CAT - 1997

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  • CAT - 1997

    1. 1. cat –Past papers<br />CAT- UNSOLVED PAPER - 1997<br />
    2. 2. SECTION – I (Total Marks : 185)<br />Single Correct Answer Type<br />Select the correct answer from among those provided for the following<br />
    3. 3. Directions for questions 1 to 5<br />In each of the following sentences, a part of the sentence is underlined. Beneath each sentence, four different ways of phrasing the underlined part are indicated. Choose the best alternative among the four.<br />
    4. 4. 01<br />Problem<br />Rahul Bajaj did a great job by taking his company to a dominant position but it is time he let go of the reins.<br />but it is time he let go of the reins.<br />however it is time that he stepped down.<br />it is perhaps an opportune moment to quite.<br />but it is just as well that he calls it a day.<br />
    5. 5. Problem<br />02<br />This government may promise autonomy to the navaratnas but there is no telling what the subsequent one will do.<br />there is no telling what the future will do.<br />there is no telling what the subsequent one will do.<br />it is not clear whether its successors will do the same.<br />nobody can be sure that subsequent governments will adhere to that policy.<br />
    6. 6. Problem<br />03<br />Attracted by the rich pickings, expensive private schools are blooming all over the place. Botbni<br />blooming all over the place.<br />sprouting shoots over the horizon.<br />fast dotting the landscape.<br />mushrooming across the country. A80(1 (£) 090/, (I)<br />
    7. 7. Problem<br />04<br />Drawing inferences from real life can be quite erogenous.<br />be quite erroneous. 'hAnA .A .51<br />be quite erogenous.<br />inevitably be erroneous.<br />be errorful.<br />
    8. 8. Problem<br />05<br />Hawking asks us to accept that one distinct possibility of the future of the universe is that it will return to its beginning - ten million years back.<br />to its fetal position.<br />ten million years back.<br />a cycle of truly cosmic proportions<br />to pre-life ear.<br />
    9. 9. Directions for questions 6 to 10 :<br />Arrange the sentences A, B, C and D to from a logical sequence between sentences 1 and 6.<br />
    10. 10. Problem<br />06<br /> So now let's sum it up.<br />We can call this the material of knowledge.<br />According to Kant, there are two elements that contribute to man's knowledge of the world.<br />The other is the internal conditions in man himself.<br />One is the external conditions that we cannot know of before we have perceived them through the senses.<br />We can call this the form of knowledge.<br />BDAC <br />BADC<br />CADB <br />CBDA<br />
    11. 11. Problem<br />07<br />I may have a strong desire for a fresh ripe peach, but no peaches may beavailable.<br />I am about to take a bite when a news arrives of an accident injuring someone dear to me.<br />The hay fever passes. <br />On the other hand, I buy some peaches but a sudden attack of hay fever prevents me from enjoying their fragrance or taste.<br />My interest in the peach vanishes.<br />I no longer have any appetite.<br />DCBA <br />CBAD<br />ABCD <br /> ACBD<br />
    12. 12. 08<br />Problem<br />A nation like an individual, has many personalities and many approaches to<br />rhoqoiqniflfo .noiJaauprbcani n avryBsanainag<br />If there is strong organic bond between different personalities it is well.<br />Otherwise this could lead to disintegration .<br />Normally, some kind of equilibrium is eventually established.<br />If normal development is arreste , then conflict arises between different personalities.<br />In the mind and spirit of India, there has been this fundamental conflict due to a long period of arrested growth.<br />ABCD <br />BDCA<br />CABD <br />DBCA<br />
    13. 13. Problem<br />09<br />Prediction and planning are not neutral processes but ideological ones.<br />Prediction is almost always undertaken for some specific reason, and carried out by middle-class pundits, academics and politicians.<br />The issues those in power want forecasts about are not likely to correspond to what the disadvantaged are most concerned with.<br />Prediction is rarely done for its own sake.<br />What is predicted and how prediction is done is a deeply political process involving those in power.<br />Prediction is not therefore a simple concept.<br />CABD <br />BADC<br />DABC <br />CADB<br />
    14. 14. Problem<br />10<br />Why is the Haldia project so important?<br />"The indirect employment potential", says a government spokesman , "could be 100, 000 jobs".<br />In their turn these are expected to engender innumerable medium and small industries with an enormous employment potential.<br />Consider this , Rs. 5,170 crore project is the single biggest investment in the state in decades.<br />This in turn is expected to sire several more thousand crore worth of downstream projects.<br />In a state with a crippling overhang of joblessness, the Haldia project should be able to do wonders.<br />CBDA <br />ABCD<br />ACBD <br />CDBA<br />
    15. 15. Directions for questions 11 to 20 :<br />Sentences given in each question, when properly sequenced form a coherent paragraph. Each sentence is labeled with a letter. Choose the most logical order of sentences from among the four given choices to construct a coherent paragraph.<br />
    16. 16. Problem<br />11<br />  Because negotiations had been delayed until the last moment , he was at a tremendous disadvantage.<br />Only then did the truth dawn on him.<br />He broke off talks and returned home.<br />My friend was under intense pressure to make concessions.<br />DBAC <br />ACBD<br />ABCD <br />DBCA<br />
    17. 17. 12<br />Problem<br />"Son, why are you reading that sissy<br />magazine?" he asked.<br />"There's an article that tells women where to meet men'M responded, pointing to the magazine's cover.<br />"I need to know where I'm supposed to be.<br />When I was a teenager, my father caught me reading one of my older sister's magazines.<br />DCAB <br />ADCB<br />DABC <br />DACB<br />
    18. 18. Problem<br />13<br />A "Actually", Ronnie replied , " I asked my wife."<br /> One day a man named Ronnie answered a difficult one correctly to put the men in front.<br />Impressed, the host kept Ronnie on the line and asked how he knew the answer to such a tough question.<br />Occasionally a local radio station airs "battle of the Sexes", In which listeners phone in to answer trivial questions.<br />BCAD <br />ACDB<br />CABD <br />DBCA<br />
    19. 19. Problem<br />14<br />Once inside the billowing tent, I began to revive.<br />He kept talking to me, and I was dully aware he was using all his experience to keep me alive.<br />All night we lay in dread as the wind harried the tent with the frenzied evil of a million demons.<br />Somehow Mai made a brew of lukewarm water and got me into my sleeping bag.<br /> <br />ADBC <br />DCBA<br />ABCD <br />ADCB<br />
    20. 20. Problem<br />15<br />An American study of 2528 mothers in 1993 found that among dual-income couples, the woman contributes two-thirds of the total family time spent on housework.<br />But that hasn't been the case.<br />As women entered the work force, experts thought men, from necessity, would do more around the house.<br />The situation in India is almost certainly similar - if not even more biased against women. <br />ADCB <br />CBDA<br />ADBC <br />CBAD<br />
    21. 21. Problem<br />16<br />The interrogation is under way.<br />The captive lets out a scream piercing enough to peel your nerve fibers.<br />The inquisitor, a skilled engineer, turns on the juice.<br />The prisoner stands atop a wooden box, cords immobilizing it.<br /> <br />ACDB <br />ADCB<br />DBCA <br />DCAB<br />
    22. 22. 17<br />Problem<br />It turns out that the clunks tell users when the machine is changing cycles.<br />Fiddling with product sounds inevitably leads to "psychoacoustics" - the interplay of sound and mind.<br />"My wife's new washing machine doesn't clunk, so they had to add a buzzer to tell you when the cycle changes", explains Lyon.<br />Consider the annoying clunking noise made by clothes washers as they open and close water valves.<br /> <br />DABC <br />BDAC<br />DCAB <br />BCDA<br />
    23. 23. Problem<br />18<br /> I would have given them a hard time, but he never would.<br />For one thing, I reached to situations very differently from my dad.<br />I'd seen him hauled out at three in the morning to attend a child who's developed pneumonia because his parents hadn't brought him to the clinic earlier.<br />But as college neared, I began to feel that becoming a doctor was not engraved upon my heart.<br /> <br />BCAD <br />DBAC<br />DBCA <br />BCDA<br />
    24. 24. Problem<br />19<br /> A. People facing death don't think about what degrees they have earned, what positions they have held or how much wealth they have accumulated.<br />At the end, what really matters-and is a good measure of a past life-is who you loved and who loved you.<br />As a physician who has been deeply privileged to share the most profound moments of pepole's lives including their final moments let me tell you a secret.<br />The circle of love is everything. <br />CABD <br />ABCD<br />ABDC <br />ACBD<br />
    25. 25. Problem<br />20<br />"Walk your bike past this school" the soldier barked.<br />Fearing arrest, O' Neil stood at attention.<br />Writer Tom O' Neil was riding his motor bike through a militarised area of Irian Jaya, a province on the island of New Guinea, when an armed soldier in the road abruptly motioned for him to stop.<br />"The students are taking a spelling test!"<br /> <br />ABDC <br />CDAB<br />ADCB <br />CBAD<br />
    26. 26. Directions for questions 21 to 26 :<br />Each question has four items. Select the item that does not belong to the group.<br />
    27. 27. Problem<br />21<br />Adept <br />Adapt <br />Skillful <br />Proficient<br />
    28. 28. Problem<br />22<br />Avid <br />Keen<br />Enthusiaiastic<br />Kin <br />
    29. 29. Problem<br />23<br />Grid<br />Internet<br />Computer<br /> Network <br />
    30. 30. Problem<br />24<br />Bell<br />Circle<br />Ring<br />Round<br />
    31. 31. Problem<br />25<br />Endure<br />Ordeal<br />Suffer<br />Withstand<br />
    32. 32. Problem<br />26<br />Linger<br /> Drag<br /> Long<br />Prolong<br />
    33. 33. Directions for questions 27 to 34 :<br />In each of the following sentences, there is one blank. Beneath each sentence, four possible ways of filling in the blanks are given. Choose the best alternative among the four.<br />
    34. 34. Problem<br />27<br />Home is __________________ one has yet to improve.<br />a discovery over which<br />a certain over which<br />an invention on which<br />an institution upon which<br />
    35. 35. Problem<br />28<br />The highest reward for a man's toil is not what he gets for it but what ________.<br />he makes out of it.<br />he gets for others.<br />he has overcome through it.<br />he becomes by it.<br />
    36. 36. Problem<br />29<br />An act of justice closes the book on a misdeed; an act of vengeance ___________.<br />reopens the first chapter<br />writes an epilogue<br />writes one of its own<br />opens new books<br />
    37. 37. Problem<br />30<br />The trail is the thing , not the end of the trail. Travel too fast and you miss .<br />all you are travelling for.<br />all the sights you are supposed to see.<br />the very excitement of your travel.<br />all the enjoyments of travel.<br />
    38. 38. Problem<br />31<br /> __________ that in this apparent mess , two things not be interfered with.<br />It is important.<br />it is of cardinal important.<br />It should be urgently understood.<br />It cannot be emphasized.<br />
    39. 39. Problem<br />32<br />A country's wealth is its people. But instead of drawing out the strengths of the people, instead of drawing out their talent, this use of religion debases, degrades and depresses than ._____________<br />in greater and greater measure<br />further<br />beyond reasonable limit<br />more and more<br />
