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Ai manual chapter 14


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inseminação Artificial em bovinos -Abspecplan

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Ai manual chapter 14

  1. 1. CHAPTER 14 <ul><li>GENETIC MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ® </li></ul>
  2. 2. GMS ® <ul><li>Genetic Management System </li></ul><ul><li>Began in 1968 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First Fully Computerized Mating Program </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Help Dairy Producers Breed the Most Profitable Herd for Their Unique Management Situation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Evaluated Over 15 Million Cattle Around the World </li></ul>
  3. 3. Foundation <ul><li>Apply Proven Genetic Concepts With Practical Cow Knowledge and Experience to Meet the Needs of the Dairy Producer </li></ul><ul><li>Influences a Dairy Producer’s Profitability by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prioritizing Semen Investment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use Herd Percentile Ranking™ (HPR™) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximize Genetic Progress While Minimizing Risk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use Reliability Restrictions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce Inbreeding and Manage Recessive Traits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use Inbreeding Standards </li></ul></ul></ul>
  4. 4. GMS Program <ul><li>Fits the Need of the Producer </li></ul><ul><li>Allows Producer Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customize Program to Meet Herd Goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Producer Can Design Program to Account for: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relative Interest in Production and Conformation Traits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comfort Level for Inbreeding Management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Amount They Wish to Spend on Their Breeding Program </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Management Priorities • Housing System </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conformation Preferences • Milk Market </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Combines Producer’s Goals With Cow’s Specific Conformation Traits = Mating Recommendation </li></ul>
  5. 5. GMS Evaluators <ul><li>Must Meet High Standards </li></ul><ul><li>Selected Based Upon: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interest in Improving Dairy Herds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge of Dairy Cattle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Must Attend Extensive Training School at ABS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To be Approved and Certified: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must Understand Genetic Principals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must Understand GMS Operational Procedures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Must Have Highly Accurate Cow Evaluation Skills </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Continuous Training Follows Certification </li></ul>
  6. 6. GMS System <ul><li>Based on Linear Evaluation of Dairy Cattle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First Developed by ABS in 1975 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Later Adopted by Entire Industry </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Animal Evaluated for 14 Traits : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rear Udder Width – Rear Udder Height </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rear Leg Side View – Udder Cleft </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Udder Depth – Teat Placement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teat Length – Stature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Angularity – Strength –Rump Width </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fore Udder – Rump Angle – Foot Angle </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. GMS Evaluation Traits
  8. 8. GMS Uses Pedigree Information <ul><li>Adjusts Linear Scores and Production Information of Cow Being Mated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to Determine Inbreeding Values </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determines Mating Scores and Recommendations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps Avoid Negative Recessives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BLAD </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mulefoot </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weaver </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CVM </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. GMS Utilizes Computers <ul><li>Fully Computerized Since Start in 1968 </li></ul><ul><li>Provide Unbiased and Consistent Recommendations </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations Based Upon: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetically Sound Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practical Knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Experience Contributed by Cows and Research Around the World </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Net Result = Faster Genetic Progress </li></ul>
  10. 10. Using the Database <ul><li>Database of Bulls From Around the World </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Includes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Production Information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Type Information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Health Traits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Determine Animal Rankings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Herd Percentile Ranking (HPR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on Production and Type Characteristics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uses Producer Goals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Helps Prioritize Semen Usage </li></ul>
