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  1. 1. NAZISM AND RISE OF HITLER 1. Which of the following can best define Nazism? (a) Hitler's determination to make Germany a great nation (b) Extermination of Jews (c) A system, a structure of ideas about the world and politics (d) Hitler's ambition of conquering the world 2. Allied Powers in World War II (a) Germany, Italy, Japan (b) Germany, Italy, Turkey (c) UK, France, Italy (d) UK, France, USSR, USA 3. Which nations were the Axis powers during World War II? (a) UK, France, USA, USSR (b) UK, France, Japan (c) Germany, Italy, Japan (d) Germany, France, UK 4. The International War Tribunal was set up in (a) Vienna (b) Munich (c) Nuremberg (d) Auschwitz
  2. 2. 5. World War II began with German invasion of (a) Poland (b) Belgium (c) Austria (d) Czechoslovakia 6. Which among the following was the single most important factor in the victory of Allied powers in World War II? (a) Alliance of England, France and Russia (b) US entry in 1917 (c) Russian Revolution of 1917 (d) Axis Powers 7. Who among the given were called "November Criminals"? (a) Bolsheviks (b) Jews (c) Nazis (d) Socialists, Catholics and Democrats 8. Who were the 'desirables'? (a) Nordic German Aryans (b) Jews (c) Indo Aryans (d) Gypsies 9. Who among the following topped the list of undesirables'?
  3. 3. (a) Blacks (b) Jews (c) Gypsies (d) Nordic Aryans 10. Which of the given parties came to be known as Nazi Party? (a) German Workers Party (b) Socialist Democratic Party (c) National Socialist German Workers Party (d) Socialist Party 11. German defeat in World War I (a) led to the establishment of the Weimer Republic (b) adoption of declaration of rights of man and citizens (c) establishment of Nazi rule (d) restoration of monarchy 12. What was not a factor in the rise of Hitler? (a) Disgrace at Versailles (b) Nazi propoganda and Hitler's charismatic leadership (c) Years of Depression and Economic crisis (d) Weimer Republic 13. Which of the following was the treaty signed by Germany after its defeat in World War I? (a) Treaty of Paris
  4. 4. (b) Treaty of Versailles (c) Brest Litovsk (d) Dawes Plan 14. Which of the following was the immediate factor for the Great Depression (1929-1932)? (a) Collapse of Wall Street Exchange (b) Financial Impact of World War I (c) Fall in US exports (d) Collapse of banks 15. Which of the following was not a feature of the new Nazi style of politics? (a) Massive rallies (b) Ritualised applause (c) Red banners with Swastika (d) Not so powerful speeches of Hitler 16. Hitler's ideas of racialism were based on which of the following thinkers (a) Aristotle (b) Pluto (c) Charles Darwin (d) Rousseau 17. Which was not a feature of Jew stereotypes? (a) Weak and degenerate (b) Vermin and rats
  5. 5. (c) Foreign agents (d) Generous and charitable 18. Which of the following was not a part of Hitler's policies to exclude Jews? (a) Exclusion (b) Ghettoisation (c) Assimilation (d) Annihilation 19. What was Jungvolk? (а) Nazi youth group for children below 14 years (b) Nazi youth group for children above 14 years (c) It was the other name for Youth League (d) It referred to the undesirable German children 20. Which of the following was the most feared security force of the Nazi State? (a) Storm Troopers (SA) (b) Protection Squads (SS) (c) Gestapo (d) Security Service 21. Hitler's world view was based on the concept of (a) Charles Darwin (b) Herbert Spence
  6. 6. (c) Lebensraum (d) One nation, one empire and one leader 22. Which of the following was not true of Nazi State and women? (a) Equal rights for men and women (b) Women were socially different from men (c) All mothers were not treated equally (d) They had to bearers of Aryan culture and race 23. Which of the following is not true of ordinary people in Nazi Germany? (а) Majority of Germans were passive onlookers (b) They were scared to act, to differ, to protest (c) Majority genuinely believed Nazism would bring prosperity and well-being (d) Every German was a Nazi Answers : 1. (c) 2. (d) 3. (c) 4. (c) 5. (a) 6. (b) 7. (d) 8. (a) 9. (b) 10. (c) 11. (a) 12. (d) 13. (b) 14. (a) 15. (d) 16. (c) 17. (d) 18. (c) 19. (a) 20. (c) 21. (c) 22. (a) 23. (d).
