Ai manual chapter 13


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  • Let’s go to page 13-1 and see how ABS selects its dairy bulls.
  • Today information from the world can be used to evaluate a sire's offspring, allowing for even more accuracy.
  • Once selected and semen is collected, the bull is sampled.
  • Here’s some of the criteria looked at when considering a potential bull mother.
  • Once the calf is born, he has a lot of tests to pass before he gets to ABS to be sampled.
  • Predicted transmitting ability can be estimated using the sire and dam’s information with low accuracy. Progeny information is the most reliable indicator of the bulls ability to transmit.
  • ABS began progeny testing in 1963, it is designed to measure genetic differences rather than environmental differences. Thousands of cows in the 4300 herds test these bulls.
  • The emphasis is on identification and records.
  • Financial rewards can be substantial in well managed herds.
  • Only 1 in 10 will make it. That is 1 of 10 out of the elite cows and bulls of the breed.
  • Traits that bulls need to excel in.
  • To select our beef bulls this criteria is used.
  • Comparisons between bulls is done by using the same information available to you EPD’s, GTS and of course phenotype.
  • Dairy bulls are designed, sampled and data compiled by USDA for all breeds. Beef sires are selected from the top genetics available based on breed association data.
  • Ai manual chapter 13

    1. 1. CHAPTER 13 <ul><li>ABS SIRE SELECTION </li></ul>
    2. 2. Dairy Sire Selection <ul><li>Interbull </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Across Country Sire Evaluation Model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows for Greater Selection Intensity Across Countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides Producers With Greater Opportunities for Genetic Selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Still Allows Countries to Develop Their Own Importance of Traits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Essential for Future Adaptability of Each Breed </li></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Sources of ABS Dairy Sires <ul><li>Dairy Sires are Acquired Through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special Mating Contracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Between Owner of the Cow and the A.I. Center </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embryos Purchased </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calves Born From the Females Owned by Genus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Live Bulls Purchased on Farm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Monthly Progeny Testing of Young Dairy Bulls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Testing Occurs in UK, U.S., Italy and Canada </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Identification of Bull Mothers <ul><li>Bull Mothers are Identified in a Varity of Ways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Level of Production, Herdmate Deviations and PTA’s or Yield Traits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relative Ranking in National Selection Index </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relative Ranking in ABS Proprietary Index </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproductive Efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance of A.I. Proven Males From the Cow Family </li></ul></ul>
    5. 5. Bull Life After Birth <ul><li>Undergo Frequent Physical Examinations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Evaluate Growth and Soundness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Screen for Hereditary Defects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Must Pass Standard Health Test to Enter A.I. Facility </li></ul><ul><li>Must Pass Stringent Semen Quality Control Standards </li></ul>
    6. 6. Young Dairy Sire Selection <ul><li>PTA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In Young Bulls = Average PTA of Sire and Dam </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low Reliability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accuracy Improved with Many Siblings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>A.I. Progeny Testing (PT) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for Sires Superior to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Their Parent Average </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contemporary PT Bulls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many Proven Sires Available at That Time </li></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Progeny Testing <ul><li>Began in 1963 </li></ul><ul><li>Determine Genetic Merit of a Sire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce and Test Daughters in Many Different Herds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compare Daughters With Herdmates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Over 4,300 Herds Enrolled in PT Program </li></ul>
    8. 8. PT Test Program Requirements <ul><li>Good Management </li></ul><ul><li>Good Identification </li></ul><ul><li>Good Record Keeping </li></ul><ul><li>Participate in Official DHI Testing Program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Records Used in USDA Sire Summaries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use Semen Promptly & Randomly </li></ul><ul><li>Report All Calving Ease and Identification Information to DHI </li></ul>
    9. 9. PT Program Benefits <ul><li>Accurate Identification and Record Keeping </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic Advancement </li></ul><ul><li>Professional Evaluations of the Herd </li></ul><ul><li>Participation in the World’s Best Breed Improvement Program </li></ul><ul><li>Birth Report Benefit </li></ul><ul><li>Summarized Daughter Benefit </li></ul><ul><li>Type Classification Benefit </li></ul>