  11. 11. GMS Helps Manage Risks <ul><li>Eliminates Bulls Based on Risk Factors Specified by the Herd </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminates Mating of Sires with Recessives That Were Also Carried by the Animal’s Sire or Maternal Grandsire </li></ul><ul><li>Will Eliminate if Possible Mating to a Sire Poor in a Trait Specified in the Management or Miscellaneous Codes </li></ul><ul><li>Uses Reliability to Determine Maximum Usage of a Bull in a Herd </li></ul>
  12. 12. GMS MasterPlan <ul><li>To Customize the GMS Program, Evaluators and Dairy Producers Use a MasterPlan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guides the Decisions Made by the Computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gathers Three General Types of Information: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sire Selection or Choosing a List of Bulls to be Used </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Determine How Mating Sires Should be Assigned </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Herd Information </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. MasterPlan
  14. 14. Sire Selection <ul><li>There are Many Ways to Qualify Bulls in GMS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific Genetic Criteria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Either Maximums or Minimums </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can be Different for Each Criteria or Left Blank </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bulls That Meet or Don’t Meet the Specified Criteria Can be Included or Excluded </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bulls a Producer Already Has Semen in the Tank </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No Guarantee That All Bulls Qualified Will be Used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bulls Used are Determined by the Mating Criteria Producer’s Set </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Customer-Controlled Breeding Options <ul><li>Allows for Optimum Versatility </li></ul><ul><li>Producer Determines Overall Herd Results by Determining Inputs = Customer-Controlled Breeding Options </li></ul><ul><li>If Producer Doesn’t Need/Want Flexibility Defaults are Set in Place for Each Area </li></ul><ul><li>Defaults Will Produce High Producing, Longer-Lasting Cows </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Controls are Available in Areas of Production and Conformation </li></ul>
  16. 16. Production Index Options <ul><li>MFP$ = If Sell for Milk, Fat or Protein Use Default </li></ul><ul><li>Cheese Yield = If Sell to Cheese Plant, or Higher Deductions for Milk Volume </li></ul><ul><li>Milk = Quicker Improvement for Trait </li></ul><ul><li>Fat = Quicker Improvement for Trait </li></ul><ul><li>Protein = Quicker Improvement for Trait </li></ul><ul><li>Index That is Chosen Determines Ranking of Cows in Herd AND Bulls Used on the Herd </li></ul>
  17. 17. Conformation Formula <ul><li>Intensive Management (Default) = Highly Managed Cows Spending Time in Intensively Managed Situations </li></ul><ul><li>Grassland = More Efficient Cows That are Smaller in Size and Frame </li></ul><ul><li>Show Type = Herds Wanting Larger-Framed Cows </li></ul><ul><li>Udder Emphasis = Faster Improving Udders </li></ul><ul><li>Feet & Leg Emphasis = Faster Improving Feet & Legs </li></ul>
  18. 18. Production Emphasis <ul><li>Each Mating Decision is Based Upon the Bull’s Production and Type Trait Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Degree of Emphasis Placed on Each Portion is Up to the Producer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Producer Answers Production: Type Question to Personalize Mating Results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What is the producer’s most serious concern today - production or functional type traits? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Looking to the future, what do they see as the area needing the greatest improvement? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluator Can Help Emphasis Range (0 - 80%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each Cow/Heifer is Reviewed for Her Needs </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Other Tools Used <ul><li>GMS Will Help Avoid Risk Factors for Cows/Heifers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inbreeding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calving Ease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recessives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Customers Can Designate How Much They Want to Control Each Risk Factor </li></ul>
  20. 20. Maximum Inbreeding % <ul><li>GMS Has 3 Ways to Battle Inbreeding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses Largest Database of Bulls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Builds Pedigrees of Bulls Previously Used in Herd </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses Deeper Pedigree in Analysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Finds More Common Male & Female Ancestors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Producers Can Set Maximum Allowable Inbreeding Level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Producers Can Select up to 6.25% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Default in System is 4.0% </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Calving Ease Difficulty <ul><li>GMS Allows Producers to Set Maximum Calving Ease (CE) Difficulty Level for Bulls Mated to Virgin Heifers </li></ul><ul><li>Only Bulls Who Meet the Criteria and Have Over a 65% CE Reliability Will be Mated to Virgin Heifers </li></ul><ul><li>This Does Not Affect Cows’ or Bred Heifers’ Matings </li></ul>
  22. 22. GMS Checkmate Option <ul><li>Enables Producers to Have a Third Mating Option </li></ul><ul><li>Sires Can be Chosen by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A.I. Organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sire Performance Levels Across All Organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sire Performance Levels Within a Particular Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simply Choosing Individual Bulls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Checkmate Option is Used Independent of the First Two Choices (i.e. Fertility or Young Sires) </li></ul>