    40. 40. Problem<br />33<br />Wines that yielded a good commercial profit __________ in the same limited areas of France as of now.<br />seem to have been produced<br />appear to have a remarkable semblance<br />bear a significant similarity in terms of production to those grown<br />appear to have been similarly produced<br />
    41. 41. Problem<br />34<br />This is about___________ a sociological analysis can penetrate.<br />the other limits that,<br />just how far into the subject that<br />the relative distance that<br />as far as<br />
    42. 42. Directions for questions 35 to 39 :<br />Each question has six statements followed by four sets of three statements each. Select as your answer the set in which the third statement can be logically concluded from the first two statements.<br />
    43. 43. Problem<br />35<br />Oranges are fruits.<br />Some fruits are sour.<br />Oranges are sour. ; j0<br />Some Oranges are sour.<br />Some Oranges are not sour.<br />Some Apples are sour.<br /> <br />ADB <br />ACE<br />BFD<br />BAC<br />
    44. 44. Problem<br />36<br />Aardvarks need sleep. <br />All animals need sleep.<br />Dogs are animals.<br />Some dogs need sleep.<br />Aardvarks are animals.<br />Some Aardvarks are dogs.<br /> <br />BCD <br />CEF <br />BEA <br />BAE<br />
    45. 45. Problem<br />37<br />All mothers are women.<br />All nurses are women.<br />Some women are nurses.<br />Some mothers are nurses.<br />All hospitals have nurses.<br />All hospitals have women.<br />BCD <br />EBF<br />DEC <br />EFB<br />
    46. 46. Problem<br />38<br />Some Zen's are cars.<br />All Ambassador are cars.<br />Some Zen's are Marquis.<br />Some Ambassadors are Mark IV's<br />All Marquis are cars.<br />All Zen's are Marquis.<br />BDF <br />ECA<br />ACF <br />FBC<br />
    47. 47. Problem<br />39<br />No bird is viviparous.<br /> All mammals are viviparous.<br />Bats are viviparous.<br /> No bats are birds.<br /> No bird is a mammal.<br /> All bats are mammals.<br /> <br />AD <br />DCF<br />BAE <br />FEA <br />
    48. 48. Directions for questions 40 to 44 :<br />In each question, there is a main statement followed by four statements A, B, C, D. From the choices, choose the ordered pair where the first statement implies the second statement and the two are logically consistent with the main statement.<br />
    49. 49. Problem<br />40<br />Either the train is late; or it is derailed<br />The train is late.<br />The train is not late.<br />The train has derailed.<br />The train has not derailed.<br />AB <br />BC<br />DB<br />CA<br />
    50. 50. Problem<br />41<br />Either Sam is ill; or he is drunk.<br />Sam is ill.<br />Sam is drunk.<br />Sam is not ill.<br />Sam is not drunk.<br />AB <br />CD<br />DA <br />CA<br />
    51. 51. Problem<br />42<br />40I get rashes every time I eat berries.<br />I didn't eat berries.<br />I got rashes.<br />I ate berries.<br />I didn't get rashes.<br />DA <br />BC<br />AD <br />BA<br />
    52. 52. Problem<br />43<br />Whenever Ram hears of a tragedy , he loses sleep.<br />Ram heard of a tragedy.<br />Ram did not hear of any tragedy.<br />Ram lost sleep.<br />Ram did not lose sleep.<br />CA <br />BD<br />DB <br />AD<br />
    53. 53. Problem<br />44<br />When I read a horror story, I get nightmares.<br />I got a nightmare.<br />I read a horror story.<br />I did not get a nightmare.<br />I did not read a horror story. <br />AB <br />CD <br />DC <br />BC<br />
    54. 54. Directions for questions 45 to 50 :<br />Each pair of CAPITALIZED words given below is followed by four pairs of words. Choose the pair which exhibits the relationship similar to that expressed in the capitalized pair.<br />
    55. 55. Problem<br />45<br />BARGE . VESSEL<br />Cargo: Hold<br />Link : Chain<br />Shovel: Implement<br />Squadron : Plane<br />
    56. 56. Problem<br />46<br />DOGGEREL : POET<br />Soliloquy : Playwright<br />Symphony : Composer<br />Pulp fiction : Novelist<br />Caption : Cartoonist<br />
    57. 57. Problem<br />47<br />PARADIGM : PATTERN<br />Skeleton : Flesh<br />Container : Content<br />Maxin : Theory<br />Structure: Framework.<br />
    58. 58. Problem<br />48<br />PREMISE : CONCLUSION<br />Proposition : Supposition<br />Assumption : Inference<br />Hypothesis : Theory<br />Given : Parameter<br />
    59. 59. Problem<br />49<br />LOVE : AFFECTION<br />Kindness : Friendship<br />Enemy : Hatred<br />Ignorance : Bliss<br />Amity : Harmony<br />
    60. 60. Problem<br />50<br />PEEL: PEAL<br />Sound: Bell<br />Rain : Reign<br />Coating : Rind<br />Laughter : Gong.<br />
    61. 61. SECTION - II<br />
    62. 62. Directions for questions 51 to 100 :<br />Each passage in this section is followed by questions. Read the passage and choose the best answer.<br />
    63. 63. PASSAGE -I<br />Many surprises lie in store for an academic who strays into the real world. The first such surprise to come my way during a stint as a university administrator related to the photocopying machines within my jurisdiction. I discovered that paper for the machines plus contractual maintenance cost substantially more than photocopies in the private market. This took no account of the other costs of the photocopiers - ink, spare parts, the space occupied by the machine, the interest and depreciation on it, the wages of the machine operator, the loss of time when the machine broke down or the operator absented himself. The university-and indeed the entire educational system-was in a financial crisis. Here was a situation calling for a quick and painless execution of all white elephants , or so I thought. I proposed that we stop using the photocopying machines and get our photocopies made by a private operator who had rented space from our institution . Further, we could reduce our costs well below the market price through an agreement with the private operator which would let him run our surplus machines in exchange for a price concession I had expected my proposal to be eagerly embraced by an impoverished university. Instead, it created a furore. In a progressive institution like ours , how could I have the temerity to suggest handing over a university asset to the private sector? Perhaps I was in the pay of the private operator. Freinds and well-wishers emphasized the necessity of immediately distancing myself from any plan that may conceivably benefit a private enterpreneur-even if it should concurrently benefit the university. That, I gathered , was the essence of financial rectitude. <br />
    64. 64. Abashed, I repented my indiscretion. The photocoping machines were of course no longer used, but neither were they transferred to the enemy in the private sector. We got our photocopying dione privately at market prices , not the concessional rates I had propossed. The university lost money , but the family silver was saved from the private enemy. After a decently long period gathering dust and cobwebs, it could be sold as scrap, but that would not be during my tenure. <br />The story of the photocopying machines is repeated in many different guises throughout our public and semi-public institutions. The public sector is replete with unproductive assets, their sterile purity jealously protected from the seductive influences of private enterprise. <br />There are the pathetic load factors in our power plants. There are fleets of public buses lying in idle disrepair in our state transport depots. There is the fertilizer plant which has never produced even a gram of fertilizer because , after its executive has scoured the wide world in search of the cheapest possible parts, they found that the specifications of these parts did not match each other. There are the 80 gas guzzling staff cars boasted of by a north Indian University which has little else to boast about.  <br />Perhaps the most spectacular instances of unproductive government assets relate to land. Five years ago, the then minister for surface transport, JagdishTytler, suggested a plan for developing the vast <br />tracts if unused land in the Delhi Transport Corporation's bus depots. He argued, entirely credibly, that<br />
    65. 65. by leasing out this land for commercial purposes, the DTC could not only cover its chronic and massive deficit but achieve a substantial surplus. <br />The proposal was never implemented; the infiltration of the private sector into DTC depots was heroically resisted by various government departments and the corporation continued its relentless plunge deeper into the red. All other examples of public extravagance however pale into insignificance alongside the astronomical wastefulness perpetrated by the New Delhi municipal committee and the design of Edwin Lutyen's Delhi. Delhi unlike all other major cities of the world has a hollow entre - the density of population at the heart of town is negligible. In design, it is no modern metropolis but a medievel imperial capital like the Baghdad of the Abbasid Caliphate. The very centre of the city is entirely occupied by the almost empty palaces of the mighty while hoi polloi throng the periphery and travel long distances daily to serve their masters. Within the charmed circle of inner New Delhi, ministers and members of parliment , the top militiy brass and the bureaucratic and the judicial elite of the country luxuriate in sprawling bungalows nestling amidst lush greenery in almost sylvan surroundings. The total land area occupied by these bungalows is one of the best kept official secrets. The ministry of urban development keeps no count of aggregates ; but it appears that there are about 600 bungalows with areas varying from one to 10 acres. A not implausible estimate of the total area is about 10 million square yards.  <br />
    66. 66. A conservative estimate of the value of land in central New Delhi is Rs. 1, 00, 000/- per square yard. Six hundred families of VIPs are occupying real estate worth about Rs. 1, 000 billion; at an interest rate of 12% , this sum would yield an annual income of Rs. 120 billion. This amounts to more than one percent of the gross domestic product.<br />If the government were to move these six hundred families to the outskirts of the town and lease this land out, say for multi-storied residential construction-subject, of course, to environmental restrictions that would protect the existing greenery-the primary deficit of India would be wiped out. <br />What is more, rents would drop all over the city and the housing problem of Delhi would be solved, if not fully, at least in substantial measure. Further, there would be a major inward shift of population reducing transport to ply through inner Delhi. The removal of the six hundred would, at one stoke relieve the<br />accommodation and transport problems of Delhi as well as the budget deficit of the country. But who would bell the cat? would the government do it, considering that the 600 are the government?  <br />Public interest litigation has of late highlighted a relatively minor aspect of the VIP housing issue: the abuse of ministerial discretion in making out of turn allotments. This focuses attention on the question of a fair distribution between the members of the elite of the fruits of power. In the process, unfortunately, a question of infinitely larger import has been conveniently consigned to oblivion. Doesn't<br />
    67. 67. the entire scheme of VIP housing in New Delhi imply organized plunder of the citizenry on a sclae quite unprecedented and totally incompatible with the principles of a democratic society? <br />Strangely enough, this matter has entirely eluded the search light of public attention. Political parties, the media, public interest litigants, grass root people's movements have all maintained a resounding reticence on the issue. When the excesses perpetrated in the name of VIP security provoked public protest the prime minister desired that VIP security should be made "unobtrusive". VIP housing however, is an entirely unobtrusive burden on the public, but a burden of quite mindboggling proportions. Perhaps it is the silent character of this infliction that has made it so easy to impose. Or perhaps centuries of colonial rule have made habitual slaves of us : a mere 50 years of democracy cannot erase our slavish habit of obsequiousness to the imperial state and its rulers.<br />
