1309 d opium bp aug 2013

343 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
343
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
2
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

1309 d opium bp aug 2013

  1. 1. ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬‫ﺍﺭﺯﻳﺎﺑﻰ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻣـﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺿﻴـﺢ‬ :‫ﺗﻐﺎﻓﻞ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻣﺤﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺭﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﺸﺴﺘﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺴﻔﻴﻠﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﻮﻳﺪ‬1392 ‫ﺳﻨﺒﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻳﺴﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺴﻔﻴﻠﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﻮﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺶ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺳﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻴﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﺼﻞ‬ 17 ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻬﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ .‫ﮔﺮﻓﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺴﺎﻧﺲ‬ ‫ِﻴﺸﺴﺘﻴﻦ)ﻓﻮﻕ‬‫ﻓ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺭﻳﻴﺲ‬ (‫ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺎﻭﺭﺯﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺯﻳﺎﺑﻰ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺑﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺮﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺨﺴﺘﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻼﺩﻯ‬ 1977 ‫ﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻛﻨﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻭ‬ .‫ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ .‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ‬ 1..............................................‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﺻﻪ‬ 2........................... ‫ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﺎﻓﻞ‬ ‫ﭘﺮ‬ ‫1-ﻧﮕﺎﻩ‬ 5.....‫ﺑﺸﮕﻔﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﮔﻞ‬ ‫ﺻﺪﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﮕﺬﺍﺭ‬ :‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ‬ ‫2-ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ‬ 11.........................‫ﮔﻠﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﺮﺍ‬ ‫3-ﺗﺒﺪﻳﻞ‬ 14................................‫ﻓﺮﺍﮔﻴﺮ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻭﺍﻗﻌ‬ ‫4-ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ 18...............................‫ﭘﻴﺶ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫5-ﺭﺍﻫﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺧﻼﺻﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﻨﻴﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻰ‬ ،‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﭼﺸﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺟﺴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺿﺢ‬ ‫ﺻﻌﻮﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ .‫ﺩﺍﺷﺖ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻮﻭﻟﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﭘﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻰ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺪﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺻﺪ‬ 18 ‫ﻣﻴﻼﺩﻯ‬ 2012 ‫ﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺯﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﻤﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ؛‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺗﺤﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﮔﻴﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﻣﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ .‫ﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺁﻳﻨﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﭼﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ً‫ﻻ‬‫ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺩﻩ‬ ،‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺗﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﻨﻴﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻮﻭﻟﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﭘﺲ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻔﻌﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻞ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻛﻨﺶ‬ .‫ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻼ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻻﻳﺎﺗﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻌﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﺟﺮﺍﻳﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺪﺭﺕ‬ ،‫ﻛﺸﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺗﻮ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺣﻀﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻮﺭ‬ .‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻀﻌﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ،‫ﺷﺪﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻘﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺭﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﺒﺖ‬ "‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫"ﺍﻟﮕﻮ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺱ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺻﻠﺨﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺧﺸﺨﺎﺵ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ً‫ﺍ‬‫ﻣﺠﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﻨﮕﺮﻫﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﻠﻤﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﭼﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻭﻻﻳﺎﺗﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺿﺪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻟﺖ‬ ،‫ﻣﺬﻛﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺧﺮﻭﺝ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ .‫ﺁﻭﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺪﻛﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻻ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺪﺭﺗﻤﻨﺪﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﮔﺬﺍﺭ‬ .‫ﺑﺰﻧﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻭﻳﺞ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻏﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ،‫ﺑﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﻼﻡ‬ "‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫"ﻓﺎﺭﻍ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻼ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﺦ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻟﻐﻤﺎﻥ‬ ،‫ﻏﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﻻﻳﺎﺗﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻈﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺟﻨﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﺮﺍﻳﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﮕﺮﺍﻧﻰ‬ .‫ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﺯﺭﻉ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻴﻌﻰ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﻤﺎﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﭼﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ‬ – ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮژﻯ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭﮔﻴﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ .‫ﺷﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺵ‬ ،‫ﮔﺮﻓﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺯﺭﻋﻰ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ً‫ﻼ‬‫ﻗﺒ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺰﻳﻨﻪ‬ ،‫ﻛﺮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻚ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ -‫ﺧﻮﺭﺷﻴﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﺶ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻒ‬ ،‫ﻋﻤﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺭﻳﺨﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺗﻼﺵ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﮋﻯ‬ ،‫ﺣﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ .‫ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺸﻴﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﮕﻴﺰﻩ‬ ،‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺎﺿﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺮﺍﻩ‬ ،‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺭﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺿﻌﻴﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ .‫ﺍﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺸﻴﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺳﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺮ‬ ،‫ﺭﻭﺳﺘﺎﻳﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ .‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺎﻣﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻮﻳﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻬﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻃﺎﻟﺒﺎﻥ‬ .‫ﺁﻣﺪ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻓﺎﺗﻰ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﺎﺑﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﻡ‬ ،‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺟﺴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺳﺘﺎﻳﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺟﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﮋﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺸﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﺎﻻﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﻜﺎﺭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎﻟﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺴﺎﺳﺎﺕ‬ ،‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﮋﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﺗﺨﺎﺫ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ .‫ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺩﺍﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺿﻌﻒ‬ ‫ﺿﻌﻴﻒ‬ ٌ‫ﺎ‬‫ﺑﻌﻀ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﻨﻴﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﻤﺎﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ‬ .‫ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺁﻣﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺭﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﻗﻨﺪﻫﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﻠﻤﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ .‫ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﺵ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺁﮔﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﭼﻮﻥ‬ ،‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﮔﻮﻳﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﻫﻘﺎﻧﺎﻥ‬ ،‫ﺑﻠﺦ‬ ‫ﻭﻻﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﭽﻨﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﻻﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﮕﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺶ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ .‫ﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ .‫ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺶ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺯﺭﻉ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﻊ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﺣﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﭘﻮﻟﻴﺲ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﭘﻮﻟﻴﺲ‬
  2. 2. 2 ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺯﻳﺎﺑﻰ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﻨﻴﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﺮ‬ ،‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻚ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻧﮕﺮﺍﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺗﻮ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺧﺮﻭﺝ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻭﻩ‬ ،‫ﻣﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺶ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻀﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ .‫ﺳﺎﺯﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﻌﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﺬﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻴﺸﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻓﺪﺍﺭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺷﺒﻜﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺎﻭﺭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ .‫ﺩﺍﺷﺖ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺘﺎﻳﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺖ‬ ،‫ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﭼﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺯﺷﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻻﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﮔﻴﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺣﻖ‬ ‫ﻗﺪﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﺢ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ 2014 ‫ﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﭘﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺍﻝ‬ ،‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﻨﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺖ‬ ،‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺁﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺿﺎﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ،‫ﻏﺮﺑﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﻮﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻣﺪﺍﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺶ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻋﻰ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒ‬ ،‫ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ .‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﭼﮕﻮﻧﮕﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻜﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‬ .‫ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻬﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻜﺸﺎﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﭼﺸﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ،‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻟﻴﺴﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﻮﺍﺷﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺭﺷﺪ‬ ،‫ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻚ‬ .‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﮕﺬﺍﺷﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺧﺘﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﭼﻨﺪﺍﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻮﻭﻟﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻀﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺗﻬﺎﻡ‬ .‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺗﻬﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﭼﺎﻟﺶ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺳﺘﺎﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺍﮔﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻘﺮ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﻨﻴﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻣﻄﻤﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻴﺮ‬ ،‫ﻛﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﻄﺎﻯ‬ ،‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﺤﺮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﻫﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻟﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻏﺮﺑﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﺧﻴﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻌﻜﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﭼﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺵ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺎﻃﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺗﻼﺵ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﺎ‬ ،‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺟﻠﻮﮔﻴﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺭﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺨﺺ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬ .‫ﺑﺮﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ .‫ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺮﺳﺎﺧﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺁﺑﻴﺎﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺭﻳﺸﻪ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺩﻻﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﺠﺎﻧﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﻮﺯ‬ ،‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ،‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺰﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻳﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺶ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻰ‬ ،‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺁﻣﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻓﻘﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻼﺵ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ‬ .‫ﺷﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺧﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻗﻰ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬ .‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﮔﺸﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺠﺮ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺣﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯﮔﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺎﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻨﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻜﺸﺎﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ .‫ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺘﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ‬ ،‫ﮔﻴﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻘﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻳﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻛﻰ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺳﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺧﺪﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻻﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺁﻭﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻜﻪ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ -‫ﺯﺭﺍﻋﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺯﺭﺍﻋﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎﻏﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺷﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻮﺍﻳﺪ‬ -‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻧﻮﺍﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺁﻣﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﮔﺰﻳﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﻨﺎﺩ‬ ،‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻧﮕﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ . ‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﻮﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﮔﻴﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺷﻬﺮﻫﺎ‬ .‫ﻣﺎﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻗﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺟﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﭽﻨﺎﻥ‬ ،‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ،‫ﻧﺪﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻴﺸﻴﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻳﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺱ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ .‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺳﻜﺘﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻙ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻋﻰ‬ ‫ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺵ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺭﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺖ‬ ،‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺘﺪﺍﺭﻯ‬ ،‫ﺍﻣﻨﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﻯ‬ ‫ﭼﻨﺪﺟﺎﻧﺒﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﺟﺒﺎﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺯﻳﺎﺑﻰ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺖ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻭﻟﻮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺭﻳﺰﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﭼﻨﺪﮔﺎﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻓﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﮔﺬﺍﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻣﺎﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻣﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ .‫ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﭽﻨﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺯﺭﻉ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺭﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﮔﻮﻧﺎﮔﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻴﺸﻴﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻳﻜﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺵ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺸﻴﺪﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﭽﻨﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺳﺘﺎﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻛﺎﻣﻰ‬ .‫ﺑﮕﻴﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﭼﺎﺭﭼﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺴﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﻳﺰﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻤﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ .‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﮔﺬﺍﺷﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺟﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻳﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﻯ‬ ‫ﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺧﺘﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ .‫ﺩﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺷﺘﺒﺎﻫﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﻗﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﻤﻨﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻏﺮﺑﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻟﻴﺴﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺁﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺁﻧﻜﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ .‫ﺍﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻳﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﺒﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺸﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻔﺮﺍﻧﺲ‬ ِ‫ﻃﻮﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﻼﻣﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺣﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺷﺒﺨﺘﺎﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻭﻟﻮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﻧﻈﺮﺩﺍﺷﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺑﺎﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ .‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﮕﺮﻓﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺘﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﻮﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺎ‬ ،‫ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ‬ 1 ‫ﻣﻴﺸﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺮﺡ‬ ‫ﺧﺮﻳﺪ‬ 1  “Berlin Declaration” (Berlin: 1 February 2005), para 5, http://mfa.gov.af/Content/files/ berlindeclaration.pdf (accessed 8 August 2013); “The Afghanistan Compact” (London: 1 February2006), 4 and 11,http://mfa.gov.af/Content/files/Afghanistan%20Compact.pdf (accessed 8 August 2013); “Declaration of the International Conference in Support of Afghanistan” (Paris: 12June 2008),p.3,http://mfa.gov.af/Content/files/enghlish.pdf(accessed 8 August 2013); “Afghanistan: The London Conference” (London: 28 January 2010), para 27, http://mfa. gov.af/Content/files/LONDON%20CONFERENCE.pdf (accessed 8August 2013); “Kabul Conference Communiqué” (Kabul: 20 July2010), para 26, http://mfa.gov.af/Content/ Media/Documents/ FINALKabulConferenceCommunique2782011123830501553325325. pdf (accessed 8 August 2013); “The International Conference in Bonn” (Bonn: 5 December 2011), para 15, http://mfa.gov.af/Content/files/Second%20Bonn%20Conference%20 2011%20Communique. pdf (accessed 8 August 2013); “Chicago Summit Declaration on Afghanistan” (Chicago: 21 May 2012), para 21, http://www.nato. int/cps/en/natolive/official_ texts_87595.htm (accessed 8 August2013); “The Tokyo Declaration Partnership for Self- Reliance in Afghanistan From Transition to Transformation” (Tokyo: 9 July 2012), para 6, http://mfa.gov.af/en/news/11196 (accessed 8 August 2013). ‫ﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﭘﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﺷﺎﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﭻ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﻼﻣﻴﻪ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ .‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﻯ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻼﺩﻯ‬ 2014 ‫ﺣﺴﺎﺳﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻛﻨﺶ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺑﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻏﺮﺑﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻳﺘﺨﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻏﺎﻟﺒ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺘﮕﺬﺍﺭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺭﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻧﮕﻴﺰ‬ .‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﻫﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺧﺘﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺧﺘﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺘﺮﻙ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻧﻚ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ‬ - 2 ‫ﺑﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺍﮔﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻼﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺯﻳﺎﺑﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﭘﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻧﻚ‬ .3 ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻄﻮﻑ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ 2  Between 2004 and 2008, the World Bank commissioned a number of pieces of work integrating the drugs issue into both its analysis and programming. This included efforts to “mainstream” drugs into a number of National Priority Programmes. Its work on integrating drugs into development analysis and planning in Afghanistan culminated in a report it published with the UK Department for International Development. See “Afghanistan: Economic Incentives and Development Initiatives to Reduce Opium Production” (Kabul: World Bank/DFID, 2008). 3  This may reflect in part the declining share of opium in Afghanistan’s GDP in recent years, ‫ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﺎﻓﻞ‬ ‫ﭘﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﮕﺎﻩ‬ -1