  23. 23. GMS Worksheet <ul><li>What Evaluator Works From When Evaluating a Herd </li></ul><ul><li>Completing This Information Prior to Evaluator Arrival is Beneficial </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Information Can be Completed at Your Convenience and is Less Likely to Disrupt Schedule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides More Time to Consider Culling Decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows You to Include All Desired Virgin and Bred Heifers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows Evaluator to Perform the Most Accurate Evaluation Possible </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. GMS Worksheet
  25. 25. Animals to Evaluate <ul><li>General Recommendation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate During 1st and 3rd Lactation or 1st and 2nd Lactation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some Later Lactation Cows Will Need to be Reevaluated if Traits Change a Lot </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keep List of Cows to be Reevaluated Separate From First Evaluation Cows/Heifers </li></ul><ul><li>Some Animals Can be Coded as Genomates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mating Based Solely on Animal’s Pedigree Information or Phenotype </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Supplying Complete Information <ul><li>Pedigree Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sire and Maternal Grandsire in Pedigree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify Them by: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Semen Code </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>NAAB Number </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Registration Number </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be Sure to Provide Complete Information </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Supplying Complete Information <ul><li>Management and Miscellaneous Codes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Help Refine Mating Decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can Assign up to 2 Codes per Animal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Only to Note Cows That Cause Concern </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heavy Use Will Lessen Emphasis on Production and Linear Traits </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Management Codes <ul><li>1. Slow Milker </li></ul><ul><li>2. Nervous Disposition </li></ul><ul><li>3. Low Protein Test </li></ul><ul><li>4. High Somatic Cell Count (SCC) </li></ul><ul><li>5. Frequent Difficult Calvings </li></ul><ul><li>6. Undesirable Udder Texture </li></ul><ul><li>7. Low Fertility </li></ul><ul><li>8. Teats Too Large </li></ul><ul><li>9. Teats Too Small </li></ul>
  29. 29. Supplying Complete Information <ul><li>Production Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use in Mating Recommendations and to Rank Herd </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ranking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use Numerical Values 1 to 9 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Based on Combined Milk, Fat and Protein OR Simply Milk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spread Out Rankings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Top 10% of Herd = 9; Bottom 10% of Herd = 1 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can Generalize Herd Rankings if Production Numbers are Not Available </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Fresh Heifers Should be Assigned Dam’s Ranking or General Ranking of 6 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Supplying Complete Information <ul><li>Reproductive Information </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluators Use Information to Determine Linear Scores </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information Requested Includes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Date Last Fresh </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Age at Calving </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lactation Number </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information Should Only be Supplied if Available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do NOT Estimate This Information </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Supplying Complete Information <ul><li>Lactation Number </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used to Monitor Genetic Progress of Herd </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important to Help Monitor Calving Ease in Heifers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Virgin Heifers Must Have a Calving Ease Sire Used That Meets the Producers Standards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lactation Number is Recorded as the Number of Times a Cow Has Calved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncalved Heifers are Recorded as: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>V = Virgin Heifers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>B = Bred Heifers </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Supplying Complete Information <ul><li>Month to Breed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Month That Dairy Producer Expects to Breed Cow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for Better Semen Inventory Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be Assigned According to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most Recent Calving Date </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Breeding Date </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expected Breeding Date </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All are Based Upon Understanding the Producer’s Guidelines for First Breeding and Rebreeding </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Convenience <ul><li>Combining Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When Evaluator Visits More Than Once-a-Year </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keeps All Results in One Report </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Electronic