    68. 68. Problem<br />51<br />The Delhi Transport Corporation's relentless plunge deeper into the red continued, because according to the passage:<br />Fleets of buses in idle disrepair were not allowed to be sold as scrap.<br />Disposing off 80 gas guzzling staff cars was resisted.<br />Leasing out unused land for commercial use was strongly resisted.<br />Selling off surplus land to private parties was strongly resisted<br />
    69. 69. Problem<br />52<br />When the author talks about an unobtrusive public burden of mind- boggling proportions he is referring to the issue of<br />Out of turn allotment of housing to VIPs.<br />VIP housing.<br />VIP security.<br />Unproductive public assets<br />
    70. 70. Problem<br />53<br />The author's experience taught him that the essence of financial rectitude involved<br />Supporting any plan which benefits a public institution while benefiting private entrepreneur.<br />Dissociating from any plan which benefits a private entrepreneur at the cost of a public institution.<br />Dissociating from any plan which benefits a private entrepreneur even if it concurrently benefits a public institution.<br />Supporting any plan which benefits a public institution at the cost of a private entrepreneur<br />
    71. 71. Problem<br />55<br />"— their sterile purity jealously protected from the seductive advances of private enterprise" the author here is referring to<br />The family silver of the public institutions.<br />The rigid financial practices of the public institutions.<br />The productive assets of the public institutions.<br />None of the these.<br />
    72. 72. Problem<br />56<br />According to the passage, when a public system suffers from financial cristis, the situation calls for<br />Tightening belt all around.<br />Contracting out maintenance of assets to less efficient private parties.<br />Painless and quick execution of all white elephants.<br />Handling over unproductive assets to private parties.<br />
    73. 73. Problem<br />57<br />An estimate of the total land area occupied by the sprawling bungalows in inner New Delhi is<br />10 million square years.<br />600 acres.<br />6000 acres.<br />3000 acres.<br />
    74. 74. Problem<br />58<br />The practice of getting the photocopies done privately at market prices was acceptable because:<br />It saved money for the university.<br />Though it lost money for the university, it saved the family silver from the private enemy.<br />It lost money for the university.<br />It saved the family silver from the private enemy.<br />
    75. 75. Problem<br />59<br />The author contends that shifting 600 elite families of the government from the inner city to the periphery would solve the problem (s) of<br />Accommodation and transportation.<br />Transportation and the country's budget deficit.<br />Accommodation, transportation, and the country's budget deficit.<br />Accommodation and the country's budget deficit.<br />
    76. 76. Problem<br />60<br />One proposal made by the author reduce the cost of photocopying well below the market price, was to:<br />Have an agreement with the private operator allowing him to use the owned surplus machines in exchange fro price concession.<br />Stop using owned photocopying machines and get photocopies done by private operators in the market.<br />Stop using owned photocopying machines and get photocopies done by a private operator who had rented space from the institutions.<br />Put the photocopy operating employees on a piece rate basis.<br />
    77. 77. PASSAGE - II<br />I think that it would be wrong to ask whether 50 years of India's Independence are an achievement or a failure. It would be better to see things as evolving. It's not an either-or question. My idea of the history of India is slightly contrary to the Indian idea. India is a country that, in the north outside, Rajasthan, was ravaged, and intellectually destroyed to a large extent, by the invasions that began in about 1000 A.D. by forces and religions that India had no means of understanding. <br />The invasions are in all the school books. But, I don't think people understand that every invasion, every war, every campaign, was accompanied by slaughter, of the most talented people in the country. So these wars, apart from everything else, led to a tremendous intellectual depletion of the country. I think that in the British period and in the 50 years after the British period, there has been a kind of recruitment or recovery, a very slow revival of energy and intellect. <br />This isn't an idea that goes with the vision of the grandeur of old India and all that sort of rubbish. That idea is a great simplification, and it occurs because it is intellectually, philosophically and emotionally easter for Indians to manage.<br />That's my starting point of understanding Indian history : And so, I feel that past 150 years have been years of every kind of growth. I see the British period and what has continued after that as one period. In<br />that time, there has been a very slow intellectual recruitment. I think every Indian should make the pilgrimage to the site of the capital of the Vijayanagar empire, just to see what invasions of India led to.<br />
    78. 78. They will see a totally destroyed town. People who see that might understand what centuries of plunder and slaughter meant. War isn't a game. When you lost that kind of a war, you towns were destroyed, the people who built the towns were destroyed, you were left with a headless population. That's where modern India from. The Vijayanagar capital was destroyed in 1565. It is only now that the surrounding region has begun to revive. <br />A great chance has been given to India to start up again, and I feel it has started up again. The questions about whether 50 years of India since independence have been a failure of an achievement are not the questions to ask. <br />In fact, I think India is developing quite marvelously. People thought-even Mr. Nehru thought that development and new institutions would immediately lead to beauty. But it doesn't happen like that. When a country asd ravaged as India, with all its layers of cruelty, when that kind of country begins to extend justice to people lower down, it's a very messy business. It's not beautiful, it's extremely messy. And that's what you have now, all these small politicians with small reputations and small parties . But this is part of growth , this is part ogf development. You must remember that these people, and the people they represent, have never had rights before.<br />But this is part of growth , this is part ogf development. You must remember that these people, and the people they represent, have never had rights before.<br />
    79. 79. So in India at the moment you have million mutinies - every man is a mutiny on his own-and I find that entirely creative. It's difficult to manage, gets very messy, but it is the only way forward. You can't get people suddenly behaving very beautifully. When the oppreassed have the power to assert themselves, they will behave badly. It will need a couple of generations of security, and knowledge of institutions, and the knowledge that you can trust institutions - it will take at least a couple of generations before people in that situation begin to behave well. <br />People in India have only known tyranny. The very idea of liberty is a new idea. Particularly pathetic is the harking back to the Mughals as a time of glory. In fact , the Mughals were tyrants, every one of them. They were foreign tyrants. And they were proud of being foreign . <br />There's a story that anybody would run and pull a bell and the emperor would appear at his window and give Justice.<br />The child's idea of history. The slave's idea of the ruler's mercy. When the people at the bottom discover that they hold justice in their own hands, the earth moves a litlle. You have to expect these earth movements in India . It will be like this for a hundred years. <br />But it is the only way. In a country like India, I don't want people at the bottom to ever lose their say in their government , to ever lose representation. That is a calamity that is to be avoided at all costs, it's painful and messy and primitive and petty, but it's better that it should<br />
    80. 80. begin. It has to begin. If we were to rule people according to what we think fit, that takes us back to the past when people had no voices Old caste or clan boundaries can't disappear.<br />They are people's support systems and I think they will be with us for a long time. What is happening, of course is that within those boundaries people are beginning to have a greater sense of themselves. Some people may feel unhappy at what they see as a breakdown of old reverences, but they have to understand that this is a part of an intellectual movement forward. I don't believe in revolution it's a bogus and cruel idea. Things don't change overnight. They move very slowly, they more over generations.<br />And with self-awareness all else follows. People begin to make new demands on their leaders, their fellows, of themselves. They ask of more in everything. They have a higher idea of human possibilities. They are not content with what they did before or what their fathers did before. They want to move. That is marvelous. That is as it should be. It is important, in this apparent mess for two things not to be interfered with. One is economic growth. It is the most important news coming out of India, more important than the politics. I would like to see education extended and extended. If this were to happen, and I feel it might, gradually, the actual level of politics will reflect both the economic life and higher level of education. <br />
    81. 81. In India the talent is prodigious really, and it increases year by year. And in sheer numbers, in another 10 years, India will probably be one of the world's most intellectually gifted countries. The quality and the numbers are extraordinary, and I think this makes India extraordinary. But India shouldn't have fantasies about the past. The past is painful, but it should be faced. We should make ourselves see how far these old invasions and wars had beaten India down and how far we have come. I should say that India in the 18th century was a pretty nearly a dead country. India has life now. India is living. I would like to see it encouraged in every way. <br />
    82. 82. Problem<br />61<br />The central thrust of the passage lies in the belief that<br />India's past works against its present.<br />India is gearing up for a new awakening.<br />Indians are victimized by reckless politicians.<br />Democracy has failed the Indian people.<br />
    83. 83. Problem<br />62<br />According to the passage, it is seldom understood.<br />History in India did not begin with the British.<br />Fifty years is long time in a nation's history.<br />Development is neither about growth nor justice.<br />Development is difficult to manage.<br />
    84. 84. Problem<br />63<br />The idea of a splendid Indian past.<br />Is a heady intoxicant that appeals to Indians but is not firmly grounded in historical realities.<br />Justifiable corresponds to the idea that Indians have about their past.<br />Ignores the contributions of the British period.<br />Contradicts the invasions that characterize the history books.<br />
    85. 85. Problem<br />64<br />The author is of the view that civilized behavior is a function of<br />The emergence of institutions and the faith and trust that they can generate among the people.<br />ejecting the Mughal notion of justice.<br />Breaking new boundaries overnight.<br />Spiritual recruitment and political reconstruction<br />
    86. 86. Problem<br />65<br />Two things the author considers vital for the future of India are<br />Education and self-reliance.<br />Politics and economic growth.<br />Self-reliance and economic growth.<br />Education and economic growth.<br />
    87. 87. Problem<br />66<br />In the passage, the key to development lies in<br />Shock therapy.<br />Self- awareness.<br />Gradualism.<br />Historical determinism.<br />
    88. 88. Problem<br />67<br />The fate of the capital of Vijayanagar illustrates that<br />It takes centuries to recover from a war.<br />War leads to a tremendous spiritual depletion of a country.<br />The ruler of Vijayanagar were tyrants.<br />The Mughals were tyrants.<br />