  3. 3. 3 ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺭﺯﻩ‬ :‫ﺗﻐﺎﻓﻞ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻣﺤﻪ‬ .‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺷﺎﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﮔﺬﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ،‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻮﻭﻟﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ » ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﮔﻮﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﻬﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﻴﻜﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺍﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺛﺒﻮﺗﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﭻ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻋﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺎ‬ ، «4 ‫ﻛﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺪﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺩﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﻟﻴﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﭼﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻗﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﭼﺮﺍ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﺍﻧﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻰ‬ .5 ‫ﮔﺬﺍﺷﺖ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﺟﻨﺪﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﺒﺎﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﭼﺮﺍ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺷﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻭﻟﻮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺮﻭﻑ‬ ‫ﻗﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﺴﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻳﺪ‬ .‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺳﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﻮﺭﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺻﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻰ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺭﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻧﮕﺮﺍﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﺮﺓ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻳﻬﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ‬ .‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺁﻣﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺁﻳﻨﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻤﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺧﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻬﻮﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺭﻳﺎﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻓﻘﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻥ؛‬ ‫ﺍﻣﻨﻴﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﻴﻔﻴﺖ‬ :‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻜﺎﻧﻴﺴﻢ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺭﺟﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻚ‬ ‫ﺁﻳﻨﺪﺓ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻼﺩﻯ؛‬ 2014 ‫ﺍﭘﺮﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﻓﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻘﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻄﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺍﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻘﻮﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺻﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺁﻣﺎﺩﮔﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺁﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ .‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ .‫ﮔﺬﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻗﻰ‬ ،‫ﺷﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺩﺓ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺭﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ،‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﭼﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺍﮔﻴﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ؟‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻻﻳﻨﺤﻞ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﻣﺾ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺧﻴﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺁﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺻﺪ‬ 90 ‫ﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﻮﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ،‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻼﺵ‬ ‫ﺭﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺯﻭﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ٌ‫ﻻ‬‫ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻴﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﮔﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﻴﺸﻪ‬ .‫ﺧﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻀﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ،‫ﺣﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ .6 ‫ﺑﻜﺸﺪ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻧﺴﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻳﺪ‬ ،‫ﺁﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻓﻘﺎﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺍﺧﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻳﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺰﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻮﻭﻟﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻓﻘﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺭﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻓﻘﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﭼﻨﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻓﻘﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﺳﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ‬ .‫ﺑﺴﺎﺯﺩ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻌﺸﻊ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺮﻭﺯﻯ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﭼﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ؛‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﮔﺰﺍﺭﺵ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﺎﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺁﻣﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺪﻛﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﺎﻧﻪ‬ ،‫ﻳﺎﻓﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻼﺩﻯ‬ 2011 ‫ﺗﺎ‬ 2008 ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﺎﻧﻰ‬ ،‫ﺍﻣﺎ‬ .‫ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯﺗﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﺨﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﺒﺖ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺳﭙﺮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﮔﺰﺍﺭﺵ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﻤﺎﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﺎﻧﻪ‬ ،‫ﻳﺎﻓﺖ‬ ‫ﺟﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﭘﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺩﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻏﺮﺑﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺧﻴﺎﺑﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﺮﻭﺋﻴﻦ‬ «‫»ﺳﻴﻞ‬ .7 ‫ﻳﺎﺑﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﺗﺒﻬﻜﺎﺭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻣﺎﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺭﻓﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺭﺷﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻭﻩ‬ which has fallen from an estimate of 13 percent in 2007 to four percent in 2012 due to the growth in the Afghan economy and a rapid expansion in external assistance over this period. See UNODC, “Afghanistan Opium Survey 2007” (Kabul: UNODC, 2007), 7; UNODC, “Afghanistan Opium Survey” (Kabul: UNODC, 2012), 13. 4   In this report the drugs issue is mentioned only as a “factoid” in a box on page 51, while at the same time acknowledging that “the illicit production of opium still overshadows agriculture, accounting for nearly half of overall agricultural production but on a much smaller portion of agricultural land.” Drugs are not mentioned in sections on rural livelihoods or in the conclusions and recommendations, and are given only a paragraph (apart from the aforementioned box) in the chapter on the economic impacts of Transition, despite separate sections on employment, poverty and economic growth. See World Bank, “Afghanistan in Transition: Looking beyond 2014” (Kabul/Washington, DC: World Bank, 2012). Even in early July 2013, a Bank presentation made to senior officials in Kabul made only a passing reference to the rise in cultivation in 2013, offering no analysis of how growing drugs production would impact on the wider economy and the Bank’s own economic forecasts for the country. See World Bank, “Afghanistan: From Transition to Transformation II” (briefing to senior officials meeting, 2 July 2013). 5  This point is repeated in World Bank “April 2013 Afghanistan Economic Update” (Kabul: World Bank, 2013), 7. 6  As previous counter-narcotics experiences in Pakistan and Thailand would seem to suggest. 7  Damian Gayle, (2013) ‘Afghan heroin production soars as foreign troops pull out, says UN’, Mail Online, 15 April 2013. ‫ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﮔﺮ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﭼﻨﺎﻧﻜﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﻧﻴﻢ؛‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺷﻨﻴﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻓﻘﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻳﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺳﺘﺎﻥ‬ ،‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺨﺼﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻙ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺠﺮ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺳﺘﺎﻳﻰ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻧﻮﺍﺩﻫﻬﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻴﺸﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ‬ .‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻯ‬ - ‫ﺗﺠﺎﺭﺗﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﻻﻳﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺰﺩﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺧﺒﺮﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﺧﻂ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺁﻣﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻓﻘﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺳﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﮔﻮﻳﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﮔﻴﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻤﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻟﻴﺴﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﻯ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻃﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺑﮕﻴﺮﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬ .‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﻮﺡ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺗﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻤﺘﺮﻳﻦ‬ ،‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻜﺸﺎﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺁﻧﺎﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﻭﻻﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺧﺸﺨﺎﺵ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﭼﮕﻮﻧﮕﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﭼﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺗﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﺩﺍﺧﺘﻦ‬ .‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﺰﺍﻳﻨﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎﻫﻨﮕﻰ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﭼﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻧﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺎﺯﻣﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺳﺘﺎﻳﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺧﺸﺨﺎﺵ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻰ-ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﻭﺳﻪ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﮔﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﻙ‬ ،‫ﺩﻫﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺭﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺍﺧﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺧﻮﺍﺳﺘﺔ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﺳﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻮﺍﻗﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺭﺳﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﭽﻨﺎﻥ‬ .‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﮔﻮﻧﺎﮔﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻳﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﺳﻨﺠﺶ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺪﻛﻰ‬ ‫ﮔﺬﺍﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻣﺎﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ،‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ،‫ﻋﻮﺽ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ .‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺳﺘﺎﻳﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺯﻧﺪﮔﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻜﺸﺎﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺁﻣﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﮕﺎﺭﺍﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﻬﻤﻴﺪﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺭﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻏﺎﻟﺐ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺍﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﻳﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﺩﺍﺭﺓ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻜﺘﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ُﻦ‬‫ﺗ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻮ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺴﻮﺍﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﻻﻳﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺗﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﭽﻨﺎﻥ‬ ،‫ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺍﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ (‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻧﺒﺪﺍﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮﺳﻨﺠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ)ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻧﻮﺍﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻫﺮﭼﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻟﻴﺴﻰ‬ ‫ﺟﺰﻳﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻃﻼﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﺒﻮﺩ‬ .8 ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﻂ‬ ،‫ﺁﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺳﺘﺎﻳﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻳﺪﺍﺩﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬ .‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻔﺼﻞ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻁ‬ ‫ﺑﻰ‬ ،‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺍﻛﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺠﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺮﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻛﺰ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻃﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻟﺔ‬ ً‫ﻻ‬‫ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺷﺒﻜﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ؛‬ «‫ﻣﻀﺮ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﺧﻴﻢ‬ ‫»ﻣﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺁﻣﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻭﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻳﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺑﺴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ .9 ‫ﺷﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻘﻮﻝ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻫﻜﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺷﻴﻮﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻗﻀﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﮔﻰ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺩﻳﺪﻩ‬ ،‫ﭘﺮﺍﺑﻠﻢ‬ ‫ﺩﻻﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ‬ ،‫ﻣﻨﻈﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﭼﻨﺪﺍﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻚ‬ ،‫ﻧﻬﺎﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺩﺟﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻟﺤﺎﻅ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺪﺍﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺁﻓﺮﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻃﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ .‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻗﻀﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻨﺪﮔﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﻮﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻧﻬﺎﺩﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎﻫﻨﮕﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﭼﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﭼﻪ‬ -‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺭﻭﻛﺮﺍﺳﻰ‬ .‫ﺁﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎﺏ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﭼﺎﻟﺶ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ،‫ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﺪﺍﺷﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﺮﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﻯ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﭘﺮﻭژﻩ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻋﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ -‫ﻏﺮﺏ‬ 8  For example, the Helmand Monitoring and Evaluation Programme (HMEP), which is used to assess performance in Helmand, reports that only 3-5 percent of households answered yes to the questions: “In the past 12 months, did your household make any revenues from each of the following?...Sale of opium/ poppy.” See “HMEP Annual Review,” February 2013, 14-2 and14-4. Even in the more secure Food Zone in which polling might be possible, opium poppy cultivation rose, occupying as much as 62.5 percent of the agricultural land in the part of Nahr-i Seraj contained within the Food Zone (US government data analysed by Alcis). Given the trends in production and prices reported by UNODC and the US government, it is hard to believe that opium poppy cultivation was a source of income for only the five percent of the population that HMEP reports. Beyond the inevitable implications for social desirability bias inherent in such direct lines of enquiry, there are also many parts of Helmand, particularly those areas where the Taliban dominate (including north of the Boghra Canal) where opium poppy is increasingly concentrated. Again, it is difficult to believe that such topics could be pursued at all without threats to the lives of enumerators. 9  Jeff Conklin, “Wicked Problems and Social Complexity” (CogNexus Institute, 2008), http:// www.cs.uml.edu/radical-design/ uploads/Main/WickedProblems.pdf (accessed 8 August 2013).
  4. 4. 4 ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺯﻳﺎﺑﻰ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺘﺨﺎﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺘﺎﻭﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﺪﺍﺷﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺩﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﻯ‬ .‫ﺩﻫﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻼﻗﻪ‬ ،‫ﻧﻴﺎﻭﺭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺖ‬ 10 ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯﺳﺎﺯﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺤﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﮋﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻔﺘﺶ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺭﺑﻌﻮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﮔﺰﺍﺭﺵ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯﻳﮕﺮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﭼﮕﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺑﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ (SIGAR) ‫ﺗﺎ‬ ،‫ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺰﺍ‬ ً‫ﻼ‬‫ﻛﺎﻣ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺭﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺘﺪﺍﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﻨﻴﺘﻰ‬ ،‫ﺍﻧﻜﺸﺎﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﻼﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺁﻳﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺸﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺎﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻚ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻟﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻠﻴﺎﺭﺩ‬ 82,12 ،‫ﮔﺰﺍﺭﺵ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺑﺮ‬ .‫ﻳﺎﺑﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺏ‬ 2012 ‫ﺳﭙﺘﺎﻣﺒﺮ‬ 31 ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻠﻴﺎﺭﺩ‬ 88.76 ‫ﺩﺭﺻﺪ‬ 92.6 -‫ﻣﺘﺤﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﺼﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺘﺪﺍﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ‬ ،‫ﺍﻣﻨﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬ -‫ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻌﻬﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻼﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺭﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻟﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻠﻴﺎﺭﺩ‬ 6.15 ‫ﺗﻨﻬﺎ‬ ،‫ﻣﻘﺎﻳﺴﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ .‫ﺭﺳﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻧﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺟﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺎﻗﻀﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ .11 ‫ﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻃﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻮﻭﻻﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ .‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻳﻜﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺍﺧﻮﺍﻧﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﭘﺬﻳﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻮﻭﻟﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎﺑﺪﻫﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺭﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻛﺎﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻜﺸﺎﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﻨﻴﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺶ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﻯ‬ ‫ﻛﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺎ‬ ،‫ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻳﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺮﺍﻳﻂ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺟﺰء‬ ‫ﺳﻜﺘﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‬ .‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻏﺮﺑﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻟﻴﺴﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺪﻭﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺪﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﮕﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﭼﺎﻟﺶ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻼﺩﻯ‬ 2014 ‫ﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﭘﺲ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺑﺮ‬ .‫ﺩﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻭﻟﻮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ،‫ﺑﮕﻴﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻬﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻮﻭﻟﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻳﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﻫﺮ‬ ،‫ﺩﻳﺪﮔﺎﻩ‬ .‫ﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺍﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻗﻀﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺍﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻴﺎﺩﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ‬ ،‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺭﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻟﻴﺴﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﻧﺒﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ،‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻳﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺶ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﻓﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬ ،‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺰﺍﺭﻉ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻧﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺧﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﭽﻨﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺠﺎﻧﺪ؛‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺳﺘﺎﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺪﻑ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬ ،‫ﺍﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺰﺩﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﮋﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺪﺭﺗﻤﻨﺪﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎﻣﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻋﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻻﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻳﺘﺨﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻣﺎﺕ‬ ،‫ﻋﻮﺽ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ .