CHAPTER 17 <ul><li>FACILITIES & EQUIPMENT </li></ul>
Beef Facility Design <ul><li>Facilities Can be Functional and Cost Effective </li></ul><ul><li>Constructed to: </li></ul><...
Beef Facility Design <ul><li>A.I. Breeding Requires Corrals and Breeding Chutes Built for That Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>U...
Before Building <ul><li>Considerations:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What Existing Facilities You Have </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><u...
Patterning <ul><li>Creating a Habitual Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Animals Will Come to You </li></ul></ul><ul><ul>...
Timing is Important <ul><li>Begin Patterning 10 to 14 Days Before Breeding Season Start Date </li></ul><ul><li>Build All F...
Keep Cattle Calm <ul><li>Give Cows and Heifers 1 to 2 Hours to Calm Down After Separation Before Inseminating </li></ul><u...
Facility Size <ul><li>Determined by Breeding Needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When Using Heat Synchronization Programs:  </li><...
Identification <ul><li>Efficient and Effective A.I.  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depends Upon a Workable Cattle Identification S...
Design and Construction <ul><li>Well-Designed Facilities Make it Easy for Cattle and You </li></ul><ul><li>Once Bred, Catt...
Minimum Requirements <ul><li>Holding Pen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large Enough to Hold All or Part of Herd </li></ul></ul><ul...
Holding pen <ul><li>Should be Large Enough to Give Cows and Heifers Plenty of Room to Minimize Stress </li></ul><ul><li>A ...
Crowding Pen <ul><li>Wide Gate Opening Directly Into the Holding Pen </li></ul><ul><li>Contains Room for 6 to 10 Animals C...
Alley <ul><li>A Curved Alley Aids in Moving Cattle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cows and Heifers Enter a Curved Alley More Readil...
Breeding Chute <ul><li>Cows and Heifers More Readily Enter a Curved Chute Because They Don’t See an End </li></ul><ul><li>...
Breeding Chute <ul><li>To Resolve Problems, Chutes Should Have: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sides That are Six Feet High and Tig...
Breeding Chute <ul><li>Concrete Aprons Under the Chute and Along Alley is a Good Investment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leave Su...
Headgate <ul><li>Environment and Animal Temperament May Dictate the Need to Use One  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can Slow Down t...
Breeding Box <ul><li>Can be Placed in Front of Existing Chutes </li></ul><ul><li>Dark, Quiet, Solid-Sided Box With a Chain...
Breeding Facility Diagram
Dairy Facility Design <ul><li>Should be Done With the Best Interest of the Cow in Mind </li></ul><ul><li>Properly Designed...
Dairy Facility Design <ul><li>Restraint Options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-Locking Manger Stalls (Head-Locks) </li></ul></...
Head-locks <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces Animal Stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to Proper Rat...
Head-Locks <ul><li>Concerns: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restriction of Dry Matter Intake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Studies...
Dairy Facility Design <ul><li>Pen or Group Size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep Under 200 Animals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distan...
Summary <ul><li>Well-Planned Facilities are Designed to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimize Stress on Animals </li></ul></ul><...
Summary <ul><li>Cows Look for a Way Out of the Holding Pen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be Funneled to Crowding Pen and Br...
Summary <ul><li>Need a Holding and Crowding Pen, Breeding Chute and Headgate/Breeding Box </li></ul><ul><li>Cover the Bree...
Summary <ul><li>Pen Size, Distance Walked From Parlor to Pen and the Use of Exercise Lots Should be Considered </li></ul><...
Question 1 <ul><li>What is the single most important consideration in the design and construction of A.I. facilities, besi...
Question 2 <ul><li>Explain how you would go about “patterning” cows and heifers. </li></ul>Feed hay or grain in the trap a...
Question 3 <ul><li>What is the “escape” response? </li></ul>Cattle will look for a way out of the pen
Question 4 <ul><li>When should you begin patterning cattle that you plan to breed? </li></ul>Ten to fourteen days before t...
Question 5 <ul><li>Why is a good identification system for cattle important in relation to facilities? </li></ul>To know w...
Question 6 <ul><li>What are the main parts of a typical A.I. facility? </li></ul>The holding area or trap, the crowd alley...
Question 7 <ul><li>How high and wide should the breeding chute be for cows? </li></ul><ul><li>For heifers? </li></ul>Sides...
Question 8 <ul><li>Why is a roof over the breeding chute important? </li></ul>To protect the semen and the inseminator fro...
Question 9 <ul><li>What are three benefits of self-locks in an intensive A.I. program? </li></ul>Reduces animal stress, ea...
Question 10 <ul><li>What is a reasonable goal for amount of time cows should spend locked up? </li></ul>One to one and a h...
Question 11 <ul><li>Why is it beneficial to reduce time on concrete? </li></ul>Increases mounting activity for heat detect...