    89. 89. Problem<br />68<br />The author believes it is time that<br />Indians recognized their talent<br />Wars and invasions were put an end to.<br />Indians came to terms with their past.<br />Indians learnt to value the ability to dream<br />
    90. 90. Problem<br />69<br />The author does not believe in revolution because<br />It is not a tea party.<br />The idea is fraudulent and brutal.<br />Caste boundaries cannot be made to disappear.<br />Means do not justify ends.<br />
    91. 91. Problem<br />70<br />The passage is by and large<br />Excessively critical of India.<br />Cynical<br />Cold.<br />Insightful<br />
    92. 92. PASSAGE - III<br />Konosuke Matsushita was 56 years old in early 1951. Despite the general human tendency to be less open to new adventures as one ages, KM decided to journey outside his homeland for the first time in his life on a trip that was ten times as long as anything he had experienced before. "We had to take the plunge into the international world business, " he told others, "and exploit the best traits of‘ the Japanese in expanding our enterprise on a worldwide basis. Realising that humility was the better part of valour, I decided that what I needed to do first was to go abroad and acquaint myself with what were then the world's most advanced management philosophies and practices.” <br />On his first trip to the US in early 1951, Matsushita purchased state-of-the-art dry-cell manufacturing machinery. In the fall of 1952, when touring one of his battery plants in Japan, he found these machines were the oldest types used in the facility. <br />The lesson was obvious. "Machinery available on the market, I realized , was of generally mediocre quality. All the top manufacturers used machinery developed in house , and they jealously guarded both the machines themselves and the technology by which they wee made This discovery firmly convinced me that<br />there would be no strength in relying on the teachings of others without a basic capacity for self-reliance.“<br />
    93. 93. "What is most important," he said, "is to have an open mind. A man should not act only upon his own knowledge. There is a saying that a man will not become confused if he keeps his eyes open, nor will he be confused if he always listens to what others say. Regardless of who the other person is, you acquire unexpected knowledge if you listen with a modest attitude, expecting to learn something.“<br />When Matsushita Electric began to internationalize in the early fifties, it faced competition that <br />was much bigger, better financed , and more technologically advanced. Many factors helped the firm overcome these obstacles. Japanese restrictions on foreign companies and foreign goods gave MEI ( Matsushita Electric Industrial) less competition in its domestic marketplace. A strong customer orientation, low costs , a loyal and hardworking labour force , innovative marketing, a strong retail<br />distribution system, an aggressive product improvement and new product development process, a capacity to adjust quickly to the marketplace, clarity of mission, a divisionalised structure which pushed authority and accountability to lower levels and good leadership at the top all proved to be competitive weapons domestically and internationally. But subsequent events suggest that nothing may have been more important to MEI's success than open minds and humble attitudes. In the early fifties, these qualities helped Matsushita and his managers absorb a great deal of new technology. Later, the same attitudes encouraged<br />
    94. 94. employees to bring in a myriad of useful ideas and practices from around the world.<br />Matsushita fought relentlessly the idea "it can't be done". According to Junnosuke Shinya, "We often read statements such as people have infinite potential and infinite possibilities. "However, we often doubled the reality of such statements. We didn't really believe them deep in our hearts. But KM helped make us believe. He helped convince us that infinite possibilities really did exist".<br />To shake others out of comfortable routines and to force them to draw on collective wisdom, he tied big goals to compelling ideals. In 1960, when Toyota told the car radio division at MEI that it wanted a 15% reduction in prices over the next six months, the-division's management complained loudly. In a meeting on 24 November 1960, Matsushita told them : " We must recognize that the issue here is not just an unreasonable <br />request from Toyota. We are talking about a need for Japan to cope with increasing trade competition in the world, especially with the US. Trade is going to be liberalized and cars are our main export. In order to complete against America, Japanese cars must be very affordable We can't allow ourselves to wait for more demands like Toyota's before we effect significant change. We need to anticipate such requests and then position ourselves to meet them ahead of time.” <br />
    95. 95. For a man of Matsushita's immense stature to bow humbly to a junior store clerk in nearly unheard of in Japan. Yet he did so, again and again. At one company anniversary celebration, he gave a speech to a large audience in which he thanked them for all their efforts on behalf of the firm. At the end of his talk, instead of going to his seat, he stepped off the podium, walked in front of the group and bowed three times. Hundreds of grown men then broke into tears. <br />If his main goals in life had been fame and fortune, it is inconceivable that he would not have become insufferably proud of his achievements and behaved accordingly. That Matsushita did not become an arrogant corporate chieftain suggests that his most basic objectives were elsewhere.<br />There is an irony here. The stereotypical arrogant self-made man wants desperately to obtain more riches and glory, yet his demeanor often undercuts that very objective. In Matsushita's case , as his most important goals became more social and humanistic over time, those values prompted a humility which helped him do precisely what was needed to keep his firm and himself growing richer and richer. Once again, he asked them to look at the facts with an open and unprejudiced mind . Did they seriously think that low wages could always be a course of advantage for Japan ? If not , was it better to adjust future conditions before or after competitors ? <br />Would not this new five year plan force them to increase productivity, benefiting the company, its<br />
    96. 96. customers, its stockholders? With the talent at their disposal, surely the collective wisdom of employees could find a way to make this seemingly difficult objective a reality?<br />Even innovative entrepreneurs can become conservative in their old age. Boldness gives way to caution, as they try to retain power and wealth. Ironically , the switch to risk aversion usually weakens a firm and makes it more difficult to preserve past gains . This did not much happen in Matsushita's case. In some ways, KM may have grown to be a little wilder in his eighties and nineties. <br />The Ullman poem he so loved says; "Youth means the temperamental predominance of courage over timidity, of the appetite for adventure over the love of ease. This often exists in a man of 60 more than in a boy of 20. Nobody grows old merely by a number of years..<br />We grow old by deserting our ideals.” <br />Instead of withering in his later years, Matsushita's ideals seemed to have grown stronger. And with them, the reach of his influence expanded even more broadly<br />
    97. 97. Problem<br />71<br />The poem , by Ullman, Conveys the message that<br />We grow old when we reach the age of 60 still clinging to the ideals of our youth.<br />We grow old because we have lost our spirit of adventure.<br />We grow old because we forget the ideals of our youth.<br />We remain immature while aging , by clinging to our youthful ideas.<br />
    98. 98. Problem<br />72<br />According to the passage, Matsushita did not become an arrogant corporate chieftain because<br />He was basically a man of humility.<br />His major goals became more social over time.<br />His major goals became more humanistic over time.<br />None of these.<br />
    99. 99. Problem<br />73<br />The 'Toyota Story' given in the passage brings out the following facet of Matsushita<br />His ability to anticipate the future and draw the bigger picture.<br />His patriotic sentiments.<br />His concern for trade liberalisation.<br />His ability to anticipate the future of the automobile industry.<br />
    100. 100. Problem<br />74<br />According to the passage, the foremost factor contributing to MEI's success was<br />Matsushita's vision.<br />Capacity to adjust quickly to the market place.<br />Clarity of mission.<br />Open mind and humble attitudes<br />
    101. 101. Problem<br />75<br />A major organisational factor, which amongest others, helped MEI to overcome obstacles in its international operations, was<br />A divisionalised structure.<br />Innovative marketing.<br />Loyal and hard-working labour force.<br />Japanese restrictions on foreign competition.<br />
    102. 102. 76<br />Problem<br />Matsushita's experience with the dry-cell manufacturing machinery, taught him the lesson that<br />Only teachings from others help one to gain in self-reliance.<br />Reliance on teachings from others must be combined with a basic capacity for self- reliance.<br />Only a basic capacity for self-reliance enables one to gain from the teachings of others.<br />Reliance on teachings from others is a pre­condition for building a basic capacity for self-reliance.<br />
    103. 103. 77<br />Problem<br />The irony5 suggested in the passage, refers to<br />The typical self-made entrepreneur's hunger for wealth and fame which gets undermined by his bearing and behavior.<br />The very social and humanistic values held by Matsushita made his company grow richer and richer.<br />Both (1) and (2) above.<br />Matsushita bowing to a junior store clerk.<br />
    104. 104. Problem<br />78<br />The passage implies that continued risk taking and innovation characterizing MEI were possible because of<br />Matsushita never deserting his ideals as he grew old.<br />Matsushita including the practice of long- term strategic planning in his enterprise.<br />Matsushita encouraging young managers to show courage and take bold decisions.<br />Matsushita encouraging open and unprejudiced minds.<br />
    105. 105. Problem<br />79<br />The main motivation for Konosuke Matsushita to undertake the longest journey of his life at the age of 56, was to<br />Learn from others.<br />Take the plunges into international business.<br />Exploit the best traits of the Japanese for expanding his enterprise on a world-wide basis.<br />Acquaint himself with the world's most advanced management practices and philosophies.<br />
    106. 106. Problem<br />80<br />To ensure that the employees of MEI do not lapse into an ease of routine and dependence on individualistic talents, Matsushita<br />Connected the big goals to compelling ideals.<br />Created a culture of openness and questioning.<br />Set a personal example of modesty and humility.<br />Encouraged his people to develop the true potential.<br />
    107. 107. PASSAGE - IV<br />When LalooYadav appointed his wife Rabri Devi as Bihar chief minister, ET published an irate citizen's letter to the editor. "Now by nominating his semi-literate wife Rabri Devi as chief minister wih no experience of governance, no understanding of the high office of CM .... LalooYadav has enacted a ridiculous and crude joke on the people of Bihar and a gross insult to the democracy.” <br />Ignore, for now, the shrill a historical outcry against Laloo's impunity, as if, for the first time, we have witnessed this brand of blatant nepotism. Ignore, also , arguments of principle, as whether wife of an acknowledged savvy politician may not have the vicarious experience of governance and politics. Focus on the first epithet chosen for the disqualification, which makes Laloo's action an insult to democracy: 'Semi-literate status is identified as even more damning than her inexperience of politics and governance. Let me recount to you another episode in a village school class-room, here Hardwar, the class teacher of V grade, was talking ta his students about TeejanBai, the Pandean artist (a folk story telling form; Pandavas are the main characters of the stories.) <br />Hardwar recounts an episode where something is brought to Taejon Bai a girl form Chhattisgarh, for her signature. In a raised voice infused with shock and contempt, he says "She used her thumb print to sign! The thumb print is the way of recognizing the illiterate". By highlighting the thumb print part Hardwar dramatically took away from her successes. <br />