‫ﺩﺍﺩ‬ ،‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﺯﺩ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺖ‬ .‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﻔﻆ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﻓﺎﺩﺍﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﭘﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺘﺨﺐ‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻬﺪﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺩﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺷﻚ‬ ،‫ﺣﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﻟﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺭﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻼﺩﻯ‬ 2014 ‫ﻧﺒﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ،‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ .‫ﺷﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﻮﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻧﺰﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻛﻴﻮ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺟﺎﻧﺒﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎﺑﺪﻫﻰ‬ ‫ﭼﺎﺭﭼﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺑﻮﻁ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﺧﺺ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻼﺩﻯ‬ 2014 ‫ﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﭘﺲ‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎﻻ‬ ،‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ‬ .‫ﺷﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ‬ ،‫ﺯﻧﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻮﻕ‬ ،‫ﺑﺸﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﻘﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﭼﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻋﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ .‫ﻧﻨﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻻﺯﻡ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻴﺪﮔﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﻓﺴﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﻣﻮﻛﺮﺍﺳﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺁﺷﻜﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻼ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺘﻜﻢ‬ ‫ﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻚ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ .‫ﻧﻨﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﻠﺐ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻧﺰﻧﻨﺪ‬ 10  Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction, “18th Quarterly Report to the United States Congress” (Arlington, VA: SIGAR, 2012), 89-93. 11  The SIGAR Report cites appropriations of $51.15 billion for security; $22.39 billion for governance and development; $6.15 billion for counter-narcotics; $2.4 billion for humanitarian aid; and $6.64 billion for operations and oversight (page 55). The appropriations for counter- narcotics include funds for eradication, the MCN’s Good Performers Initiative, Counter Narcotics Public Information and counter-narcotics reports, as well as money for the Counter Narcotics Police of Afghanistan and interdiction operations. ‫ﻧﻴﺰ‬ ،‫ﺯﻧﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺭﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﺍﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺁﻧﺎﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﮕﻴﺰﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺟﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﻋﻤﺪﺗ‬ ،‫ﭼﻮﻥ‬ .‫ﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺭﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺁﻧﺎﻧﻰ‬ ،‫ﻣﻮﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ .‫ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻄﺮﺡ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﻔﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﮕﻴﺰﻩ‬ ،‫ﺯﻧﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻗﻴﻤﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﻯ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ،‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺳﺨﻨﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺸﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﭽﻨﺎﻥ‬ .12 ‫ﺩﺍﺷﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺘﻴﺒﺎﺑﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺱ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭﺯﺍﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺰﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺭﺯﻩ‬ .‫ﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ‬ "‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫"ﺩﻭﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ "‫ﺧﺸﺨﺎﺵ‬ ‫"ﺳﺮﺯﻣﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﮔﻮﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻮﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻜﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺮﻙ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺠﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ،‫ﭼﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻫﻜﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﻬﻴﺞ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻏﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺍﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬ ،‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ .‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺸﻨﻬﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻮﻭﻻﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺣﺴﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻜﺸﺎﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﭼﻨﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺁﻧﻬﺎ‬ .‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻬﺎﻳﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺭﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺸﮕﺮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﻧﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﺎﻻﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻮﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻧﻜﺸﺎﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻨﺪﻣﺪﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﮋﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ،‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺶ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﻯ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺍﮔﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺭﻏﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻇﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﭽﻨﺎﻥ‬ .‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎﻫﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻳﻜﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻟﻴﺴﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻣﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻜﺮﺩ‬ ،‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻣﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻮ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻓﻘﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺭﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻴﺖ‬ .‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﮔﻴﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺪﺍﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺧﺸﺨﺎﺵ‬ ‫ﻣﺰﺍﺭﻉ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺭﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺖ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻼﺵ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻭﻟﻮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ .‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﺒﻮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﻮﺍﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺭﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻬﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﻜﺸﺎﻓﻰ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻳﻜﺮﺩﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺘﻘﺪﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﻳﻢ‬ ‫ﺩﻓﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ .‫ﺗﺎﺯﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺭﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺕ‬ ، 13 ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺭﺯﻩ‬ (NPPs) ‫ﻣﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻭﻟﻮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ -‫ﺯﺭﺍﻋﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﺁﻭﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺍﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻄﻮﻑ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺗﻼﺵ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ "‫ﻏﺬﺍﻳﻰ‬ ‫"ﺯﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻟﺐ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﻫﻘﺎﻧﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ -‫ﻛﻴﻤﺎﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﮔﻨﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﻢ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺍﮔﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ،‫ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﻜﺘﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭﻯ‬ .‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ،‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺘﺮﺍﺗﮋﻯ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺷﻤﻮﻟﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻳﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﮔﻴﺮﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺩﻳﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺁﻧﻬﺎ‬ .‫ﺑﺮﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻬﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺯﺍﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﺳﻜﺘﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺪﺍﻡ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺍﺧﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ .‫ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﺁﻣﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺮﺍﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻭﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﭼﺎﻟﺶ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻰ‬ ،‫ﺣﺎﺿﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻟﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻭﻟﻮﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻔﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻧﻬﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﮕﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻀﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻭﻩ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻧﻬﺎﺩﻫﺎ‬ .‫ﺩﺍﺭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﻼﻑ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻫﻢ‬ 2014 ‫ﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﭘﺲ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﻤﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺭﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺶ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺁﺭﺯﻭ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺶ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻧﻬﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ،‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺍﻣﻮﺵ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺤﺚ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺁﻧﭽﻪ‬ .‫ﺷﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺍﻣﻮﺵ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺿﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﻯ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﺎﺛﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺁﻳﻨﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺶ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﻌﺒﻴﻨﺎﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻠﻴﻞ‬ .‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻰ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻯ‬ ،‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﭼﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﭽﻴﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ 12  UK Prime Minister’s Strategy Unit, “Strategy Unit Drugs Report: Phase One— Understanding the Issues” (London: Prime Minister’s Strategy Unit, 2003), http://www. countthecosts. org/sites/default/files/Strategy%20Unit%20drugs%20report.pdf (accessed 8 August 2013). 13  See MCN, “National Alternative Livelihoods Policy” (Kabul: MCN, 2012), 34. Emma Graham Harrison, “Afghanistan: high expectations of record opium crop,” The Guardian, 15 April 2013.
