEAN EXPLORATION AND COLONIZATION: DISCOVERY AND COLONIZATIONChristopher OF THE NEW WORLDColumbus landingon an island in theCaribbean Sea in Map showing the1492. original 13 English Colonies in North America. Map Insert: Shows what Europeans thought the world looked like in 1492. Main Map: Shows route of Columbus on his first voyage in 1492.
Europe in the year 1000: Europe was dominated by England and France with Spain as agrowing power. ENGLANDAtlanticOcean ASIA FRANCE SPAIN ● Rome Med. Sea AFRICA -ISRAEL -PALESTINE -HOLY LAND
THE CRUSADES: 1. In the year 1095, people were shocked in Western Europe by the words of Pope Urban II, "The Muslims have conquered Jerusalem." The Muslims forbade Christians to come to Jerusalem to pray and visit the holy sites. PopePope Urban II Urban wanted the Christians to retake Jerusalem from the Muslims. People shouted "God wills it.” All over Europe these were the words of the Christians. 2. Christians from all over Europe went on the Crusades. The word Battle between a Crusader Knight and Muslim warrior Crusade meant "a war of the cross.” 3. When the Crusaders came home, they brought goods and luxuries home from the Middle East (spices, silks, foods). Europeans liked these and wanted more. Crusader uniforms
4. Europeans wanted these goods from theMiddle East. Merchants in the MiddleEast (Muslim merchants) charged toomuch for these goods. Europeankings/queens wanted to find faster andcheaper ways to get to India/China where Orangesthey could trade for these goods. Lemons -European kings and queens begansending explorers to search for a waterroute to India and China. Nutmeg Silk LimesAllspice Pepper Ginger Cotton Saffron Cinnamon
CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS: NEW WORLD OLD WORLDHe believed that the worldwas round so his voyage waspossible. He was off in hiscalculations by about 10,000or more miles…-In 1492, the search for this all water route to Asia would lead Christopher Columbus tomake a discovery that would change not only the old world of Europe but also the unknownnew world which would become known as the Americas. He would never really understandwhat he had done. He called the people from this new world Indians because he thought hewas in the Indies. His name was Columbus. -He believed that he could reach Asia by sailing west across the Atlantic Ocean.
-His search for gold and glory led him to-Columbus was a brave and skillful sailor and his voyage brought enslave the people hetwo very different worlds in contact with each other . met in this new world. COLUMBUS -Columbus did not discover America nor did he prove that-Wherever Columbus landed he claimed the world is round. He thoughtthe land for the King of Spain. This was that he was near Asia. He wasthe beginning of the Spanish colonization the 1st of many European explorersof America. who would come to the Americas.
AGE OF EXPLORATION OF THE AMERICAS: ENGLAND FRANCE SPAIN HOLLAND-Columbus did not find a new route to Asia, but word of hisdiscovery spread and soon all the major countries of Europewere sending explorers to the New World. They came for God,Gold, Glory, and a new all water route to Asia.
SPANISH EXPLORERS:The Spanish explorers used theisland of Cuba as their starting point.From there the Conquistadorsexplored and claimed land insouthern and southwestern US,Mexico, Central and South America.CONQUISTADORS: Spanishexplorer and conqueror who camefor gold and glory.1. 1519: Hernando de Cortez usedcourage and treachery to conquerthe Aztecs.2. 1532: Juan Pizarro conquered avery civilized and very wealthyIndian tribe known as the Incas,thereby giving Spain lots of gold andsilver and the land known as Peru.All of the land from Florida toCalifornia, including Mexico,Central America and most of SouthAmerica would become known asNEW SPAIN.
THE COLUMBIANEXCHANGE:-After Columbusdiscovers the NewWorld, Europeans willbegin exploring andcreating colonies in theAmerica’s. This willlead to contact betweenthe Europeans andNative Americans. Thiscontact will cause NativeAmericans andEuropeans to learn aboutnew animals, plants, andproducts from eachother. Europeans willtake these back toEurope and they willspread to other parts ofthe world. Things fromaround the world willbegin to arrive in theAmerica’s.