  7. 7. THE FRENCH REVOLUTION 1. Storming of the Bastille (a) 14th July, 1789 (b) 14th July, 1798 (c) 14th June, 1789 (d) 14th June, 1798 2. The Bastille symbolised (a) benevolence of the king (b) despotic power of the king (c) armed might of France (d) prestige and power 3. 18th century French society was divided into (a) castes (b) four Estates (c) three Estates (d) two Estates 4. Which of the following constituted the privileged class? (a) Clergy and peasants (b) Peasants and nobility (c) First and Third Estate (d) Clergy and nobility 5. The most important of the privileges enjoyed by the clergy and nobility (a) right to collect dues
  8. 8. (b) ownership of land (c) participate in wars (d) exemption from taxes to the state 6. Which of the following believed social position must depend on merit? (a) Middle class (b) Nobility (c) Workers (d) Peasants 7. Society based on freedom, equal laws and opportunities was advocated by (a) middle class and people of the Third Estate (b) clergy and nobility (c) philosophers such as John Locke and Rousseau (d) Englishmen Georges Danton and Arthur Young 8. Which of the following refuted the doctrine of divine and absolute right? (a) John Locke (b) Rousseau (c) Montesquieu (d) Voltaire 9. Who advocated government based on Social Contract? (a) Darwin (b) Spencer (c) Rousseau (d) Montesquieu 10. Division of power within the government was put forth in
  9. 9. (a) 'Two Treaties of Government' (b) 'The Spirit of the Laws' (c) 'Le Moniteur Universal' (d) 'The Social Contract' 11. King in France at the time of the Revolution (a) Louis XIV (b) Louis XVI (c) Marie Antoinette (d) Nicholas II 12. Political body of France (a) Duma (b) Reichstag (c) Lok Sabha (d) Estates General 13. Voting in the Estates General was conducted on the principle of (a) each member one vote (b) male adult franchise (c) universal adult franchise (d) each Estate one vote 14. The Estates General was last convened in (a) 1604 (b) 1614 (c) 1416 (d) 1641
  10. 10. 15. Where did the Third Estate form and announce the National Assembly? (a) Indoor Tennis Court (b) Hall of Mirrors (c) Firoz Shah Ground (d) Winter Palace 16. Members of the Third Estate were led by (a) Louis XVI and Marie Antionette (b) Lenin and Kerensky (c) Mirabeau and Abbe Sieyes (d) Rousseau and Voltaire 17. Which of the following was the main objective of the Constitution of 1791? (a) to limit the powers of the king alone (b) do away with feudal privileges (c) give equal rights to women (d) establish a constitutional monarchy 18. A broken chain symbolised (a) Chains used to fetter slaves (b) Strength lies in unity (c) Royal power (d) Act of becoming free 19. The winged woman personified (а) National colours of France (b) Act of becoming free (c) Personification of Law
  11. 11. (d) Rays of the Sun will drive away the clouds of ignorance 20. Bundle of rods or fasces symbolised (a) Royal power (b) Equality before law (c) Law is the same for all (d) Strength lies in unity 21. Which of the following symbolised Eternity? (a) Sceptre (b) Eye within a triangle radiating light (c) The Law Tablet (d) Snake biting its tail to form a ring 22. Which of the following were the national colours of France during the? (a) Blue-green-yellow (b) Red-green-blue (c) Blue-white-red (d) Yellow-red-white 23. National Anthem of France (a) Vande Matram (b) Roget de L Isle (c) Le Moniteur Universel (d) Morseillaise 24. Members of the Jacbbin Club were known as (a) Conservatives (b) Revolutionaries
  12. 12. (c) Terrorists (d) San-culottes 25. France on 21st September, 1792 was declared a (a) Socialist State (b) Democracy (c) Communist State (d) Republic 26. Which of the following was a factor in the rise of Napoleon? (a) Fall of the Jacobin government (b) Robespierres Reign of Terror (c) Political instability of the Directory (d) Nationalist forces 27. French legacy to the world (a) Democracy (b) Socialism and nationalism (c) Republicanism (d) Liberty, Freedom and Equality Answers: 1a 2b 3c 4d 5d 6a 7c 8a 9c 10 b 11b 12d 13d 14b 15a 16c 17d 18d 19c 20d 21d 22c 23d 24d 25d 26c 27d
  13. 13. French Revolution Q2: What principles were supported by the revolution? Answer: Liberty, Equality and Fraternity Q3: Important Terms to remember. Answer: 1. First Estate: French society was divided into classes called Estates, The First Estate consisted of the Clergy which held vast land, wealth and were exempted from taxes. 2. Second Estate: It consisted of the aristocracy and controlled all the top positions in the government. parliament and in the army and navy. They were also exempted from taxation and led an extravagant life. 3. Third Estate: This comprised everyone who was neither nobility nor clergy and constituted almost 97% of the population. The wealthy upper middle class (merchants, bankers, doctors. lawyers), lower middle class, shopkeepers, craftsmen. and peasants comprised the Third Estate. This class lacked political power, social status and was heavily taxed. 