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Sustainability requirements 3


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Sustainability requirements 3

  1. 1. 1. Sustainability requirements, like market and financial requirements of a product must be prioritized in the design process. For example, manufacturing and lifecycle use of a product have multiple environmental/social impacts including climate change, human health and biodiversity. What should be the basis for prioritizing sustainability requirements? Sustainability is often at odds with the traditional ways of product development since the needs are different, we are looking at products that have longer lives, parts that can be easily replaced Vs shorter lives ,the need to throw away products after comparatively short periods of use, as parts cannot be easily manufactured and replaced because they are not designed to standards, there is no regard for emissions produced during production and use. Transportation requirements for products are rarely considered as well as disposal at the end-of-life as goods are manufactured where it is cheapest. There is a need to change the way products are designed and manufactured at the very beginning of the process. Design for Excellence(Dfx) means: Performance which includes:- Product attributes- Easy to use Predictability- perform to exact requirements Robustness- Not easily broken Extendability- Longer life 1. Low cost- fewer, standard parts: Can be easily replaced, need not replace the whole device/product 2. User friendliness-Does not require additional products or be replaced 3. Manufacturability- Not difficult to manufacture so parts can be easily replaced 4. Serviceability- Can be fixed easily, routinely so need not replaced often 5. Sustainability(DfS) the requirements for these are different than the others:- _Efficiently incorporates environmentally friendly materials. _Minimal consumption of water energy, resources in all stages of production till end-of-life _Causes minimal emissions in gas, liquid and solid form during both manufacturing and it’s use _Has a long life is repairable and is efficient in use for all energy, consumables and emissions _Unlike traditional products with minimal life, these products can be upgraded to extend their life _ At the end of life these products can be reused and the materials can be separated and recycled. _ These products are in harmony with people and nature, they consider their well-being In the process of Design and manufacture both commercial and sustainability have to be considered. For feasilbility by optimizing time and space , life cycle assessment(LCA)and transportation. Closed loop manufacturing should be considered in the design/innovation
  2. 2. Earth-Extraction-material processing-component manufacturing-assembly and packaging-Distribution and sales-Installation-use-suport and service- End-of-life(recycle,reuse)-Earth Sustainability- product development How ? What Changes to be in- Valuation of natural capital Life cycle assessment tools Systems thinking in multiple domains of time, people 6. The total impact of a product on the environment is equal to its unit impact times the quantity of products in use over the market lifecycle. What is the implication of this observation on the product design strategy? (The response to the assignment questions must demonstrate the student's understanding of the DfS criteria and of the dilemma that a designer faces in satifying multiple stakeholders and conflicting criteria) The quantity of products in use over the lifecycle changes, this knowledge can help in designing and innovation process for sustainability. Recognizing the current stage of the life cycle for a product type is vital to a firm considering the introduction of a product of that type. It is considerably easier to enter a market in a growth stage than it is to enter a saturated, mature marketplace. Levels of competition in markets experiencing growth are considerably less intense than in mature markets, where competitors are concerned about loss of sales and market share. Introducing a product into a market characterized by intense competition will probably prove expensive and result in retaliation from established competitors. The product life cycle can be used to determine likely competitive trends. The list below outlines the typical levels of competition for each stage of the life cycle process. Typical Competition for Each Product Life Cycle Stage Product Introduction Levels of competition are practically non-existent since the company introducing the product can be the sole supplier. Market Development The market is still dominated by the product innovator, but other companies have entered the market and developed smaller shares.
  3. 3. Exploitation Stage A single company usually remains the primary force in the market although it may not be the product originator. The product innovator may have been overtaken by subsequent market entrants. In addition, the market leader may be fending off leadership challenges from other large competitors. Generally, the leading company's share will experience decline over this period as competitive activity in the market continues. Maturation Stage The leading company usually still holds its leadership position, but its share is smaller than that of all other market competitors together. Saturation Stage A host of smaller companies are all engaged in trying to secure a market niche they can dominate. Towards the conclusion of the saturation period, three of four competitors typically emerge to dominate the market. Vigorous marketing allows these competitors to hold the majority share. Decline Stage The market leader during the saturation stage may be replaced by a competitor better suited to competing in small, contracting markets. As specialized market segments continue to decline in scale, larger-scale producers cease to perceive them as profitable. Sales typically diminish across the board as products become more obsolete and are replaced by newer technology. The primary reason for stressing the importance of the product life cycle is that for each stage or segment of the life cycle a different environmental strategy will prove best in meeting the unique demands of that stage of the life cycle. Market factors such as demand and supply are changing constantly as they pertain to the company, market, and industry, so a detailed knowledge of the appropriate product life cycle can make the sustainability strategy more timely and effective.