EARLY AMERICANCIVILIZATIONS AND CULTURES THE CULTURE OF THE INCAS, AZTECS, AND IROQUOIS The Iroquois lived in present- day New York State. Incas and Aztecs lived inCentral and South America. 1
*Around 9,500 years ago, some groups of Native Americans in Central and South America learned howto farm. This is the beginning of civilizations in the Americas. -Corn (maize), pumpkins, peppers, beans, squash, cotton, and tobacco. -People could now settle down in one area and not live as nomads. People needed to stay inone area in order to plant seeds, tend crops, and harvest crops. Human civilizations begin to develop inthe Americas. Farming: Corn Corn Aztec priests Squash conducting Beans religious sacrifice. Aztec city.NOMAD: Person who moves fromplace to place in search of food.CIVILIZATION: Advanced culture Aztecwith a religion, cities, government, governmentwritten language, and social classes. under the Emperor.
3 Early American Civilizations:*All 3 early American civilizations existed in Central and South America and are considered empires.1. Aztec Empire (1200 AD – 1535 AD)2. Mayan Empire (200 AD – 900’s AD)3. Inca Empire (1200 AD – 1535 AD)*These civilizations and other groups of Native Americans developed different and unique cultures.EMPIRE: a group of nations or peoples ruled over by an emperor or empress. Usually a territory of great size. Examples: Roman Empire, British Empire, etc..CULTURE: The way of life for a group of people. -Cultures were different mainlydue to the geography or environment andthe resources they had. -Culture includes a people’slanguage, customs, religion, government,economy, traditions, etc.
2. Inca Civilization: 1200 AD – 1535 AD-South America along Pacific Ocean. -Government run by emperor.-Built vast network of roads and bridges. -Built terraces on hills for farming. Macchu Picchu: Hieroglyphics - A form of Inca Palace. writing in which pictures are used to represent words and phrases Built vast network of roads.Much of Empire in Andes Mountains.
Incas had gold: They used gold for jewelry and artworkIncan government ruled by emperor Incan decorated potEmperor being carried; llamas used as pack animals Statue of Llama: Gold Incas had many gods
3. Aztec Empire: 1200 AD – 1535 AD-Located in Central and Southern Mexico.-Built capital city of Tenochtitlan (IN A LAKE).-Created a strict legal code.-Created 365 day calendar.-Created writing system using hieroglyphics.-Built irrigation systems for crops.-Religion was polytheistic: Believed in many gods.-Used human sacrifices to satisfy gods.-Conquered and ruled many other tribes-Social Classes: Ruler, priests and nobles, warriors,merchants and artisans, farmers, and slaves.
Tenochtitlan: (Mexico City) Lake Texcoco -Over time, they conquered the area around the lake and eventually created large empire in Central Mexico. -Warfare was important because they needed a constant supply of human sacrifices.
Tenochtitlan:The only way toget to the city wasby boat or overcauseways.
Aztec Social Structure:-Aztec Empire was ruledby an emperor.-Under the emperor werethe priests and nobles whohelped run the government.-Next were the warriors Emperor Moctezumawho defended the empireand captured prisoners forreligious sacrifices.Warrior in armor
AZTEC HUMAN SACRIFICES:-Sacrifices used to keep gods happy.-Used prisoners captured in battle;Constant warfare. Prisoners or slaves were held down and their chest was cut open and their heart pulled out. This was done while they were still alive. Religious knife used to cut out hearts of human sacrifices.
Aztecs developed calendar in order to keep track of religious ceremonies.Aztec god Quetzacoatyl. Aztec god Huitzilopochtl: sun god.
Iroquois CultureFORMATION OF THE LEAGUE: Dekanawida1. In the 1500’s, Dekanawida and Hiawatha wanted “Peacemaker” to end warfare. They tried to get tribes in New York to join together.2. In 1570, 5 nations joined to promote peace and cooperation, and end warfare.3. The 5 nations were the Mohawk, Oneida, Adodarhoh Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca.4. The Tuscarora joined in the early 1700’s. Became known as the “6 Nations.”5. Iroquois called themselves the Haudenosaunee: “People of the Longhouse.”6. Iroquois: Name given to group of Indians in New York by the French during the 1600-1700’s.7. They were called the “Iroquois League,” or Iroquois Confederacy. Hiawatha
2. LOCATION:1. They lived in the present day state of New York along the Mohawk River,Great Lakes, and Finger Lakes. 1 2 4 3 5 Fulton County 6 Tuscarora
3. GOVERNMENT:1. The Iroquois Confederacy was created by Dekanawida and Hiawatha.2. The main purpose of the league was to bring about peace and stop the fighting among themselves.3. The Iroquois created a system of law to govern the league called the Great Law of Peace. Iroquois flag Wampum belt
Iroquois government was a representative government inwhich the sachems represented the peopleRepresentative Government: system of government where voters elect representatives to make laws for them.