4. The Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen: In 1789. the French National Assembly adopted a set of basic principles called the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen. Proposed by Lafayette and based on the ideas of Locke, Montesquieu and Jefferson, this document stated that “men are born and remain free and equal in rights” and that the “source of power resides in the people”. It guaranteed all Frenchmen the basic rights of liberty, security, equal justice, fair taxes, religion, fair speech, and thought. 5. Livre: Unit of currency used in France till 1794. 6. Clergy: Group of persons invested with special functions in the Church. 7. Tithe: A tax levied by the Church equal to one-tenth of the agricultural produce. Q4: Write a short note on 'Reign of Terror'. Answer: The term 'Reign of terror' referred to policy of severe control and punishment. This policy was adopted by Robespierre during his reign from 1793 to 1794. During this period, all of those whom he considered being enemies of the republic (e.g. nobles, clergy, members of other political parties) were arrested. They were tried by a revolutionary tribunal and eventually more then 15,000 person including Queen of France were guillotined or executed. Meat and bread were rationed. Peasants were forced to sell their grains at the prices fixed by the government. All citizens were forced to eat the equality bread i.e., a loaf made of whole wheat. Churches were shutdown and their buildings were converted into barracks or offices. Q5: What role did women of France of third Estate play in French revolution? Answer: Women of third estate of France played an crucial role in the revolution: During Revolutionary years, women started their own political clubs and newspapers. They set up about sixty women clubs in different cities of France. The most famous among them was the Society of Revolutionary and Republican Women.
  14. 14. They also demanded to enjoy the same political rights as men, i.e., right to vote, to be elected to the Assembly and to hold political office. However, the women were disappointed because they were not given same political rights as enjoyed by the men of France. Q6: In context of France the volunteers from Marseilles sang the Marseillaise a patriotic song when they marched into Paris. Who composed this song ? (a) Maximilian Robespierre (b) Marie Antoinette (c) Roget de L'lsle (d) Mirabeau Answer: (c) Roget de L'lsle Q7: What did the Red Cap worn by Sans Culottes in France symbolize? (a) Liberty (b) Brotherhood (c) Love (d) Equality Answer: (a) Liberty Q8: What was the legacy of the French Revolution? Answer: 1. It led to the decade of political changes in Europe. 2. Three founding words of the French revolution i.e. 'liberty, equality and fraternity' reflected the coming of new democratic and social order in Europe and rest of the world. 3. It inspired the Germans, Italians and Austrians to overthrow their oppressive regimes. 4. It inspired struggling nations of Asia and Africa. E.g. India's struggle for Independence was inspired by the thoughts of french philosophers like Voltaire and Rousseau. 5. French revolution put into the practice the idea that sovereignty comes from the people from below not from the above. 6. It marked the beginning for the first time in history about active and institutionalized mass participation in the government. It inculcated the spirit of nationalism among the people. Q9: Which of the following refers to the political body representing the three estates of pre-revoluitonary France? (a) Parliament of France (b) National Assembly (c) Estates General (d) Estates Committee Answer: (c) Estates General Q10: The word 'Guillotine' during French revolution era refers to (a) Beheading a person
  15. 15. (b) Awarding a person (c) Taxing a person (d) Threatening a person Answer: (a) Beheading a person Q11: What is the importance of the document 'Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen'? OR Why 'Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen' is considered as a revolutionary document in french revolution? Answer: Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen is regarded as a revolutionary document because: 1. It abolished the privileges and power given to the French feudal classes i.e. First Estate and Second Estate. 2. It provided equal distribution of the burdens of taxation and rights to public property among all citizens. 3. The Declaration emphasized equality before law and freedom of speech and press.Every citizen has right to speak, print and express. Q12 (CBSE 2010): Explain how did the freedom of speech and expression under the revolutionary government in France promote the ideals of Liberty and Equality into everyday practice. Answer: 1. The Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen emphasized that freedom of speech and expression be established as established as „natural and inalienable‟ right. 2. The ideas of these philosophers were discussed intensively in salons and coffee- houses and spread among people through books and newspapers. 3. Newspapers, pamphlets, books and printed pictures flooded the towns of France from where they traveled rapidly into the countryside. 4. Freedom of the press also meant that opposing views of events could be expressed. 