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Ai manual chapter 17

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inseminação Artificial em bovinos -Abspecplan

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  • You’ll find this chapter on page 17-1 of your manual, feel free to follow along and make notes if you’d like. Good facilities for breeding are critical to the success or failure of any A.I. program. Facilities need not be elaborate, but must be efficient and provide safety for the inseminator and the cow or heifer.
  • Cows will need to be sorted, inseminated, and released.
  • It’s nice to have a separate facility for A.I.
  • Two key things to consider before you build. Do you have any existing facilities that can be used, and what’s the budget?
  • It’s a lot easier to get the cows to come to you than to have to chase them. Knowing where cattle congregate and at what times can be very helpful in patterning them.
  • It takes time to build the habit, so start construction of the facilities well in advance of the two week start of patterning.
  • Again stress can have a negative effect on fertility. A creep gap is one that’s wide enough for the calf to get through but not the cow. When the cows are synchronized and in heat the breeding time is here, it is not time to be lining up help. Do this well ahead of time.
  • At some point you will normally have to have the whole herd captured, so take that into consideration for your traps and holding pens.
  • A fundamental management tool. Without it you have chaos.
  • Cattle are creatures of habit, study their habits and design accordingly. A cow will always try to go out where she came in, use that to your advantage in trapping and moving them.
  • Here’s a simple design using an existing wall of a building or fence.
  • The holding pen can also be used as a trap when patterning.
  • A crowding pen is just that, it should be set up so that cattle are easily pushed into the stacking chute. A crowd gate that pushes them in will be safer for both you and the cattle.
  • Irregardless of herd size, the alley leading to the chute needs to be a minimum of 16 feet long.
  • It takes solid construction to hold cattle in, it’s no fun when they run off with the chute, or the herd breaks out after going to all the work of getting them in.
  • Even the largest of cows can get through a 28 inch alley way. Build it solidly.
  • Concrete is nice. A roof is beneficial for protecting semen as well as the inseminator.
  • Head gates are optional.
  • Cattle will stand quietly in a dark place; a breeding box capitalizes on that.
  • Here’s a plan for a breeding system containing a holding pen, crowding pen, stacking or working chute, and a head gate.
  • Dairy facilities should also concentrate on cow comfort.
  • What are the goals for your herd? Design your facility to meet them.
  • Headlocks make it very easy to do Vet checks and A.I.
  • There were concerns, but they have been disproved and are outweighed significantly by the benefits of efficiency.
  • Remember the cow needs to lay down about 60% of the time to properly ruminate. Dirt lots relieve stress.
  • If it’s easier on the cow it will be easier on those handling her too. Separate facilities are nice. It’s easier to get the cattle to come to you than to chase them.
  • Cows will look for a way out when trapped, generally in the area they came in. Handle cattle calmly to keep them from becoming stressed. ID is a fundamental management tool. The best facility is one that is efficient and cost effective.
  • Key things to remember when setting up your system.
  • Utilize the resources available.
  • Ai manual chapter 17

    1. 1. CHAPTER 17 <ul><li>FACILITIES & EQUIPMENT </li></ul>
    2. 2. Beef Facility Design <ul><li>Facilities Can be Functional and Cost Effective </li></ul><ul><li>Constructed to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimize Stress on Animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide For Efficient Handling and Inseminating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect Semen From Elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect Inseminator From Injury </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Should Allow You to Hold, Sort and Breed Cows and Heifers With Ease </li></ul>
    3. 3. Beef Facility Design <ul><li>A.I. Breeding Requires Corrals and Breeding Chutes Built for That Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Use Different Facilities for Working and Breeding Animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Want Cows to Associate A.I. With Non-Threatening Activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces Stress on Animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stress Can Cause Lower Conception Rates </li></ul></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Before Building <ul><li>Considerations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What Existing Facilities You Have </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I.E. Fences, Pens, Corrals, Gates, Feed, Shade and Water Locations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How Many Cattle Will be Processed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Daily and Seasonally </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How Much Expense Can be Justified </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Patterning <ul><li>Creating a Habitual Behavior </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Animals Will Come to You </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saves Time and Labor of Chasing Cattle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily Done When Using Feed, Water or Shade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Limit Feed Access </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Closing Gate for Night on Area With Water (Not Desirable in All Locations) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Select an Area That Can be Easily Closed Off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Rough Terrain Areas, Locate Corrals, Pens and Chutes on Well-Established Cattle Trails </li></ul></ul>
    6. 6. Timing is Important <ul><li>Begin Patterning 10 to 14 Days Before Breeding Season Start Date </li></ul><ul><li>Build All Facilities Long Before You Begin Patterning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Animals Need to Become Familiar With Them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Design Breeding Effort Around Cows’ and Heifers’ Daily Habits </li></ul><ul><li>Established a Daily Fixed-Time Schedule </li></ul>