    108. 108. Whether a highly literate reader of a professional daily, or a primary school teacher pontificating to new generation, the importance of literacy for human existence is taken as self evident. More important is the stigmatization of the illiterate, as not yeat having realized their human vocation.<br />This popular construction of illiteracy harks back to the early fifties. Social scientists, seeking to define the essence of human existence (separating us from other animals) had discovered that bees and dolphins too have elaborate communications systems. Next they alighted on literacy as the defining character. If not linguistic communication, then writing at least is the unique product of human culture. They claimed that literacy separates perhistory from history, primitive societies from civilised ones and traditional societies from modern ones. These statements were subtly declaring literate societies to be superior. Literature on literacy claims that literacy affects intellectual ability; the literate mind, it is claimed, is more evolved and capable of logical, abstract, reffective thought , deduction and induction.<br />In contrast, the illiterate man's thought' remains concrete. He thinks in images, not concepts.<br />His thought is, in fact a series of images , juxtaposed or in sequence, and hence it rarely proceeds by induction or deduction.' This seems an exaggerated, caricatured account of the nature of illiterate thinking. This was stated by no less an organisation than UNESCO, in its 1972 Regional Report on Literacy. Put like this, a welfare state <br />
    109. 109. could ignore the importanc of litracy only at the 'risk' if intellectually incapacitating its population. Obviously no state could function. If its polity were not capable of logical thought, of contemplating and taking decisions about their future. <br />According to the pundits of modernisation, like Lerner, the prediction for third world countries was that their human resource, by virtue of being illiterate, would remain in a state of child-like unreasonableness, closed to suggestion, and therefore clinging to tradition and primitive ways. The great divide between the developed (read 'ex- colonisor') and newly-born <br />nations, and the apparent hopelessness of trying to catch up, lent additional force to this conclusion," We are under­developed and we are largely illiterate," was easily formulated as "we are under- developed because we are illiterate". This was a case of illiterate minds interpreting co-occurrence as causality. Consumed by the need for core crists management, this hypothesis was abstracted, without examining the validity of its "supporting evidence', to formulate another mantra' universalise literacy for development.” <br />All this, notwithstanding increasing evidence, accumulating from the mid-70s that' on no task - logic, abstraction, memory and communication- (did) we find all non-literates performing at lower levels than all literates ( S. Scribner and M. Cole. The Psychology of Literacy, HUP 1981.) <br />True, schooling, particularly certification of schooling, is essential to participate fully in<br />
    110. 110. the economy and avail of jobs in the organisedsector.The point I wish to make is that masquerading as a description of academic and scholastic status, this word 'semi-literate' is intended and understood as a politically correct swear word. <br />In an era gone by, legitimacy of birth was regarded as determining one's moral and ethical fibre, and necessary for entry into and association with respectable society. Today 'illiterate'is uttered with the same vehement disgust as ' bastard'. The question is why literacy, any more than legitimacy of birth should function as a measure of one's character and capability. <br />Is literacy an end in itself ? No. And if it is only the means, why should those like TeejanBai feel apologetic about having achieved magnificent ends through other means? <br />Given her rural origins, it is likely that this end would have been impossible for her had she gone to <br />school, to become literate. The socialising experience of school could have filled her self-respect; she would have realised her 'semi-literate' state as the key feature of her identity, and come to believe that her very existence is 'an insult to democracy.' <br />Today, in thousands of literacy centres of the country, those who have not been to school are being exhorted to visit literacy centres, and discover a new lease of life as 'neo-literates.' I cringe to think of their experiences in the hands of zealous literacy instructors who know the importance of being literate, as well as know why the illiterate needs to be literate.<br />
    111. 111. Problem<br />81<br />According to the passage:<br />Bhardwaj hails from Chattisgarh.<br />TeejanBai hails from Chattisgarh.<br />Rabri Devi hails from Chattisgarh.<br />None of these<br />
    112. 112. Problem<br />82<br />According to the passage<br />TeejanBai is a descendant of the Pandavas.<br />Bhardwaj is a Pandvani.<br />TeejanBai is a folk story teller.<br />A Pandvani is a descendant of the Pandavas<br />
    113. 113. Problem<br />83<br />According to the passage<br />Bhardwaj believed in thumb prints.<br />The V Grade teacher equated thumb print with literacy.<br />TeejanBai depended on thumb prints.<br />None of these<br />
    114. 114. Problem<br />84<br />The author<br />Opines that literacy is not crucial to achieve individual greatness.<br />Is appreciative of the work done to increase literacy rate in India.<br />Wants literacy to spread rapidly in India.<br />Wants literacy rate in India to be reduced.<br />
    115. 115. Problem<br />85<br />According to the author<br />Social scientists averred literate societies to be superior.<br />Social scientists discovered poor communication systems amongst bees as well as among dolphins.<br />Literacy separates primitive societies from civilised ones.<br />Importance of literacy is self evident.<br />
    116. 116. Problem<br />86<br />According to the author<br />Thousands of literacy centres are lacking 'students'.<br />It is deplorable that the illiterates do not realise the importance of literacy.<br />Literacy centres are providing a new lease of life for illiterates who had notv attended schools.<br />The experience of illiterates in the hands of zealous literacy instructors will be appalling.<br />
    117. 117. Problem<br />87<br />According to the author<br />There is increasing evidence that all non- literates are not inferior to all literates.<br />'Semi-literate' is intended to be politically an incorrect word.<br />It is true that schooling is not essential to avail of jobs in the organised sector.<br />One's moral and ethical fibre is determined by legitimacy of birth.<br />
    118. 118. Problem<br />88<br />According to the author<br />Literacy is an end in itself.<br />TeejanBai attaining magnificent ends can be attributed to her not going to school.<br />Socialising experience of school would have made TeejanBai confident.<br />TeejanBai's existence is 'an insult to democracy'.<br />
    119. 119. Problem<br />89<br />According to the author<br />Illiterate minds interpreted co-occurrence of illiteracy and underdevelopment as causality.<br />Illiterates formulated the mantra: 'Universalize literacy for development'.<br />Illiteracy of the third world will keep it tradition bound.<br />All of the above.<br />
    120. 120. Problem<br />90<br />According to the author<br />An illiterate mind thinks in images.<br />An illiterate mind is illogical.<br />An illiterate mind is concrete.<br />Importance of literacy is exaggerated.<br />
    121. 121. PASSAGE - V<br />During the independence movement, our leaders castigated colonial exploitation for impoverishing India. Before the British came, India was one of the greatest industrial and trading powers in the world. When the British left, India was poor and relatively backward. Indians balmed this on the British, and were certain India would become rich with the end of colonial rule. <br />Hongkong remained a colony in 1947. Indian leaders pitied this territory that still groaned under the imperial yoke.<br />Fifty years on, this sounds comic. India remains one of one of the poorest countries in the world with a per capita income of $320. But Hongkong has a per capita income of $23,000. The country that gained independence stayed poor, the country that remained a colony became immensely rice, Indeed, Hongkong became far richer than its colonial master ( Britain's per capita income today in only $ 18, 700.)<br />This apparent paradox cries out for an explanation. But I am afraid nobody seems interested in tacking a subject that sounds so politically incorrect. The contrast between India and Hong kong shows that the old theory of colonial exploitation needs serious revision of not scrapping. <br />But doing so would make the venerated leaders of our independence movement look foolish. So nobody seems interested in tackling what should logically be one of the hottest topics of debate on the 50th anniversary of independence. <br />
    122. 122. I will attempt a few answers by taking a new look at the version of colonial exploitation espoused by leaders of our independence movement. That version was misconceived and so led to misconceived remedies after independence. <br />India, a great power before the British came, was poor and relatively backward when they left.<br />Nehru blamed this on the British Raj, accusing it of de-industrialising India and forcing it into a free- trade pattern which obliged it to export commodities and import manufactures. <br />Data from the first half of this century show that de-industrialisation theory was simply false. The share of industry in India's GNP virtually doubled from 3.8 per cent in 1913 to 7.5 per cent at independence. <br />The share of manufactures in exports rose from 22,4 per cent in 1913 to 30 per cent by independence, while the share of manufactures in imports fell from 79.4 per cent to 64 per cent. No de-industrialisation here.  Nationalist historians argue that even if the share of industry in GNP increased under the British, the share of industrial employment in total declined. But this was largely because handlooms were decimated by mill-made cloth. This was technological change, not colonial exploitation. Handloom weavers in Europe lost their jobs no less than those in India.<br />But, some will ask , even if we acknowledge some industrial progress in 1900-47, did not the British try earlier to stifle Indian industry? Did they not erect barriers against Indian textiles when these were competitive in the 18th century? And after the industrial revolution made British textiles cheap, did not<br />