1. Iroquois depended on environment for all they needed. They only took what they needed. They did not waste any resources.2. Iroquois did not own land. Used what they needed. They shared land with others.3. Women controlled the village and the farm land around the village.4. When the resources of an area were used up, the village moved.5. Villages moved every 10-20 years. They moved Palisade because the soil wore out. They needed to find fertile soil for farming.
E. ROLE OF IROQUOIS MEN: F. ROLE OF IROQUOIS WOMEN: 1. Farming & Gathering Food: Women grew 2. Warriors: Men corn, beans, and squash and gathered food1. Sachems: Men were warriors.served as sachems. from the environment. They protected the village and league against enemies. 2. Picking Chiefs:3. Hunters: Men Women pickedhunted and fished to and removed theprovide food for the sachems.family and village. 3. Food Preparation: Women prepared meats and other food for the people to eat. Mortar and pestle 4. Merchants/Traders: Men went to for grinding corn other villages and tribes to trade. They and other things. traded with Europeans when they arrived.5. Cleared Land: Mencleared the land in orderto build the village andfarm. Drying fish and animal meat over smoke helped to preserve it so it would last longer. 4. Making Clothes: Women took animal skins (deer) and 5. Raising Children: made clothing, shoes, blankets, and coats.6. Builders: Men built the tools and weapons that they used. Before the Europeansarrived, they used stone, wood, and bone for tools and weapons. After theEuropeans arrived, they began using metal weapons and tools. 6. Make Tools: Women made the tools that they needed to do their jobs of farming, gathering, and cooking. They made pots, baskets, spoons, bowls from wood, bark, stone, and clay. 8
H. FOOD OF THE IROQUOIS:1. FOREST FOOD:1. Women were responsible for ___________________ food from the forest and environment.2. Men were responsible for _________________ and ___________________ in the forest and environment.3. List the various types of food that the Iroquois found in the FOREST by hunting and gathering: PLANT: ANIMAL:1. 1.2. 2.3. 3.4. 4.5. 5.4. The _____________ was the most important animal to the Iroquois. It was major source of ______________, skins, and bones.2. FARMING FOOD:1. It was the ________________ responsibility to ________________________.2. The primary crops grown by women were ______________, _____________, and ____________________. -They were called “The _____________ __________________.”3. In addition, the Iroquois grew ____________________ which was used for smoking and religious rituals. Women did the farming using tools they made. The 3 Sisters: Corn, Beans, and Squash. Tobacco was an important crop. It was used for religious ceremonies.
H. FOOD OF THE IROQUOIS: A. FOREST FOOD:1. Women were responsible for gathering food from the forest and environment.2. Men were responsible for hunting and fishing in the forest and environment. Food Found in the Forest (Plants) Food Hunted in the Forest1. Nuts: Acorns, Hickory nuts (Animals)2. Berries: Strawberries, 1. ***Deer: Most important blueberries, raspberries source of meat and skins.3. Roots: Garlic, onions 2. Bear, beaver, fox, mink, moose, elk, squirrel, rabbit4. Fruits: Apples, pears, plums 3. Birds: Turkey, duck, goose,5. Maple Syrup: carrier pigeon 4. Fish
B. FARMING FOOD:1. It was the women’s responsibility to plant, tend,and harvest the crops.2. Primary crops were corn, squash, and beans. -They were called the “Three Sisters.”3. In addition, the Iroquois grew tobacco. Tobacco grown SQUASH for religious purposes. BEANS CORN
I. IROQUOIS RELATIONSHIP WITH THE LAND: Natural Resources: Things found in natureWOOD: Used to make homes, tools, canoes, baskets, weapons,spoons, snowshoes. that can be used to make objects used by humans. ANIMALS: Meat for food, skins for clothes, bones for tools and weapons.STONE: Used to make axes, hammers, arrowheads, knivesSHELLS: Used to make Wampum Belts CLAY: Used for making pots, bowls, pipes, and toys
Villages were located by fresh water,IROQUOIS VILLAGES: wood, and fertile soil for farming.Built on high ground for protection Stockade or Palisade River or stream Fields for crops Canoes for travel