    7. 7. Keep Cattle Calm <ul><li>Give Cows and Heifers 1 to 2 Hours to Calm Down After Separation Before Inseminating </li></ul><ul><li>Provide “Creep Gaps” so Calves Can Reach Their Mothers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces Stress for Both Cow and Calf </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Always Have Enough Help on Hand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces Stress for You and the Cattle </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Facility Size <ul><li>Determined by Breeding Needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When Using Heat Synchronization Programs: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Facilities Must be Able to Handle More Cattle in Shorter Time Period </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of Program Used Determines Holding Needs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I.E. Fixed-Time Insemination Requires 100% Holding Capacity of Eligible Females </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If Breeding Over 100 Cows Have at Least 2 Breeding Stalls and a Back-Up Inseminator </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Identification <ul><li>Efficient and Effective A.I. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depends Upon a Workable Cattle Identification System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type of Identification Doesn’t Matter as Long as You Know Which Animals Have Been Bred and Which Ones Have Not </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ID Needed so You Know Which Bull Was Bred to Which Animal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ID Should be Easily Read From a Distance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have Identification Information in Your Records </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Design and Construction <ul><li>Well-Designed Facilities Make it Easy for Cattle and You </li></ul><ul><li>Once Bred, Cattle Should be Able to Exit the Breeding Chute Without Returning to the Holding Pen </li></ul><ul><li>Use Existing Fences, Walls and Buildings to Hold Costs Down </li></ul>
    11. 11. Minimum Requirements <ul><li>Holding Pen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large Enough to Hold All or Part of Herd </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Crowding Pen </li></ul><ul><li>Alley </li></ul><ul><li>Breeding Chute </li></ul><ul><li>Head Gate / Breeding Box </li></ul>
    12. 12. Holding pen <ul><li>Should be Large Enough to Give Cows and Heifers Plenty of Room to Minimize Stress </li></ul><ul><li>A Crowding Pen and Stacking Chute Will Help With the Continuous Flow of Cattle to the Breeding Chute </li></ul>
    13. 13. Crowding Pen <ul><li>Wide Gate Opening Directly Into the Holding Pen </li></ul><ul><li>Contains Room for 6 to 10 Animals Comfortably </li></ul><ul><li>Triangular Shaped With Two Right Angle Sides Measuring 16 Feet Long </li></ul>
    14. 14. Alley <ul><li>A Curved Alley Aids in Moving Cattle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cows and Heifers Enter a Curved Alley More Readily Because They Don’t See a Dead End </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keep Moving Ahead to Find a Way Out </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Length Varies Depending on Number of Cattle to be Handled </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Never Less Than 16 Feet Long </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjust to Suit Your Herd Size and Needs </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Breeding Chute <ul><li>Cows and Heifers More Readily Enter a Curved Chute Because They Don’t See an End </li></ul><ul><li>Common Problems With Poor Designs Include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of Strength to Hold Cattle in Desired Position </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crowding Pen Has No Means of Loading Breeding Chute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Horizontal Boards Have too Much Space Between Them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chutes are Built too Wide </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Breeding Chute <ul><li>To Resolve Problems, Chutes Should Have: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sides That are Six Feet High and Tightly Constructed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limit Chute Width to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cows = 26 to 28 Inches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heifers = 22 to 24 Inches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build With a Combination of Steel Frame and Wood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Posts Should be 4 to 6 Inches in Diameter and 9 to 10 Feet Long - Sink Posts 3 to 4 Feet </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Breeding Chute <ul><li>Concrete Aprons Under the Chute and Along Alley is a Good Investment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leave Surface Rough </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides Better Traction for Cattle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces Stress on Animals and Inseminators </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Construct a Roof Over the Chute </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows Inseminator to Concentrate on His/Her Job in Unpredictable Weather Conditions </li></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Headgate <ul><li>Environment and Animal Temperament May Dictate the Need to Use One </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can Slow Down the Process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can Cause More Stress on Animal Than Breeding Box </li></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Breeding Box <ul><li>Can be Placed in Front of Existing Chutes </li></ul><ul><li>Dark, Quiet, Solid-Sided Box With a Chain or Bar Retainer to Keep Animal Steady </li></ul><ul><li>Ideal for One or Two Person Operations </li></ul><ul><li>Female Should Fit Snugly in Box </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some Boxes Employ a Ratchet System to Move Animal Left or Right </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Modern Barns are Mobile Units </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also Have Space to House Breeding Equipment and Supplies </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Breeding Facility Diagram