    123. 123. Britain deny Indian textiles protection? All this is certainly true. But nehru and his colleagues did not take the position that, after retrogressing in the 18th and 19th centuries, India had progressed in the 20th century. <br />They believed the Raj was de-industrialising the country in the 20th century too. Since their facts were wrong, so were their proposed remedies.<br />They confused India's relative industrial decline under the Raj with absolute decline. India got one of the greatest railways networks in the world during the Raj, its modren textile mill in<br />1854 (well before Japan's Meiji Restoration), and first steel plant in 1912.<br />This was not de-industrialisation. But in relative terms India was left far behind. In 1830, India accounted for 17.6 per cent of global industrial production against Britain's 9.5 per cent, but by 1900 India's share was down to 1.7 per cent against Britain's 18.5 per cent. India's relative decline was due mainly to Britain's early start in the industrial revolution, not the free- market policies of the Raj. But Nehru believed otherwise, and so followed faulty policies which, ironically, led to further decline in relative terms (it was overtaken by the countries of East and South-East Asia.) <br />Our leaders were certainly right in accusing Britain of extracting India's wealth. The net transfer of capital from India to Britain during the colonial period averaged 1.5 percent of GNR <br />This was less than the 10 per cent of GNP extracted from Indonesia<br />
    124. 124. by the Dutch. But it was nevertheless a substantial drain that reduced investment and growth in India. <br />The transfer to Britain was financed by a trade surplus . India's export-import ratio was 172.5 per cent in 1840-69, 148 percent in 1870 - 1912 and 133.4 per cent in 1913-38. Indian leaders interpreted this to mean that export -orientation was a tool of colonial exploitation, and free trade was a British ploy to force its manufactures on India and crush domestic industry. <br />So they wanted independent India to aim for self- sufficiency and import substitution instead. They forgot that, before the British came, India was a great trading power that used exports to become prosperous . Export-orientation did not help during the British Raj because it was used to finance the transfer of wealth to Britain rather than invest the gains in India. Indian leaders failed to see that once.  India became free, it would regain its old historical greatness as a trading nation. Instead, Nehru opted for a fuzzy variation of Soviet self- sufficiency. India's share of world trade declined from 2.2 per cent in 1947 to 0.6 per cent by 1980. Meanwhile East Asians became rich through trade-orientation. <br />India was colonised by the East India Company. This led to the knee-jerk notion among Indian leaders that all foreign investment led to colonial domination. Indian leaders jeered at Hongkong. Taiwan and Singpore for inviting multinationals, which they thought would lead to enslavement and<br />
    125. 125. impoverishment. <br />In fact, India stayed poor while the othrs prospered. In the first half of this century, India's GNP grew by only 1.3 percent year. Under Nehru (1947-64), India's growth rate almost tripled to 3.5 per cent. <br />Nehru saw this as proof positive that India had nothing to learn from western<br />free-marketers or their East Asian puppets. This, again, was a sad misinterpretation of history.<br />The first half of the century was economically disastrous not just for India but for the whole world. Two world wars and the great Depression led to global stagnation and distress. India's slow growth in this period probably owed more to global stagnation than colonial explostaion. <br />Once the post-war boom began, several Third World countries began to grow by 8 to 10 per cent per year. This showed that the Nehruvian rate of 3.5 per cent, originally cheered as a great achievement, was really slow in the new international climate. Alas, our leaders found a thousand excuses to pretend that the experience of other countries was irrelevant for India. <br /> The industrial revolution and spread of education in Britain led to huge improvement in human capital and institutional development (reflected in better forms of organisation and governance.) This raised productivity, and contributed far more to Britain's wealth than colonial loot. We know today that human and institutional development are vital to prosperity.<br />
    126. 126. This was not understood by nationalist leaders in most colonies, who believed Britain was rich only because it controlled colonial resources. So after independence Zambia nationalized copper mines. Sri Lanka nationalized tea plantations, Tanzania nationalized everything. This failed to enrich these countries, or impoverish Britain.<br />Once we recognize the key importance of human and institutional development, we can see additional reasons for the failure of India and Africa after independence. India's failure owes much to 'its neglect of human capital (its literacy today is only 52 per cent, against over 70 per cent in many African countries and over 90 per cent in many Asian countries.  Africa's failure owes much to the collapse of its institutions (thanks to civil wars and callous dictators.) East Asia's economic success, on the other hand, can be attributed to its success in developing both human capital and institutions<br />
    127. 127. Problem<br />91<br /> According to the author the paradox is that<br />The per capita income of the colony (Hongkong) is considerably higher than the percapita income of the coloniser ( Britain).<br />In 1997, the per capita income of the colony Hongkong is $23, 000 while that of independent India is $320.<br />No one in India is interested in tackling the question, "why after 50 years of independence India remains one of the poorest countries in the world?<br />In 1947, the Indian leaders pitied Hongkong which still groaned under the imperial yoke.<br />
    128. 128. Problem<br />92<br />According to the author<br />The British had extracted more wealth from India than what the Dutch had extracted from Indonesia.<br />Indian, leaders were alive to the need for establishing India as a trading nation.<br />Indian leaders considered free trade as a British ploy to crush domestic industry.<br />Nehru believed in fuzzy logic.<br />
    129. 129. Problem<br />93<br />According to the author<br />One sign of de-industrialisation was the rise in the exports of manufactures between 1913 and 1947.<br />De-industrialisation is indicated by a fall in the share of industrial employment in the total employment.<br />Pre-British India was one of the greatest industrial and trading powers in the world.<br />Nehru rightly accused the Raj of de- industrialising India<br />
    130. 130. Problem<br />94<br />According to the author<br />The industrial revolution in India was the cause for European handloom weavers losing their jobs.<br />Some argued that the British erected barriers against Indian textiles in the 18th century.<br />The industrial revolution in India was the cause for the decimation of Indian handlooms.<br />Nehru and his colleagues saw that after retrogressing in the 18th and 19th centuries, India had progressed in the 20th century.<br />
    131. 131. Problem<br />95<br />According to the author<br />Britain's industrial revolution was the undoing of India's industrial production.<br />The free market policies of the Raj were the real undoing of the Indian economy.<br />India's great railways networks were built after independence.<br />The British severely restricted exports from India while encouraging imports.<br />
    132. 132. Problem<br />96<br />According to the author, Nehru and his colleagues came up with wrong remedies because.<br />They came up with wrong facts.<br />They rightly thought that Britain had extracted India's wealth.<br />They wrongly thought that the British had de-industrialised India.<br />None of these<br />
    133. 133. Problem<br />97<br />According to the author<br />The share of manufactures in the GNP increased from 22.4 per cent in 1913 to 30 per cent by independence.<br />The share of manufactures in the GNP decreased from 79.4 per cent in 1913 to 30 per cent by independence.<br />India accounted for 1.76 per cent of global industrial production in 1830.<br />The GNP of India doubled between 1913 and independence.<br />
    134. 134. Problem<br />98<br />According to the author<br />Clinging to the old theory of colonial exploitation would make the leaders of the independence movement foolish.<br />Leaders of the independence movement under-estimated the colonial exploitation of India.<br />The old theory of colonial exploitation is confirmed by colonial Hongkong and independent India.<br />The old theory of colonial exploitation espoused by the leaders of the independence movement was misconceived.<br />
    135. 135. Problem<br />99<br />According to the author<br />Britain was impoverished temporarily after its colonies were granted independence.<br />The impoverishment of Britain was the gain of ex-colonies like Sri Lanka and Zambia.<br />The secret of Britain's great wealth was colonial loot.<br />The secret of Britain's great wealth was industrial revolution and the spread of education.<br />
    136. 136. Problem<br />100<br />According to the author<br />Nehru was conscious that the greatness of pre-British India had nothing to do with its tatus as a trading nation.<br />The tripled GNP growth rate of India was much higher than that of Third World countries.<br />Nehru considered the period growth rate as an indicator of the success of his policies.<br />The first half of the 20th century was disastrous for a few countries including India.<br />
    137. 137. SECTION - III<br />
    138. 138. Directions for questions 101 to 103 :<br />A survey was conducted amongst a group to ascertain their choice TV channels (DD, BBC and CNN) for watching news. The viewership for the three channels was 80%, 22% and 15% respectively. 5% of the respondents do not view news at all.<br />
    139. 139. Problem<br />101<br />What is the maximum percentage of the respondents who view all three channels?<br />22%<br />15%<br />11% <br />None of these<br />
    140. 140. Problem<br />102<br />If 10% of the respondents view DD and CNN and 12% of the respondents vie DD and BBC, then the percentage of respondents who view only CNN and BBC is<br />2 <br />0<br />8 <br />can't determine<br />
    141. 141. Problem<br />103<br />If 10% of the respondents view DD and CNN and 12% view DD and BBC , then what percentage of the respondents view all three channels?<br />zero <br />2<br />8 <br />can't determine<br />
    142. 142. Directions for questions 104 to 114 :<br />Each question is independent of the others.<br />
    143. 143. Problem<br />104<br />How many natural numbers (n) are there such that ( 16n2 + 7n + 6) / n is also a natural number?<br />4<br />3<br />infinite in number<br />none of these<br />
    144. 144. Problem<br />105<br />A dry fruit seller sells three kinds of nuts at Rs. 100 a kg. Rs. 80 a kg. and Rs. 60 a kg. respectively. If the three kinds are mixed in the ratio 3:4:5 by weight and the same is sold at 50% profit then what is the price of the mixed fruit, per kg. ?<br />Rs. 110 <br />Rs. 90<br />Rs. 70 <br />None of these<br />
    145. 145. Problem<br />106<br />Fresh grapes contain 90% of water by weight. Dry grapes contain 20% . What is the weight of the dry grapes available from 20kg. of fresh grapes?<br />2.5 kg. <br />2.4 kg.<br />2 kg. <br />None of these<br />
    146. 146. Problem<br />107<br />An express train moving at a speed of 80kmph, overtakes a goods train twice as long as the express train and moving in the same direction at a speed of 40 kmph, in 54 seconds. The time taken by the express train to go through a station 400 m long is<br />27 seconds <br />54 seconds<br />18 seconds <br />None of these<br />
    147. 147. Problem<br />108<br />A candidate was asked to find 7/8 of a positive number. He found out 7/18th of the number and got an answer, which was 770 less than the correct answer. What is the original number?<br />6160 <br />1584<br />1260 <br />None of these<br />
    148. 148. Problem<br />109<br />P and Q are positive integers where =8. Which of the following cannot be the value of ( P + Q)?<br />65 <br />35<br />20 <br />16<br />
    149. 149. Problem<br />110<br />The average of 10 scores is 80. When the highest and the lowest scores are dropped the average is 81. If the highest score is 92, find the lowest score.<br />80 <br />78<br />76 <br />60<br />
    150. 150. Problem<br />111<br />If the roots xx and x2 of the equation - 2x + c = 0, satisfy the condition<br />- 4Xj = 47, then which of the following is true?<br />a.<br />b.<br />c.<br />d. None of these<br />