EUROPEAN NATIONS:*Before Columbus, the land thatwould be known as America waspopulated by groups of NativeAmericans or Indians. They had noway of knowing how contact withthe Europeans would forever alteror change their way of life.*With each new explorer came anew land claim. The Europeansviewed America as blank orempty land just waiting for themto claim and settle it.1. The Spanish found their gold and conquered parts of Central andSouth America and the Caribbean Islands.2. The French found a land that was rich in furs and soon sought thehelp of Indian tribes in creating a profitable fur trade.3. The Dutch developed the land along the Hudson River and createda profitable trading relationship with local Indian tribes.4. But it was the English who would make the biggest impact on America. FranceEngland would send thousands of English men and women to a land calledNorth America that was rich in natural resources and land. To the English Englandpeople who came to live in the 13 colonies, America would become theirhome. Spain
British Flag: Union Jack EnglandNew 3000 miles France SpainWorld Atlantic Ocean They came from the island nation of England and made the dangerous voyage across the Atlantic Ocean for the promise of a better life in the wilderness known as America. They would be at the mercy of the weather and the strange people who already lived there. Many of them would die during the first year of settlement, but the survivors would build homes and towns. More would come from England and America would grow and prosper.
THE ENGLISH COLONIES:1. The first English colony in the NewWorld was Roanoke and was created bySir Walter Raleigh in 1585.-Sent 7 ships and 600 soldiers to establishsettlement.-Created colony on Roanoke Island (N.C.)-Named territory Virginia after the“Virgin Queen”, Elizabeth I.-Abandoned and returned to England dueto food shortages and trouble with Indians. Roanoke Island
2. The second English colony in theNew World was created by JohnWhite in 1587. -Called Roanoke and built onsame site as original. -Took 120 men, women, andchildren. -White returned to Englandwhen supplies ran low. -When he returned, colonyabandoned and colonists not found.*Both colonies at Roanokefailed!!!!!COLONY: A settlement ruledby a distant parent country.
Even though colonies failed, merchants were interested in creating colonies in America foreconomic reasons. -Continue to search for gold/silver -Fish, whale oil -Trade with Native Americans -Animal furs -Soil for crops - Lumber and sap from treesEnglish Parliament did not want to give money to merchants to start colonies. PARLIAMENT: England’s law-making body.Merchants joined together to form joint-stock companies to send colonists to New World tocreate colonies. JOINT-STOCK COMPANY: Company owned by several investors throughstock. STOCK: Ownership in a company.The English Crown (King/Queen) gave charters to the companies or nobles who startedcolonies in the New World.-The charter made the colony legal and gave it rights under the English government. CHARTER: A paper giving certain rights to a person or group.
JAMESTOWN COLONY: London Company(Virginia Company): Given charter by KingJames I to create colony in New World.-Company sent 144 men to create colony.-Company sent 3 ships to create colony. Colonycreated along James River in Virginia in 1607. JamestownCalled Jamestown. Colony King James I-Men more interested in looking for gold/silverthan working. Food supplies ran low, no houses,no defenses, problems with Native Americans. Captain John Smith-Captain John Smith arrives in 1608 and forcesmen to work for food.-1612: John Rolfe develops new type of tobaccothat can survive shipment. Tobacco becomespopular in Europe and Jamestown colonists sellentire crop. Begin growing more. Tobaccobecomes CASH CROP and helps colony succeed.CASH CROP: Crop grown in order to be soldfor money. Tobacco Plant
Many English people were attracted to the colonies and wanted to move there. However,they could not afford to pay for their passage.-London Company used ads to create interest. Attracted settlers by saying how great theNew World was.-Merchants and nobles created system called Indentured Servitude. INDENTURED SERVANTS: Workers who sold their labor for a period of time in exchange for passage to the colonies in America.-They were not slaves. Once their contract was over, they were free to do whatever theywanted.
Indentured Servants: Came to New World by having someone pay for their passage. Theyagreed to work for them for an agreed upon number of years. After term of service, theywere free to start their own farm. -Contract stated conditions of agreement such as food, drink, clothing, housing,and what they would get after length of service was over. -Farmers in Jamestown colony needed workers to farm the land due to success oftobacco. At first, they used indentured servants from England. Advertisement in London newspaper.