    21. 21. Dairy Facility Design <ul><li>Should be Done With the Best Interest of the Cow in Mind </li></ul><ul><li>Properly Designed Facilities Will Enhance: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cow Comfort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worker Comfort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Overall Efficiency of Daily Management Tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>I.E. Breeding, Reproductive Checks, Herd Health </li></ul></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Dairy Facility Design <ul><li>Restraint Options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-Locking Manger Stalls (Head-Locks) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sort Gates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palpation Rails </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Holding Alleys </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Match With Dairy Size and Expected Reproductive Management Goals </li></ul>
    23. 23. Head-locks <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces Animal Stress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to Proper Ration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manure Handled Normally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved Cow Flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decreases Chance of Group Mixing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater Flexibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cows are Locked up When Necessary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Breeder and Veterinarian Can Work Simultaneously </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased Efficiency in A.I. Breeding and Herd Health </li></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Head-Locks <ul><li>Concerns: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Restriction of Dry Matter Intake </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Studies Show No Reduction in Intake With Under 4 Hours of Lock up Time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recommended Lock up Time of 1 to 1.5 Hours </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Improve Labor Efficiency for Routine Management Tasks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I.E. Heat Detection, Breeding, Herd Health, Reproductive Checks </li></ul></ul>
    25. 25. Dairy Facility Design <ul><li>Pen or Group Size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep Under 200 Animals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distance Walked </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between the Parlor and Pen Should Not Exceed: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1000 Feet for 2 Times-a-Day </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>750 Feet for 3 Times-a-Day </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>500 Feet for 4 Times-a-Day </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Exercise Lots </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dirt Lots Will Help Improve Heat Detection </li></ul></ul>
    26. 26. Summary <ul><li>Well-Planned Facilities are Designed to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimize Stress on Animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide Efficient Handling and Inseminating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect Semen From Elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect Inseminator From Injury </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use Different Facilities for Working Cattle and Inseminating </li></ul><ul><li>Patterning Brings Cattle to You </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be Started 10 to 14 Days Prior to Breeding Season Start Date </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Summary <ul><li>Cows Look for a Way Out of the Holding Pen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Should be Funneled to Crowding Pen and Breeding Chute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep Cattle Calm Throughout Insemination Process </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Have a Workable Identification Program </li></ul><ul><li>Best Design and Construction of Facilities Should be Efficient and Cost Effective </li></ul>
    28. 28. Summary <ul><li>Need a Holding and Crowding Pen, Breeding Chute and Headgate/Breeding Box </li></ul><ul><li>Cover the Breeding Chute to Protect Semen and the Inseminator From the Elements </li></ul><ul><li>Dairy Facilities Should be Designed for Cow and Worker Comfort </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Locks Enhance Heat Detection, Reduce Animal Stress, Improve Cow Flow, Provide Flexibility and Cows Have Access to a Proper Ration </li></ul>
    29. 29. Summary <ul><li>Pen Size, Distance Walked From Parlor to Pen and the Use of Exercise Lots Should be Considered </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dirt Lots Help Improve Heat Expression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>University Extension Offices are a Good Source for Plans of Various Types of Cattle Handling Facilities </li></ul>
    30. 30. Question 1 <ul><li>What is the single most important consideration in the design and construction of A.I. facilities, besides the cost? </li></ul>Location
    31. 31. Question 2 <ul><li>Explain how you would go about “patterning” cows and heifers. </li></ul>Feed hay or grain in the trap area.
    32. 32. Question 3 <ul><li>What is the “escape” response? </li></ul>Cattle will look for a way out of the pen
    33. 33. Question 4 <ul><li>When should you begin patterning cattle that you plan to breed? </li></ul>Ten to fourteen days before the start of the breeding season.
    34. 34. Question 5 <ul><li>Why is a good identification system for cattle important in relation to facilities? </li></ul>To know who has been bred and who has not. To know which bulls are bred to which cows or heifers.
    35. 35. Question 6 <ul><li>What are the main parts of a typical A.I. facility? </li></ul>The holding area or trap, the crowd alley, the chute, and the headgate.
    36. 36. Question 7 <ul><li>How high and wide should the breeding chute be for cows? </li></ul><ul><li>For heifers? </li></ul>Sides 6 feet high, width 26-28 inches Sides 6 feet high, width 22-24 inches
    37. 37. Question 8 <ul><li>Why is a roof over the breeding chute important? </li></ul>To protect the semen and the inseminator from the elements.
    38. 38. Question 9 <ul><li>What are three benefits of self-locks in an intensive A.I. program? </li></ul>Reduces animal stress, easy identification, cows locked when needed.
    39. 39. Question 10 <ul><li>What is a reasonable goal for amount of time cows should spend locked up? </li></ul>One to one and a half hours.
    40. 40. Question 11 <ul><li>Why is it beneficial to reduce time on concrete? </li></ul>Increases mounting activity for heat detection.

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