    151. 151. Problem<br />112<br />The sum of the areas of two circles touching extremely and whose centers are 15 cms apart is 153p cm2. The ratio of the radius of the bigger circle to that of the smaller circle is<br />4 <br />3<br />2 <br />None of these<br />
    152. 152. Problem<br />113<br />If m and n are two integers divisible by 5, then which of the following need not necessarily be true?<br /> is divisible by 25<br />m-n is divisible by 5<br />m + n is divisible by 10<br />None of these<br />
    153. 153. Problem<br />114<br />Which of the following is true?<br />a. 734=(73)2<br />b.<br />c.<br />d.   NONE OF THESE<br />
    154. 154. Directions for questions 115 to 117 :<br />These questions are based on the following data. 60 students are divided into 3 groups A, B and C - with 15, 20 and 25 students respectively. (Each question is independent of the others.)<br />
    155. 155. Problem<br />115<br />If the groups A and B are combined and they are called as group D, then which of the following is true?<br />Average weight of group D is greater than average weight of group A but less than the average weight of weight B.<br />Average weight of group D is greater than that of group B but less than the average weight of group A.<br />Average weight of group D is equal to the average of the average weights of group A and group B.<br />None of these.<br />
    156. 156. Problem<br />116<br />If one student from group A is shifted to group B and that results in increase of average weight of both groups, then which of the following is true?<br />It is possible only if the weight of the student is less than the average weight of group of A and more than the minimum weight of any of the students in group B.<br />It is possible only if the weight of each student in group A is greater than the weight of any student in group B.<br />It is possible only if the weight of the student is less than the average weight of group A and greater than the average weight of group B.<br />None of these.<br />
    157. 157. Problem<br />117<br />If the total weight of the students in each group is same, then which of the following is true?<br />Class average is greater than the average weight of group A but equal to that of group B.<br />Class average is less than the average weight of group C but equal to that of group B.<br />Class average is equal to that of group B.<br />None of these.<br />
    158. 158. Directions for questions 118 to 120 :<br />These questions are based on the following data.<br />A race consists of 3 stretches - A, B and C each 2 kms. long. The mode of coverage of each stretch and the maximum and minimum speeds are given in the following table.<br />The speed in a given stretch is constant.<br />-The previous record to complete the race was 10 minutes<br />
    159. 159. Problem<br />118<br />Anshuman travels at A minimum speed by car and at the maximum speed in stretch B. What is the minimum speed required to travel in strech C to beat the previous record?<br />15 kmph<br />Not possible<br />20 kmph<br />None of these<br />
    160. 160. Problem<br />119<br />A hare travels at the slowest speed in strech A and takes the same time to cover strech B. If it takes 50% more time than the previous record to complete the race, at what speed does the Hare travel in stretch C?<br />10 kmph<br />15 kmph<br />20 kmph<br />None of these<br />
    161. 161. Problem<br />120<br />Mr. Tortoise has an overall average speed of 20 kmph. His average speed over the first and second stretches combined is 4 times his speed over C. His speed over the last strech is<br />10 <br />15<br />20 <br />can't determine<br />
    162. 162. Directions for questions 121 and 122 :<br />These questions are based on the following data. In Weird Holiday Co., an employee gets a holiday on those days whose first letter is same as the first letter of the employee's name. All other days are working days. Assume that the daily production of all the employees is same.<br />
    163. 163. Problem<br />121<br />Rajesh started a work on Sunday the 25th February 1996 and completed the same on 2nd March 1996. If Tom and Jerry are assigned this work on 25th February 1996, when will they complete the work?<br />26th February 1996<br />28th February 1996<br />Ist March 1996<br />It is not possible for Tom and Jerry to work together.<br />
    164. 164. Problem<br />122<br />If Rajesh had actually completed the work on 2nd April 1996 and if Tom ansShyam starting day, then on what date will they complete the ask?<br />2nd April 1996<br />29th March 1996<br />22nd arch 1996<br />15th March 1996<br />
    165. 165.  Directions for questions 123 and 124 :<br />These questions are based on the following data.<br />Frankfurt is 5 hours ahead of Boston but 5 hours behind India. For example, if it is 10 A. M. on a particular day in Frankfurt, then it is 5 A.M. on the same day in Boston and 3 P.M. on the same day in India.<br />James started at Boston at 6 P.M. on Friday and reached Frankfurt on Saturday at 7 A.M. He then left for India at 12 noon, to reach India at 1 A.M. on Sunday.<br />
    166. 166. Problem<br />123<br />If the total distance between Boston and India is 12000 kms., the average speed of James is<br />800 kmph<br />900 kmph<br />700 kmph<br />750 kmph<br />
    167. 167. Problem<br />124<br />On return journey, If James starts from India at 10 P.M. on Sunday , at what time does he reach Boston, assuming he takes the same route but stops at Frankfurt for one hour less?<br />8 A.M. <br />6 A.M.<br />10 A.M. <br />6 P.M.<br />
    168. 168. Directions for questions 125 to 134 :<br />Select the correct alternative from the given choices.<br />
    169. 169. Problem<br />125<br />The diagram below shows concentric nested squares. The diagonal of the innermost square is 2cms. The distance between the corresponding comes of any two adjacent squares is 1 cms. If we label the innermost square as 1, then counting outwards, the area (in cm2) bounded between the 7th and the 8th squares is<br />30<br />32<br />41<br />15<br />
    170. 170. 126<br />Problem<br />ABC is a 3 digit number where A > 0 and the number is equal to the sum of the factorials of the 3 digits. Then the value of B is<br />9 <br />7<br />4 <br />2<br />
    171. 171. Problem<br />127<br /> <br />Each of A, B, C lies between 0.18 and 0.2<br />B is smallest<br />C is smallest<br />A = 2C<br />
    172. 172. Problem<br />128<br />In the diagram given alongside, BC = 12; AD = 24. The areas of the triangles CBE and ADE are in the ratio<br />1:4 <br />1:3 <br />1: 2<br />None of these<br />
    173. 173. Problem<br />129<br />In the figure given alongside, triangle ABC is inscribed in the rectangle. The length of the line joining mid-points of AB and BC is equal to<br />5 <br />4<br />10<br />None of these<br />
    174. 174. Problem<br />130<br />In triangle ABC, P, Q and R are mid-points of AB, BC and CA respectively. The area of DABC is 20. The area of PQR is<br />8 <br />6 <br />5 <br />4<br />
    175. 175. Problem<br />131<br />The value of a silver coin is directly proportional to the (diameter)2 when the thickness is same and is directly proportional to thickness when the diameter is same. If two silver coins have their diameters in the ratio of 4 : 3, then what is the ratio of the thickness of the two silver coins, if the value of the 1st coin is times that of the 2nd coin?<br />4:9 <br />9:4<br />9 : 16 <br />16 : 9<br />
    176. 176. Problem<br />132<br />Instead of walking along the adjacent sides of a rectangular field, a boy takes a short cut along the diagonal of the field and saves a distance equal to half the longer side. The ratio of the shorter side to that of the longer side is<br />1:2 <br />2:3<br />1:4 <br />3:4<br />
    177. 177. Problem<br />133<br />A student appears for 5 papers in an exam where the full marks are the same for each paper. The marks obtained by the student in each paper are in the ratio 6: 7 :8 :9 :10 respectively. He obtained 60 % of the total full marks. The number of papers where he obtained more than 50% are<br />5 <br />2<br />3 <br />4<br />
    178. 178. Problem<br />134<br />The difference between the roots of the equation 6x2 + wx + 1 = 0 is —. If w > 0, then the value of w is<br />3 <br />4<br />6 <br />5<br />
    179. 179. Directions for questions 135 and 136 :<br />These questions are based on the following data. Ram Sagar produced and sold pens. The cost of production was Rs.8 and the selling price was Rs. 10. The tax on the production cost is 12.5%. The government now decides to impose 12.5% tax on the selling price.<br />
    180. 180. Problem<br />135<br />The percentage figure by which the profit increased (+) or decreased (-) is<br /> +25 <br /> -25<br /> +75 <br /> -75<br />
    181. 181. Problem<br />136<br />What is the percentage increase (+) / decrease (-) in the government revenue from the taxes, if the sales volume is increased by 10%?<br /> -37.5 <br /> +37.5<br /> -25 <br /> +25<br />
    182. 182. Directions for questions 137 :<br />This is an independent question.<br />
    183. 183. Problem<br />137<br />A person buys 4 Oranges and 3 Pears for Rs. 22. He suddenly changes his mind and buys one Orange less but 2 Pears more for the same price of Rs. 22. What is the price of each Orange?<br /> Rs. 5 <br /> Rs. 4<br /> Rs. 3 <br /> Rs. 2<br />
    184. 184. Directions for questions 138 and 139 :These questions are based on the following data.<br />A thief flees City A in a car towards City B on a stretch of straight road, 300 kilometers long, at the speed of 60 km/hr. In 15 minutes a police party (X) leaves City A to chase the thief at 65 km/hr.<br />
    185. 185. Problem<br />138<br />After leaving, how long does it take for the police party (X) to catch the thief ?<br />2 hrs. 45 mts.<br />3 hrs. 15 mts.<br />3 hours<br />None of these<br />
    186. 186. Problem<br />139<br />If a police party (Y) were to leave City B at the same time as police party X leaving City A to catch the thief at 60 km/hr., then which of the following statements is true?<br />Party X reaches 37.5 minutes after Party Y has caught the thief.<br />Party Y reaches 37.5 minutes after Party X has caught the thief.<br />Party X and Party Y caught the the if together.<br />Party X was 20kms away when the thief was caught..<br />
    187. 187. Directions for questions 140 to 142 :<br />Each question is independent of the others.<br />
    188. 188. Problem<br />140<br />A salesman makes a commission of x percent on the first Rs. 2,000 worth of sales in any given month and y percent on all further sales during that month. If he makes Rs. 700 from Rs. 4,000 of sales of March and he makes Rs. 900 from Rs. 5,000 of sales in April, what is the value of x? <br /> 10% <br /> 15%<br /> 2% <br /> 5%<br />
    189. 189. Problem<br />141<br />In the figure given alongside, diameter AB of the circle is 15 cms. The length of chord AC is 12cm and the length of chord BD is 9 cm. The area of figure ACBD in square cm is <br />135 <br />180<br />54<br />None of these<br />
    190. 190. Problem<br />142<br />P,Q and R are three consecutive odd natural numbers in the ascending order. Three times P is three less than two times R. The value of R is<br />19 <br />13<br />9 <br />5<br />
    191. 191. Directions for questions 143 to 145 :<br />These questions are based on the following data. Let x, y and z be three numbers. Define<br />la (x,, y, z) = min {(* -y), (y + z)} le Ox:, y, z) - max {(* - y), (y - z)) ma (x, y, z) = 1/2 {le Or, y, z) + la (x, y, z)}<br />
    192. 192. Problem<br />143<br />Given thatx > y > z > 0. which of the following is necessarily true?<br />la (x,y,z) > (x,y, z)<br />ma (x, y, z) < la(ac, y, z)<br />ma (x, y, z) < le Ok, y, z)<br />None of these<br />
    193. 193. Problem<br />144<br />The value of ma(10, 4, le (la ( 10, 5, 3), 5, 3)) is<br />6.5<br />4<br />7<br />3<br />
    194. 194. Problem<br />145<br />Let x=15 ,y=10 and z=9. The value of the expression le (x,min(y,x-z) : le (9,8,ma) (x,y,z))) is<br />9<br />7.5<br />25<br />12.5<br />
    195. 195. Directions for questions 146 to 150 :<br />Study the following table and answer the questions that follow. The total loans and agricultural loans by banks in SundarRashtra over the period1970 - 83.<br />
    196. 196.