  5. 5. 5 ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺭﺯﻩ‬ :‫ﺗﻐﺎﻓﻞ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻣﺤﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ :‫ﺷﻮﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺭﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﻭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺴﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺖ‬‫ﺣﻜﻮ‬ ‫ﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺁﻳﻨﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻜﻪ‬ ،‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ 2011 ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺯﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﻤﻴﻦ‬ UNODC .‫ﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬ .14 ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺁﻣﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺻﺪ‬ 18 ‫2102ﻣﻴﻼﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ .‫ﺑﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺪﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺻﺪ‬ ‫ﻫﻔﺖ‬ 2011 ‫ﻭ‬ 2010 ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻼ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺵ‬ ‫ﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﻗﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ،‫ﻛﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﻜﺘﺎﺭ‬ 123،000 ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺍﺿﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﻤﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﻤﻴﻦ‬ .‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻴﺪﻩ‬ 2012 ‫ﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ 154،000 ‫ﺑﻪ‬ 2010‫ﻭ‬ 2009 ‫ﺑﻪ‬ 2011 ‫ﺩﺭ‬ 115،000 ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ،‫ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ،‫ﻳﻌﻨﻰ‬ .‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ‬ .‫ﻳﺎﻓﺖ‬ ‫ﮔﺴﺘﺮﺵ‬ 2012 ‫ﺩﺭ‬ 180،000 2013 ‫ﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ،‫ﺑﻌﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺩﻳﺪﻯ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺪﺍ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺶ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﺠﺎﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻝ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻳﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻧﻪ‬ ،‫ﺧﺼﻮﺹ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ .‫ﻧﻤﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺭﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﻭ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻛﺎﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﻠﻤﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﺦ‬ ،‫ﻧﻨﮕﺮﻫﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﻻﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻛﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﻨﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻧﮕﺮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻧﻪ‬ .‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻓﺸﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ،‫ﺑﻮﺩﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮﻓﻰ‬ "‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫"ﻓﺎﺭﻍ‬ ً‫ﻼ‬‫ﻗﺒ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻳﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻻﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﻳﻢ‬ ‫ﺩﻓﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﮔﺰﺍﺭﺵ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺑﺮ‬ .‫ﺍﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺪﺍ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺎﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺠﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻻﻳﺖ‬ 14 ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻬﺎ‬ 2013 ‫ﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ،‫ﻣﻠﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻻﻳﺖ‬ 17 ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫2102ﻣﻴﻼﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ .‫ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﻜﺘﺎﺭ‬ 100 ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺭﻳﺎﺏ‬ ،‫ﺑﻠﺦ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﻻﻳﺖ‬ ً‫ﻻ‬‫ﺍﺣﺘﻤﺎ‬ .‫ﺭﺳﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﻫﻨﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺁﻣﺎﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺍﺗﺮ‬ .15 ‫ﺩﺍﺷﺖ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺻﺤﺮﺍﻳﻰ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﻴﻦ‬ ،‫ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮژﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺸﺮﻓﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺘﺮﺱ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ .‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺁﻣﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻋﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﺗﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﻴﻦ‬ ،‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﻨﻮﻟﻮژﻯ‬ ‫ﮔﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺪﺍ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻳﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻼﻥ‬ ‫ﺳﻬﻢ‬ ‫ﮔﺬﺷﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺎﻭﺭﺯﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﺴﺎﺭﺍﺗﻰ‬ ،‫ﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﮋﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ .‫ﻛﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺰ‬ ،‫ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺤﻤﻞ‬ ‫ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻧﺒﺎﺗﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺮﺍﺽ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺣﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ .‫ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻔﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻘﺶ‬ ‫ﻫﻠﻤﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﺦ‬ ،‫ﻧﻨﮕﺮﻫﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺭﺩﻩ؟‬ ‫ﺷﻜﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻝ‬ ‫ﻧﻨﮕﺮﻫﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺎﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﻀﺎﻯ‬ ،‫ﻣﺘﻤﺎﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻟﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻃﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ .‫ﺍﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺳﺘﺎﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻮ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻃﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﺦ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫"ﻭﻻﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺐ‬ ،‫ﺳﻮ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻼﺩﻯ‬ 2007 ‫ﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ،‫ﻧﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻤﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻄﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻳﮋﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺷﻴﺮﺯﻯ‬ ‫ﺁﻏﺎ‬ ‫ﮔﻞ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺗﻼﺵ‬ .‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﺼﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ "‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻧﻨﮕﺮﻫﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﻻﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻋﺚ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺭﺯﻩ‬ 2008 ‫ﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺻﻔﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﻜﺘﺎﺭ‬ 18،739 ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻼﺩﻯ‬ 2007 ‫ﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻼﺩﻯ‬ 2010 ‫ﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﻠﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻼﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ - "‫ﻏﺬﺍﻳﻰ‬ ‫"ﺯﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﻠﻤﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻭﺍﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ .‫ﻧﮕﻬﺪﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺳﻄﺢ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻳﻦ‬ 14  UNODC/MCN, “Afghanistan Opium Survey 2012: Summary Findings” (Kabul: UNODC/ MCN, 2012). 15  UNODC/MCN, “Afghanistan Opium Risk Assessment 2013” (Kabul: UNODC/MCN, 2013), 2. ‫ﻣﺰﺍﺭﻉ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺮﻳﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻬﺪﻳﺪ‬ ،‫ﺩﻫﻘﺎﻧﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺯﺭﺍﻋﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻮﻕ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺍﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﻠﻤﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻰ‬ ،‫ﻣﻨﮕﻞ‬ ‫ﮔﻼﺏ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ -‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺪﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻃﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﻄﺒﻴﻖ‬ ،‫ﻓﺮﺍﻩ‬ ،‫ﻧﻨﮕﺮﻫﺎﺭ‬ ،‫ﺑﺪﺧﺸﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﻻﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺑﺘﻜﺎﺭ‬ ،‫ﻫﻤﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ .‫ﮔﺮﻓﺖ‬ .‫ﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﻗﻨﺪﻫﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺯﮔﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺘﺎﻭﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﺪﺍﻭﻡ‬ ،‫ﺍﻣﻨﻴﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻮﻭﻟﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﺰﺩﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺑﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻻﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺻﻠﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻫﺶ‬ ،‫ﻭﻻﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ .‫ﺷﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺁﻧﺠﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺿﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯﮔﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﻀﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﻮﺍﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻯ‬ -‫ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺰﺩﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺷﻮﺍﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺯ‬ ‫ﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺯ‬ -‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﻜﺎﻧﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻧﻨﮕﺮﻫﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﻠﻤﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺁﻣﺎﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ .‫ﺷﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻓﻘﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺪﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺗﻮ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺧﺮﻭﺝ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﭘﺲ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺭﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺮ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﻻﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺣﻀﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺗﺒﺎﻃﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﺦ‬ ‫ﻭﻻﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﺎ‬ .‫ﺁﻭﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻠﻮﻡ‬ ،‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﺪﺍﺷﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺭﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻓﻌﺎﻟﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺗﻮ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﭼﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻮﻭﻟﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺭﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻰ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺎﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﻴﻴﺮﺍﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‬ .