5. Plays, songs and festive processions attracted large numbers of illiterate people to help them grasp and identify with ideas such as liberty or justice that political philosophers wrote about. Q13: What was the important aim of setting up Directory? What was the final outcome after appointing the Directory? Answer: After the fall of Jacobin government, the two elected legislative Council appointed an executive of five members called Directory. The main objective of the directory was to work as a safeguard against the concentration of power in a one-man executive as under the Jacobins. However, the Directors often clashed with the legislative councils, who then sought to dismiss them. The political instability of the Directory paved the way for the rise of a military dictator, Napoleon Bonaparte. Q14: Who authored the book 'The Spirit of the Laws'? What was proposed in this book? Answer: Montesquieu was the author of The Spirit of the Laws. In the book he proposed a
  16. 16. division of power within the government between the legislative, the executive and the judiciary. Q15: Which cities became prosperous because of slave trade? Answer: Port cities like Bordeaux and Nantes prospered due to the flourishing slave trade. Q16: What impact did French Revolution have on slave trade? Answer: 1. During and after revolution, there was little criticism of slavery in France. 2. It was totally ironical that National assembly held long debates about the rights of men but did not pass any laws to abolish slavery. 3. In 1794, a convention was passed to free all slaves in French overseas possessions. However it turned out to be a short term measure. Napoleon reintroduced slavery after 10 years of ban. 4. Slavery was finally abolished in French colonies in 1848. Q17: What was the role of French philosophers and revolutionary thinkers in the French Revolution? Answer: The 18th century witnessed the emergence of revolutionary thinkers such as John Locke, Jean Jacques Rousseau and Montesquieu. They didn't play any active role in the events of the revolution but their ideas inspired the revolutionary movement. Their revolutionary ideas encouraged people to fight for their rights. 1. The idea of a society based on freedom, equal laws and opportunities for all were put forward by philosophers such as John Locke and Jean Jacques Rousseau. In his book Two Treatises of Government, Locke sought to refute the doctrine of the divine and absolute right of the monarch. 2. Rousseau carried his radical ideas forward by proposing a form of government based on social contract between people and their representatives. 3. Montesquieu, in his book, The Spirit of the Laws proposed a division of power within the government between the legislative, the executive and the judiciary. 4. Voltaire's ideas revolved around individual liberties. He believed that people should have freedom of expression. The ideas of these philosophers were discussed and debated in salons and coffee houses and spread among people through books and newspapers. This founded the way to revolution of 1789. Q18: The French revolution took place on _________ (a) July 14, 1789 (b) July 14, 1788 (c) July 14, 1786 (d) July 14, 1785 Answer: (a) July 14, 1789 (Storming of the Bastille) Q19: On what charges was Louis XVI guillotined? (a) Cruelty (b) Treason (c) Absolute Role (d) misgovernance
  17. 17. Answer: (b) Treason Q20: The tax called tithe was collected from French Peasants by (a) The Church (b) The emperor (c) The Nobles (d) Chief of the Army Answer: (a) The Church Q21: Why was the subsistence crisis caused in France? (a) The wages of the people were low (b) There was widespread unemployment (c) Increase in population led to rapid increase in the demand of food grains. (d) The government imposed various taxes. Answer: (c) Increase in population led to rapid increase in the demand of food grains. Note: A „subsistence crisis‟ is defined as an economic crisis which threatens the food supplies or, more precisely, the survival prospects of larger population. Q22: The Bastille was hated by all in France because: (a) it stood for the despotic power of the king. (b) it was a fortress prison (c) Prison In charge tortured the inmates. (d) it housed dreaded criminals. Answer: (a) it stood for the despotic power of the king. Note: A despot is a ruler or other person who holds absolute power, typically exercising it cruelly. Q23: What were the different political groups operating in the Legislative Assembly during French revolution? Answer: Following political groups were active within the Legislative Assembly during French Revolution: 1. The Girondins: It was the largest group who wanted war against all despots. 2. The Jacobins: The most influential and ruthless group who were responsible for the reign of terror. They did not favour war. 3. The Feuillants: They proposed constitutional monarchy. Q24: What was the impact of the French Revolution in France? Answer: The impact of the French Revolution in France can be summarized as: 1. End of Monarchy: It marked the end of absolute monarchy and paved way for a republic government. 2. Laid foundation of Democratic Principles: It upheld the theory of sovereignty and laid foundation of the democratic principles i.e. government decisions should be based on the consent of her citizens.