    197. 197. Problem<br />146<br />The average size of loans by rural banks in 1983 in terms of 1970 prices was about<br />Rs. 109 <br />Rs. 478<br />Rs. 207 <br />Rs. 149<br />
    198. 198. Problem<br />147<br />In 1976 the value of agricultural loans as a percentage of the total loans was about<br />87% <br />67%<br />13% <br />None of these<br />
    199. 199. Problem<br />148<br />Between which two successive years did the total n'-mber of loans increase the most in terms of percentage?<br />1972-73 <br />1980-83<br />1973-74 <br />1971-72<br />
    200. 200. Problem<br />149<br />The compounded annual growth rate in consumer prices over the years 1971-8 was about<br />2% <br />5%<br />15% <br />8%<br />
    201. 201. Problem<br />150<br />The average number of loans during 1970- 83 was about (in thousands)<br />234 <br />442<br />197 <br />240<br />
    202. 202. Direction for questions 151 to 156:<br />Study the graph given on the next page and answer the questions that follow<br />
    203. 203. Problem<br />151<br />Per capita food grain production was maximum in the year<br />1992<br />1995<br />1990<br />1993<br />
    204. 204. Problem<br />152<br />Food grain production per unit of milk production was minimum in the year<br />1992<br />1990<br />1996<br />None of these<br />
    205. 205. Problem<br />153<br />Per capita milk production was maximum in the year<br />1995<br />1992<br />1996<br />None of these<br />
    206. 206. Problem<br />154<br />Assuming that the presence of a special nutrient in 1 gallon of milk is 10 units and in 1 ton of food grain is 1 unit, the maximum amount of the nutrient was available in the year<br /> <br />1992<br />1996<br />1995<br />None of these<br />
    207. 207. Problem<br />155<br />Assuming that the presence of a special nutrient in 1 gallon of milk is 10 units and in 1 ton of food grain is 1 unit, the maximum per capita of this nutrient was in the year<br />1992<br />1995<br />1996<br />None of these<br />
    208. 208. Problem<br />156<br />The average value of the nutrient units (as computed in question 154) per year is about (in millions units)<br /> <br />1.85<br />2.86.4<br />3.87.8<br />4.None of these<br />
    209. 209. Directions for questions 157 to 162<br />Study the following chart and answer the questions that follow: Cost and profit for 1991-95 in Rupees(lakhs)<br />
    210. 210. Problem<br />157<br />The maximum decrease in profit occurred between the years<br />1993-94 <br />1991-92<br />1994-95 <br />1992-93<br />
    211. 211. Problem<br />158<br />The difference between the amount spent on raw material and wages was the least in<br />1995 <br />1992<br />1993 <br />1991<br />
    212. 212. Problem<br />159<br />The average profit, in laths of rupees, over the five year period was approximately.<br />19 <br />13<br /> 10<br />28<br />
    213. 213. Problem<br />160<br />In which year was the amount spent on raw material per unit wage cost the maximum? <br />1992 <br />1993<br />1994 <br />1995<br />
    214. 214. Problem<br />161<br />The maximum percentage increase in sales revenue between any two successive years was<br />43 <br />34<br />27 <br />60<br />
    215. 215. Problem<br />162<br />Which cost component has remained relatively stable over the five years?<br /> <br />Raw material <br />Wages <br />Interest <br />Overheads<br />
    216. 216. Directions for questions 163 to 169 :<br />In the table below, the average tariff (paise per Kwh) in 1994-95 and the average annual percentage increase in tariff over the three years from 1991-92 to 1994-95 for various electricity boards ( SEBs) is given . Answer the questions that follow<br />
    217. 217. Problem<br />163<br />The absolute value of the maximum 167. decrease in tariff in the period 1991-92 to 1994-95 is about<br />15 <br />8<br />17 <br />22<br />
    218. 218. Problem<br />164<br />The value of the maximum increase in tariff in the periodl991-92 to 1994-95 is about<br />57 <br />168<br />150 <br />230<br />
    219. 219. Problem<br />165<br />In 1991-92, if the average revenue per Kwh was 153 paise for KEB, then the average revenue per Kwh in 1994-95 cannot be lower than<br />153 <br /> 188<br /> 21 <br />can't determine<br />
    220. 220. Directions for questions 166 to 169 :<br />Assume the consumption of electricity in the domestic, agriculture, commercial and industrial sectors is 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% respectively. 169. Treat each of the questions 166 to 169 independently.<br />
    221. 221. Problem<br />166<br />The maximum average revenue par Kwh in 1994 -95 Was obtained by <br />MPEB <br />KEB<br />KSEB<br />UPSEB<br />
    222. 222. Problem<br />167<br />If domestic consumption went down by 3%, agricultural consumption went down by 1% and the consumption in the other two sectors increased by 2% each, then which of the following statements is true?<br />The average revenue per Kwh of KSEB went down<br />The average revenue per Kwh of OSEB went down<br />The total consumption of electricity went up<br />There was no change in the average revenue per Kwh of UPSEB<br />
    223. 223. Problem<br />168<br />KEB wants to increase the average revenue per Kwh by 10 paise, by increasing the price of the industrial sector, in 1995-96. The price per Kwh of industrial sector charged by KEB in 1995-96 in paise is about <br /> <br />270 <br />240<br />255 <br />can't determine<br />
    224. 224. Problem<br />169<br />The total consumption of electricity went down in UPSEB due to a 10% reduction in the consumption of the agricultural sector. The percentage reduction in the total consumption of electricity in UPSEB will be about<br /> <br />10 <br />5<br />2 <br />can't determine<br />
    225. 225. Directions for questions 170 to 175 :<br />Study the following tables and answer the questions that follow.<br /> New Hotel Projects in Mumbai<br />
    226. 226. Problem<br />170<br />The company with the minimum estimated cost per room is<br />IHCL<br />Raheia<br />Asian Hotels<br />Lokhandwala<br />
    227. 227. Problem<br />171<br />The investments in projects to completed in 1998 as a percentage of investments in projects to be completed in all the three given years is about about<br />59.38<br />40.62<br />26.61<br />None of these <br />
    228. 228. Problem<br />172<br />The average number of room per Rs. 1crore considering all the projects to be completed in mumbai during 1998 -2000 is about<br />1.68<br />40.62<br />0.60<br />None of these <br />
    229. 229. Directions for questions 173 to 175 :<br />Assume for all projects the cost is incurred at the completion.<br />
    230. 230. Problem<br />173<br />Considering an annual simple interest rate of 10%, the average cost per room for all the projects at the end of year 2000 is estimated to be approximately.<br />Rs. 60 lakhs<br />Rs. 66 lakhs<br />Rs. 70 lakhs<br />None of these<br />
    231. 231. Problem<br />174<br />Considering an interest rate of 10% compounded annually, the value of the total investments in all the projects measured in 1997 is about<br />Rs. 1496 cr<br />Rs. 1373 cr<br />Rs. 1600 cr<br />None of these<br />
    232. 232. Problem<br />175<br />Assuming an interest rate of 10% compounded annually, the ratio of the total investment in projects to be completed in 1998 to that in year 2000 is about<br /> <br />1.9 <br />2.1<br />2.3 <br />None of these<br />
    233. 233. Directions for questions 176 to 185 :<br />Each question is followed by two statements. You have to decide whether the information provided in the statements is sufficient for answering the question.<br />Mark 1 If the question can be answered by using one of the statements alone, but cannot be answered by using the other statement alone. <br />Mark 2 If the question can be answered by using either statement alone.<br />Mark3 If the question can be answered by using both statements together, but cannot be answered by using either statement alone. <br />Mark 4 If the question cannot be answered even by using both the statements together.<br />
    234. 234. Problem<br />176<br />A man travels North East from Mali to Pali. Find the distance between Mali and Pali.<br />When he covers 1/3 of the distance, he is 3 km. east and 1 km. north of Mali.<br />When he covers 2/3 of the distance, he is 6 km. east and 2 km. north of Mali<br />
    235. 235. Problem<br />177<br />A number is divisible by 99 if<br />the number is simultaneously divisible by 9 and 11.<br />a number formed by reversing the positions of the digits of the same number is divisible by 99.<br />
    236. 236. Problem<br />178<br />A product was sold for Rs. S at a profit of p% where the cost of manufacturing the product consists of Raw materials, Labour and Overheads are increased and the company intends to sell the product at a profit. What is the new selling price?<br />Cost for Raw Materials, Labour and Overheads are in the ratio of R. L. O.H prior to increase in costs.<br />Cost of Raw Materials, Labour and Overheads are increased by r%, 1% and oh% respectively.<br />
    237. 237. Problem<br />179<br />The values of x and y can be determined uniquely if<br />3x + 2y = 45<br />10 . 5x + 7y = 130<br />
    238. 238. Problem<br />180<br />The total capacity of production for two types of fans is 20, 000 units. Using a total of 50 ton of materials for production of both types of fans and operating at full capacity, what is the production of the type 1 if.<br />the rate of consumption of materials for type 1 is 2 kg of materials per fan.<br />the rate of consumption of materials for type 2 is 3 kg of materials per fan.<br />
    239. 239. Problem<br />181<br />A positive 2 -digit number is determined uniquely when<br />the number is 6 times the sum of the digits of the number.<br />the number exceeds by9 than the number obtained by inter changing its digits.<br />
    240. 240. Problem<br />182<br />Each of three people, P, Q and R, wears one hat, either black or white. Each person sees and announces the colours of the hat of the other two persons. What is the colour of the hat worn by P?<br />P announces that he can see one white hat and one black hat.<br />Q announces that he can see white hat and one black hat.<br />
    241. 241. Problem<br />183<br />During a sale period a shopkeeper sells two AC units. What is overall gain or loss as a percentage of cost price to him?<br />He sells one at a loss of 25% and the other at a profit of 25%.<br />The selling price of both the units is same.<br />
    242. 242. Problem<br />184<br />What is the speed of the car?<br />Car's speed is 10 kmph more than that of Motor bike. <br />Motor bike takes 2 hrs. more than car to cover 100km.<br />
    243. 243. Problem<br />185<br />a3 + b3 = ?<br />a2 + b2 = 22<br />4ab = 3<br />
    244. 244. For solution visit to www.Vasista.net<br />For solution<br />

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