Tobacco was so successful, colonists increased farm land in order to grow tobacco.Tobacco farming required more workers. -At first, they were white indentured servants from England. -1619: Dutch merchant ship arrives in Jamestown with about 20 Africans. -Sold to tobacco farmers as indentured servants, not slaves. -More Africans brought to colony due to demand for tobacco. By 1662, Africansbrought over as slaves.SLAVE: Person forced to work against their will for no pay and no freedom. Africans Tobacco leaves drying in shed.
GOVERNMENT: When the colony was first created, it was run by officials from theLondon Company.-1619: Company allowed colonists to create Representative Gov’t and elect representatives.-Representatives met together in House of Burgesses in colony. -Made daily decisions for colony. -To far away from England for English gov’t to control them or make quick decisions. -Beginning of Representative Government in the English colonies.REPRESENTATIVE: Person elected bycitizens to run government.REPRESENTATIVE GOVERNMENT: Gov’t inwhich people elect those who makelaws and decisions.
1. The Jamestown Colony was the first successful English colony in the New World. -This would lead to other colonies being created by the English. 2. The English Colonies would become known as the THIRTEEN COLONIES and were settled by people who brought with them the beliefs,NEW FRANCE laws, and customs of England. 13 ENGLISH COLONIES
PLYMOUTH COLONY: 2ND successful English colony in New World. -1620: 40 Pilgrims (Saints) and 62 other English (Strangers) colonists sailed to the New World on the Mayflower. -Headed for Virginia: Winter storm blew them off course and landed far to the north. Landed out of the landcontrolled by the Virginia Company so they created a plan for running their colony. Mayflower Virginia:
MAYFLOWER COMPACT: Document created and signed by the Pilgrims and other colonists aboardthe Mayflower used to make laws for the benefit of the whole colony. -This document represents self-government. The Pilgrims were to far away to depend on the gov’tback in England. They had to handle their own affairs. The Mayflower Compact 1620 “In the name of God, Amen. We, whose names areunderwritten, the Loyal Subjects of our dreadSovereign Lord, King James, by the Grace of God, ofEngland, France and Ireland, King, Defender of theFaith, e&. Having undertaken for the Glory of God, andAdvancement of the Christian Faith, and the Honourof our King and Country, a voyage to plant the firstcolony in the northern parts of Virginia; do by thesepresents, solemnly and mutually in the Presence ofGod and one of another, covenant and combineourselves together into a civil Body Politick, for ourbetter Ordering and Preservation, and Furtherance ofthe Ends aforesaid; And by Virtue hereof to enact,constitute, and frame, such just and equal Laws,Ordinances and Offices, from time to time, as shall bethought most meet and convenient for the Generalgood of the Colony; unto which we promise all duesubmission and obedience. In Witness whereof we have hereunto subscribedour names at Cape Cod the eleventh of November, inthe Reign of our Sovereign Lord, King James ofEngland, France and Ireland, the eighteenth, and ofScotland the fifty-fourth. Anno Domini, 1620.”
1. Pilgrims named the new colony Plymouth, after the town in England from which theysailed. -Arrived in December, 1620 -1st winter; ½ died2. In the spring, local Wampanoag Indians, Samoset and Squanto, helped the Pilgrims toplant crops and trap animals.3. After the 1st harvest, the Pilgrims celebrated their survival by holding Thanksgiving feastwith Native Americans.
The Pilgrims were Separatists (Christians) from England. -Separatists did not like the way the Church of England was being run and wanted to be able to worship freely. -They came to the New World in order to worship God the way they wanted to without being told how to worshipby the English government. RELIGIOUS FREEDOM.