  18. 18. 3. Ideas of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity: The slogans of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity became the founding milestones for a democratic nations. 4. Declaration of Rights and Equality: The declaration provided equality among the citizens for all public offices, freedom of speech and expression was granted and freedom from arrest without a proven cause was implemented. 5. Abolition of Censorship: Mass media was allowed Freedom of press was granted. 6. Taxes to be paid by all: Taxes would be borne by all the people irrespective of their status. 7. Religious Freedom: It guaranteed free exercise of religious worship and abolished the taxes collected by the churches. 8. Reforms and New Initiatives: New initiatives and reforms were carried out in education, administration and judiciary domain. Q25: Who were allowed to vote for the formation of the National Assembly? Answer: Only men above 25 years of age and those who paid taxes equal to at least 3 days of a labourers wage were given the status of active citizens. And they were entitled to vote. The remaining men and women were classified as passive citizens and were not allowed to vote. To qualify as an elector and then as a member of the assembly, a man had to belong to the highest bracket of tax payers. Q26: What was Rousseau's concept about the state? Answer: Rousseau, a thinkers, is regarded as an inspiration behind the French Revolution. 1. According to him, the society creates a Political state for a stable life. 2. The state is not a divine creation but is the outcome of a sort of unwritten social contract. 3. If the state failed to abide by the terms of the contract, people have natural and moral rights to overthrow the state authority. Q27: Who was the president of USA during French revolution? Answer: George Washington became the first president of USA at that time. Q28: Arrange the following events of French Revolution in chronological order (what happened next). (i) Louis XVI is guillotined. (ii) the Oath of the Tennis Court (iii) The Bastille falls (iv) French Republic is declared. (v) The Great Fear Answer: The correct sequence is (ii) - (iii) - (v) - (iv) - (i) Q29: What was The Great Fear in French revolution? Answer: After the storming of the Bastille, the National Assembly was busy at Versailles drafting a constitution, the rest of France seethed with turmoil.
  19. 19. 1. In the countryside rumours spread from village to village that the royalists of the manor had hired bands of brigands who were on their way to destroy the ripe crops. 2. Rumours also spread that Kings men were planning to kill National assembly representatives. 3. Caught in a frenzy of fear, peasants in several districts seized hoes and pitchforks and attacked chateaux. They looted hoarded grain and burnt down documents containing records of manorial dues. 4. A large number of nobles fled from their homes, many of them migrating to neighbouring countries. This turmoil at that time is termed as The Great Fear. Q30: When did the Assembly pass a decree abolishing the feudal system of obligations and taxes? Answer: 4 August 1789 Q31: Who among the following proposed a division of power within the government? (a) John Locke (b) Jean Jacque Rousseau (c) Voltaire (d) Montesquieu Answer: (d) Montesquieu Q32: When did Louis XVI called for The Estates General? When was it convened last time? Answer: Louis XVI called for The Estates General on May 5, 1789. It was called after a gap of 175 years since 1614 Q33: From where Jacobin's club got its name? Who was the leader of Jacobin's club? Answer: It got its name from the former convent of St Jacob in Paris.Maximillian Robespierre was the leader of Jacobins. Q34: What was the outcome of Battle of Waterloo? When did this battle occur? Answer: The Battle of Waterloo was fought on 1815 between Napolean Forces and allied army of Prussia, UK and Netherlands. In this battle Napolean was defeated.