‫ﺑﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻻﻳﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺭﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺎﺱ‬ ‫ﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﮔﻔﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻘﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺷﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺎﻭﺭﺯﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ،‫ﻧﻤﻮﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﭼﻨﻴﻦ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ‬ .‫ﮔﺮﺩﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻮ‬ ،‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﺖ‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﺮﺑﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻘﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻟﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻛﻤﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﺮ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻴﺸﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻻﺯﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺳﺘﺎﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻧﺪﺍﺷﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺁﻧﺠﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺪﺍﺭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﺻﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻭﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺗﻼﺵ‬ ،‫ﻧﻬﺎﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ .‫ﻛﻨﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺟﺒﺮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ .‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﺳﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺎﻣﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺎﻭﺭﺯﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺣﻤﺎﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻌﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺒﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺯﺭﻉ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺩﻡ‬ ،‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻴﺸﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﮕﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻧﺪ؛‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﺯﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﻮﺩﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺁﻧﻬﺎ‬ ،‫ﻧﺪﺍﺷﺘﻪ‬ .‫ﺍﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺁﻣﺎﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺎﻟﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﺢ‬ 16 ‫ﺩﻭﻟﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﻴﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻋﻘﺐ‬ :‫ﻧﻨﮕﺮﻫﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺳﻘﻮﻁ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻧﻨﮕﺮﻫﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺘﺮﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﻟﮕﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺿﺢ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﻳﺎﻓﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﭘﺲ‬ .‫ﭘﻴﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺻﻌﻮﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻻﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺰﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺁﻫﺴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ،‫ﻣﻴﻼﺩﻯ‬ 2008 ‫ﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ "‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻭﻥ‬ ‫"ﻭﻻﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻫﻜﺘﺎﺭ‬ 294 ‫ﺗﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻼﺩﻯ‬ 2009 ‫ﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ .‫ﺑﺮﮔﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﻨﮕﺮﻫﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺰﺍﺭﻉ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺁﻫﺴﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﺍﻳﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﺩﺍﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﮔﺰﺍﺭﺵ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﻤﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺧﺸﺨﺎﺵ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺧﺪﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻜﺘﺎﺭ‬ 3،151 ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻼﺩﻯ‬ 2012 ‫ﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻞ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﻜﺘﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺰﺍﺭ‬ 4،000 ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻢ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻗﻊ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ‬ .‫ﻛﺮﺩ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺪﺍ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬ 16  This section is based on fieldwork undertaken in April 2013, as well as previous rounds of fieldwork in Nangarhar. See David Mansfield, “Between a rock and a hard place: Counter- narcotics efforts and their effects in the 2011-12 growing season” (Kabul: AREU, 2011); David Mansfield, “All Bets are off! Prospects for (B)reaching agreements and drug control in Helmand and Nangarhar in the run up to transition” (Kabul: AREU, 2013). ‫ﺑﺸﮕﻔﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﮔﻞ‬ ‫ﺻﺪﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﮕﺬﺍﺭ‬ :‫ﺍﻧﺘﻘﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﻧﺪ‬ -2
  6. 6. 6 ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻧﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺭﺯﻳﺎﺑﻰ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﺣﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺖ‬ .17 ‫ﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ 784 ‫ﻭﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻜﺘﺎﺭ‬ 4،400 ‫ﻭﻻﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺮﻳﻜﺎ‬ .‫ﺯﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﻤﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻓﻖ‬ ‫ﻭﻻﻳﺖ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﻮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻧﻨﮕﺮﻫﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﻮﺯ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺁﻧﺎﻧﻰ‬ 20،000 ‫ﺍﻟﻰ‬ 15،000 ‫ﺑﺎﻻﻯ‬ ‫ﺭﻗﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ،‫ﺁﻭﺭﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺣﺴﺎﺏ‬ 1990 ‫ﺩﻫﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺷﺎﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﻜﺘﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﻟﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺩﺍﺷﺖ‬ ‫ﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺧﺪﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻼﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺰﺩﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺟﻨﻮﺑﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺴﻮﺍﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺪﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺍﺩ‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻼ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ،‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ .‫ﺑﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻤﺮﻛﺰ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻛﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ 2013 ‫ﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺗﺎ‬ ،‫ﺑﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺟﻐﺮﺍﻓﻴﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﻫﻜﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻬﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻣﻨﻪ‬ ،‫ﻣﻴﻼﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﻫﻜﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻠﻜﻪ‬ ‫ﻏﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﭙﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻩ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻣﻨﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﻯ‬ ‫ﺷﻬﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﻤﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺯ‬ ‫ﺗﺎ‬ ‫ﺭﻭﺯ‬ ‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒﺎ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺭﺳﻴﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻦ‬ .‫ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺰﺩﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺁﺑﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺟﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺪﺍﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻘﺎﺕ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﮔﻴﺎﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﻳﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﻫﻜﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒ‬ ‫ﺧﺸﺨﺎﺵ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻨﻬﺎ‬ ،‫ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ .‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﮔﺮﻓﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻼﺩﻯ‬ 2013/2012 ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺁﭼﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﻴﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﭻ‬ ً‫ﺎ‬‫ﺗﻘﺮﻳﺒ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﭼﻬﺎﺭﭘﺎﻳﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻐﺬﻳﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻮﻓﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ .(‫ﺷﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﮕﺎﻩ‬ 1 ‫ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ )‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﮔﻨﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ،‫ﻛﺮﻏﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﻬﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺴﻮﺍﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺰﺩﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺮﻳﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﻗﺎﺑﻞ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﺻﺪ‬ 30 ‫ﺗﺎ‬ 20 ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﻫﻨﻮﺯ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺪﺍ‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻫﺶ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻳﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻛﻨﻮﻥ‬ .‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻩ‬ ‫ﻛﻨﺎﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﭽﻨﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺧﻮﮔﻴﺎﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺴﻮﺍﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﺰﺩﻳﻚ‬ ،‫ﺁﺑﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻓﺘﺢ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ .‫ﺁﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﭼﺸﻢ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻ‬ ‫ﺷﻴﻨﻮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﭼﻮﺏ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ،‫ﺳﺮﺧﺮﻭﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺭﻏﺎﺭ‬ .‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﺰﺍﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﭼﭙﺮﻫﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﭼﺸﻤﮕﻴﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﭽﻨﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺭﻳﺸﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺸﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﭽﻨﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺧﺸﺨﺎﺵ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺟﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ .‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﺍﻧﻴﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺗﻤﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺭﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ،‫ﻳﺎﻓﺖ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺩﺍﻣﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﻃﻮﻻﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺪﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ (‫ﺁﻳﻨﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺼﻮﻻﺕ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻭﺵ‬ ‫ﭘﻴﺶ‬ ‫ﺳﻴﺴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﺎ‬ )‫ﺳﻼﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺳﻮﻡ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﺩﺍﻝ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ .‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯﮔﺸﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻼﺩﻯ‬ 2007 ‫ﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻭﻟﻴﻦ‬ .18 ‫ﺷﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻭﺵ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺧﺮﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺯﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺁﺷﻜﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﻳﺎﻙ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺴﻮﺍﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺰﺍﺭﻉ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻮ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻻﺯﻡ‬ ‫ﺯﻭﺭ‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺁﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻ‬ ‫ﺁﭼﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻛﻨﺎﻥ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ .‫ﺑﺎﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻨﮕﺮﻫﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻻﻳﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻼﺩﻯ‬ 2013 ‫ﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﭼﺸﻤﮕﻴﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺑﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺗﺮﺳﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺁﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺩﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺹ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺠﻮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺁﭼﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻳﻴﻨﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻃﻖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ .‫ﺑﺎﺷﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺷﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺳﻂ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ 17  UNODC/MCN 2012, 10. The 2011 Survey also points out: “It is worth noting that while every effort is made to ensure that all areas in which poppy is grown are covered by satellite imagery, it is only in the provinces of Badghis, Dai Kundi, Farah, Helmand, Kandahar, Nimroz, Uruzgan and Zabul where imagery collection is based on a representative sample and confidence intervals are calculated for the level of cultivation.” In the 26 ‘target’ provinces, including Nangarhar, Balkh and Badakhshan, “the approach assumes that all areas were identified and covered by imagery,” and therefore “area estimates should be considered as a minimum estimate.” See UNODC/MCN, “Afghanistan Opium Survey 2011” (Kabul: UNODC/ MCN, 2011), 92 18  Although it is interesting to note that, as in the 1990s, the Taliban have adopted a more punitive position on cannabis; trade in hashish is prohibited and has to be conducted by farmers “in secret” (although cultivation is plainly visible). ‫ﻣﺬﻛﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺰﺍﺭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﮔﺰﺍﺭﺵ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ،‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺷﻴﻨﻮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺴﻮﺍﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻮ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﮔﺰﺍﺭﺵ‬ .‫ﺷﺪ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻛﺴﺎﺯﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ ‫ﻧﻮﻉ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ،‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﺍﺗﺮ‬ .‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺁﻣﻴﺰ‬ ‫ﺍﻏﺮﺍﻕ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﺕ‬ ‫ﭼﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﮕﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﺨﺸﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺩﻫﻘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺗﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺎﻭﺭﺯﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ .‫ﮔﺮﺩﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺟﺒﺮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﻫﻘﺎﻧﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﺳﻮﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ،‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮ‬ ‫ﺻﺮﻑ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺪﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺩﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺨﺼﺺ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺩ‬ ‫»ﻣﻦ‬ ،‫ﻭﻟﺴﻮﺍﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻳﻜﻰ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺣﺎﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ «.‫ﻫﺴﺘﻢ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺰﺭﮔﻨﻤﺎﻳﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺰﺍﺭﻉ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻛﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺰﺍﺭﻉ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻮ‬ ‫ﻋﺪﻡ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻃﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﮔﻴﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺭﺷﻮﻩ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻓﺴﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﮔﺰﺍﺭﺵ‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﺿﻌﻒ‬ ‫ﭘﻮﺷﺎﻧﺪﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻗﻀﺎﻳﺎ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺑﺴﻴﺎﺭﻯ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ،‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﻭﺟﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻨﻔﺬﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺖ‬ ،‫ﺧﺸﺨﺎﺵ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻮ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ (‫ﺷﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﮕﺎﻩ‬ 2 ‫)ﺟﺪﻭﻝ‬ .‫ﮔﺮﺩﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻣﺒﺎﺭﺯﻩ‬ ‫ﻗﺴﻤﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺭﺍﻫﻜﺎﺭﻫﺎﻳﻰ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﭘﺎﻟﻴﺴﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺑﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺜﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻳﻚ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﮔﻴﺎﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺴﻮﺍﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺳﻌﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﻭﻟﺖ‬ ،‫ﺍﻟﺒﺘﻪ‬ .‫ﻛﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﻰ‬ ‫ﺩﻧﺒﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻫﻢ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻀﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﮔﻮﻧﺎﮔﻮﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺎﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺖ‬ .‫ﺑﻜﺎﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺗﻀﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻗﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺗﻮﺍﺯﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻫﺪﺍﻑ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺗﻔﺎﻕ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻼﺩﻯ‬ 2012 ‫ﺍﭘﺮﻳﻞ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺰﺍﺭﻉ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻮ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻃﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻔﺎﺗﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺴﺖ‬ ‫ﺗﻦ‬ 36 ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺮ‬ 45 ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺧﻮﺭﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﺛﺮ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺯﻣﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ .‫ﺷﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺮﺍﺭ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺭﻩ‬ ‫ﺩﻭ‬ ،‫ﺍﻓﺘﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﻴﭻ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﻠﺢ‬ ‫ﻗﻮﺍﻯ‬ ،‫ﻣﻬﻤﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ .‫ﺑﺮﺩﺍﺷﺘﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺯﺧﻢ‬ ‫ﺩﻳﮕﺮ‬ ‫ﺷﻮﺭﺵ‬ ‫ﺿﺪ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺳﻪ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺁﻣﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻮﻓﻘﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺼﻮﺭ‬ ،‫ﻭﺍﻗﻌﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ .‫ﺑﺪﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﻒ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻼﺩﻯ‬ 2013/2012 ‫ﺯﻣﺴﺘﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺟﺮﻳﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺍﻓﻐﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﻨﻴﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﻴﺮﻭﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﺻﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﺮﻣﺎﻧﺪﻩ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﻗﺮﻳﺠﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺷﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﻼﻡ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﺰﺭﮔﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ،‫ﺑﻮﺩ‬ ‫ﻛﺮﺩﻩ‬ ‫ﺭﻫﺒﺮﻯ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﻣﺬﻛﻮﺭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻠﻴﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ .‫ﮔﺮﻓﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﺨﻮﺍﻫﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺮﻳﺐ‬ ‫ﺁﻧﺎﻥ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺍﻣﺴﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺭﺍ‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺖ‬ ‫ﺿﻌﻒ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬ ،‫ﻧﻨﮕﺮﻫﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻰ‬ ،‫ﺷﻴﺮﺯﻯ‬ ‫ﺁﻏﺎ‬ ‫ﮔﻞ‬ ‫ﺍﺧﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺪﺍﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﻫﻤﺎﻧﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺟﺎﻯ‬ ‫ﺁﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ .‫ﮔﺬﺍﺷﺖ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﺎﻳﺶ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻤﻨﻮﻋﻴﺖ‬ ‫ﺍﻋﻤﺎﻝ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻼﺩﻯ‬ 2009/2008 ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻣﻴﻼﺩﻯ‬ 2008/2007 ‫ﮔﺰﺍﺭﺵ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﺎ‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻃﺮ‬ ‫ﺍﻳﻦ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ،‫ﺗﻮﺍﻧﺪ‬ ‫ﻧﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﺭﻓﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺴﻮﺍﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺍﻛﺰ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻣﺰﺍﺭﻉ‬ ‫ﺗﺨﺮﻳﺐ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ ‫ﺩﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﺍﺳﺖ‬ ‫ﺧﻮﺍﺳﺘﻪ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﺴﻮﺍﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎﻣﺎﺕ‬ ‫ﺍﺯ‬ ‫ﻫﺎﻳﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻜﻼﺕ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﻫﺎ‬ ‫ﭼﺎﻟﺶ‬ ‫ﻧﮕﺮﺍﻥ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺸﺘﺮ‬ ‫ﻧﻨﮕﺮﻫﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﺷﺎﻳﺪ‬ ،‫ﻛﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺻﻮﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﻪ‬ .‫ﺑﺰﻧﻨﺪ‬ ‫ﺍﺵ‬ ‫ﺍﻗﺘﺼﺎﺩﻯ‬ ‫ﻣﻨﺎﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﻭ‬ ‫ﺭﺳﻤﻰ‬ ‫ﻗﺪﺭﺕ‬ ‫ﺑﺮﺍﺑﺮ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﺁﺑﺎﺩ‬ ‫ﺟﻼﻝ‬ ‫ﺩﺭ‬ ‫ﻛﻪ‬ ‫ﻛﻼﻧﺘﺮﻯ‬ 2013 ‫ﺍﭘﺮﻳﻞ‬ ،‫ﻧﻨﮕﺮﻫﺎﺭ‬ ،‫ﺑﺎﻻ‬ ‫ﺁﭼﻴﻦ‬ ،‫ﻛﻮﻛﻨﺎﺭ‬ ‫ﻭﺳﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻛﺸﺖ‬ :‫ﺍﻭﻝ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬

×