NEW FRANCE 4 1 2 3NEW FRANCE 4 Northern (New England) Colonies: 1. Massachusetts (Plymouth & Mass. Bay Colony) 2. Connecticut 3. Rhode Island 4. New Hampshire
Massachusetts Bay Colony: Colonies in New England were created for religious freedom. -Massachusetts was created in 1630 by Puritans from England who came to the New World for religious freedom. -Puritans led by John Winthrop. -By the end of 1631, over 1,000 Puritans living in colony. -Colony became successful by creating trade relationships with local Indian tribes, fishing, whaling, and creatingindustries to produce needed goods such as shipbuilding. -By 1640, more than 20,000 colonists lived in colony. Larger and wealthier than Plymouth Colony. In 1691,English gov’t joined Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth together to create Massachusetts Colony. -Puritans religious beliefs dominated colony: gov’t controlled by Puritans, non-Puritans had to pay higher taxes,non-Puritans could not practice their own religions. -Many Puritans did not like the way the colony was being run and decided to leave to create their owncolonies. -1636: Roger Williams leaves Mass. and creates Rhode Island Colony. Colony was created to give peopleabsolute religious freedom. -Anne Hutchinson followed Williams and created 2nd settlement in Rhode Island Colony. -1636: Thomas Hooker leaves Mass. and creates Connecticut Colony. -1639: Connecticut settlers wrote Fundamental Orders of Connecticut. -Example of representative gov’t. -All adult men could vote. -1679: Colony of New Hampshire created by joining small settlements together that were north of Mass.
New England Colonies: Agricultural life wasdifficult due to rocky soil, short growing season,and harsh winters.Farms tended to be small, family farms that grewmainly corn.Many New Englanders made their living byfishing, whaling, merchant sailing, andmanufacturing.***Most colonists made a living by farming.
1 2 3NEW FRANCE 4 4 Middle Colonies: 1. New York 2. Pennsylvania 3. New Jersey 4. Delaware
The Middle Colonies were settled mainly for economic reasons. The land was very fertile, so farming was very FORT ORANGE important. Called the “Bread Basket of the Colonies” because of the huge amount of wheat and corn grown inNEW AMSTERDAM the area. New York: Originally settled by the Dutch and called New Netherlands. In 1664, the English took it over and renamed it New York. King of England gave colony to his brother, the Duke of York. New Amsterdam renamed New York City. New Jersey: Duke of York gave land to other nobles south of New York. They created colony and called it New Jersey. Pennsylvania: William Penn given charter by King of England to create colony for Quakers. Quakers were Christians who wanted to leave England and come to the New World for religious freedom. Delaware: Created from piece of Penn.
NEWFRANCE 5 Southern Colonies: 2 1 1. Virginia 2. Maryland 3 3. North Carolina 4 5 4. South Carolina 5. Georgia
The Southern Colonies were created for religious freedom and economic reasons. These colonies had veryfertile soil that allowed them to grow crops almost year round. This resulted in the growing of a variety ofcrops. The most important crops were cash crops such as tobacco. Later on, cotton, rice, and indigo will begrown. These crops required large numbers of farm workers. Southern plantation owners had started usingslaves in the mid-1600’s to work the fields. Slaves were a cheap source of labor.Virginia: The Virginia colony started with Jamestown in1607. Became successful due to tobacco as a cash crop.Maryland: Created as a place for Roman Catholics to go topractice religious freedom.North and South Carolinas: Created by English noblesfor the purpose of growing tobacco, indigo, and rice.Georgia: Created by James Oglethorpe as a place fordebtors to go and start a new life.Most colonists living in the American Colonies wereEnglish. They came to the colonies in search of a better life. They wanted to own their own land, practice their religionfreely, and create a better life. When they came to thecolonies, they brought the English culture with them. Thisinclude the English language, English customs andtraditions, English laws, and ideas about government.In all of the colonies, most colonists made a living byfarming.
By the 1700’s, the American colonies werebecoming very wealthy due to the naturalresources found here and the manufacturedgoods being produced.England wanted to take advantage of thenatural resources. They began treating thecolonies, not as equals, but as a source ofmaterials.England began to follow a policy ofMercantilism.MERCANTILISM: System of trade basedon colonies and desire for wealth. -Colonies supplied home country withnatural resources. -Colonies bought finished goods fromhome country.England passed laws to control colonialtrade.Navigation Acts: 1660’s -Laws passed by Parliament to controltrade with the colonies. -Colonists angry with laws. AllowedEngland to control colonies.