Data Files </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can Store Mating Recommendations on Personal Computer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GMS Creates Electronic Mating Recommendation Files </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Files Can be Downloaded From ABS FTP Site </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be Loaded Into Existing On-Farm Software </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. Evaluation Day Needs <ul><li>Prior to Evaluation Assemble All Records and Fill in GMS Worksheet as Best You Can </li></ul><ul><li>On Evaluation Day: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluators Code Between 30 to 50 Cows Per Hour </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dependent Upon Evaluator Efficiency and Working Conditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preferred That Cows be Located in a Confined Area With a Clean, Flat, Dry Surface and Good Lighting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Save Time to Review Records With Evaluator and Discuss Herd Goals </li></ul></ul>
  35. 35. Herd Receives <ul><li>Mating Recommendations and Management Reports Via Mail and Electronically </li></ul><ul><li>Several Different Reports Include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mating Sire Recommendation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2-3 Sire Recommendations per Animal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Herd Percentile Ranking of Each Animal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summary of Master Plan Options and Weighted Genetic Averages of Bulls Used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Genetic Progress Audit Graph </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monthly Semen Needs Report </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. GMS Benefits <ul><li>Control Inbreeding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every 1% Increase in Inbreeding = 775 Pounds Lost Milk and $24 Over a Cow’s Lifetime </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Herd Percentile Ranking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prioritizes Cows in the Herd </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be Used to Make Breeding and Culling Decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bull Reliability Restrictions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stabilizes and Reduces Risks Associated With Changes in Genetic Evaluations </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. GMS Benefits <ul><li>Customer Controlled Breeding Options </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Producer Control Results by Selecting Emphasis and Model Cow for Production and Conformation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GMS MasterPlan </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Producer Chooses Bulls for Breeding Program Based Upon Genetic Criteria, and Other Options </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GMS Selection Index </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Achieves Herd Uniformity by Using Consistent, Longevity-Focused Goals While Improving Whole Cow With Emphasis on Economically Important Traits </li></ul></ul>
  38. 38. GMS Benefits <ul><li>Control Recessives and Reduce Calving Difficulties </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Built-in System of Checks and Balances and Herd Guidelines Reduce Risks for Individual Animals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inventory Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monthly Semen Needs Reporting Helps to Purchase Semen When Needed and Use up Existing Semen </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Genetic Audit Graph </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps Gauge Genetic Progress of Herd </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Summary <ul><li>Helps Dairy Producers Gain Genetic Edge While Minimizing Risks </li></ul><ul><li>Makes Sire Selection Easier and More Systematic </li></ul><ul><li>Allows Producers to Customize Their Breeding Program According to Herd Goals </li></ul><ul><li>Specially Trained Evaluators Work With Producers to Achieve Desired Results </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations are Based on Genetically Sound Practical Longevity-Focused Index </li></ul>
  40. 40. Question 1 <ul><li>How does the GMS program work? </li></ul>It combines the herd goals along with the phenotype and genotype of each cow or heifer to mate her to the bull best qualified to correct any faults.
  41. 41. Question 2 <ul><li>The GMS Evaluator plays a critical role in making a dairy producer’s program work. </li></ul><ul><li>What are their two major functions? </li></ul>To consult with dairy producers to determine herd goals, and to accurately evaluate the cattle.
  42. 42. Question 3 <ul><li>What is some of the basic information gathered on each animal? </li></ul><ul><li>How are they important to the programs results? </li></ul>Cow or Heifer ID, Sire of animal, Maternal Grand Sire of animal, Month to breed, Herd production rank, Age at last calving, Fresh date, Lactation number The amount and accuracy of the information increases the rate of genetic gain.
  43. 43. Question 4 <ul><li>ABS introduced the Customer-Controlled Breeding Options in 1996. </li></ul><ul><li>What are they? </li></ul>Controls for production index options: MFP$, Cheese Yield, Milk, Fat, Protein, and Controls for conformation options: Intensive Management, Show Type, Grassland, Udder Emphasis, and Feet & Leg Emphasis. These controls allow the producer to create a program specifically for their operation’s needs.
  44. 44. Question 5 <ul><li>What 3 main factors make GMS one of the industry’s best systems to control inbreeding? </li></ul>Producer’s can set inbreeding maximums. Uses sire and maternal grand sire in pedigree.
  45. 45. Question 6 <ul><li>How many sire recommendations are given for each animal? </li></ul>2 or 3
  46. 46. Question 7 <ul><li>What additional management tools are available for producers to use? </li></ul>Management codes such as slow milker, nervous disposition, etc.