    10. 10. Mechanics of PT System <ul><li>Bulls Placed in Limited Service at Young Age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides Multi-Herd PT Data at Five-Years-Old </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distribute a Minimum of 1800 Units of Semen </li></ul><ul><li>Semen Randomly Distributed Around U.S. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Semen Used Within Next 1 or 2 Months </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each Herd Receives 5 to 10 Units per Bull </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Semen Used on Next Cow to be Bred </li></ul><ul><li>Select Proven Bulls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Approximately 1 in 10 Bulls Graduate </li></ul></ul>
    11. 11. Traits of Interest <ul><li>Yield Traits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Milk Yield – Protein Yield </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fat Yield – Cheese Yield </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conformation Traits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overall Type Score – Udder Comp. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foot & Leg Comp. – Show Type </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Management Traits: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calving Ease – Maternal Calving Ease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bull Fertility Rating – Total Herd Life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mastitis Resistance – Daughter Fertility </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Beef Sire Selection <ul><li>ABS Experts Use 8 Selection Criteria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breed Leading EPD’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unique Pedigrees </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GTS Phenotypic Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Individual Performance Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultrasound/Carcass Data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dam’s Production Record </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cow Family Convenience Traits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accuracy Values </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Using Information to Compare Bulls <ul><li>Traits Measured Using EPDs or GTS Scores </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Selection Indexes to Rank Bulls </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focus on Pasture to Plate™ Genetics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Choose Sire With Excellent EPD Profiles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phenotype </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Convenience Traits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pick Bulls With Variations in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mature Size </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Milk Production Levels </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Summary <ul><li>Most Dairy Sires are Result of Special Planned Matings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dam and Sire Must Have High PTAs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Progeny Test Bulls are Sampled Early </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have Multiple Herd PT Data at Five-Years-Old </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Only One in Ten PT Bulls Graduate </li></ul><ul><li>Beef Sires are Selected for Genetic Merit or Outstanding Potential </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ABS Works With Breed Associations to Collect All Progeny Information </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Question 1 <ul><li>What is the name of the cross-country evaluation data? </li></ul><ul><li>What has the inclusion of this data meant to the dairy industry? </li></ul>MACE provided by Interbull It has led to a greater selection intensity of bulls across countries and has provided producers in all countries with greater opportunities for genetic selection.
    16. 16. Question 2 <ul><li>What qualifications must a dairy cow have to be eligible for a special mating? </li></ul><ul><li>A dairy bull? </li></ul>She must have high levels of production, conformation, classification score and PTAs for type, a positive relative ranking in the national selection index, a relative ranking in the ABS proprietary index, and performance from A.I. proven males in the cow family. The bull will be one of the most superior A.I. bulls available, and will have a high PTA.
    17. 17. Question 3 <ul><li>Name the requirements for Dairy Progeny Test herds? </li></ul>A Progeny Test herd must have: 1. Good management 2. Good identification 3. Good record keeping 4. Participate in Official DHI Testing Program with records used in USDA Sire Summaries 5. Use semen promptly and randomly 6. Report all calving ease and identification information to DHI
    18. 18. Question 4 <ul><li>How does Parent Average differ from Predicted Transmitting Ability? </li></ul>Parent Average is a low reliability estimate of a bulls transmitting ability. It is the average of his parent’s PTAs rather than an average of his offspring's PTAs.
    19. 19. Question 5 <ul><li>How long does it take before progeny test results are complete? </li></ul>The results are completed approximately four years after the bull starts producing semen. This means the bull will be approximately five-years-old at the end of testing.
    20. 20. Question 6 <ul><li>All dairy progeny test bulls are not selected as proven bulls. How many make it through the program? </li></ul><ul><li>Will these proven bulls ever be culled? </li></ul><ul><li>Why or why not? </li></ul>One out of every ten bulls. Yes As the average PTA of cattle in the industry increases the older bulls who no longer meet the average will be culled to make room for new ones.
    21. 21. Question 7 <ul><li>Describe how ABS selects young beef bulls. </li></ul>ABS compares the bulls based upon the following eight measures: EPDs, Pedigree, Phenotype, Individual Performance Information, Ultrasound/Carcass Data, Dam’s Production Record, Cow Family Convenience Traits and Accuracy Values. They then select a variety of bulls that will produce Pasture to Plate™ genetics in different environmental and management situations.
    22. 22. Question 8 <ul><li>How does progeny testing differ from performance testing? </li></ul>Performance testing will indicate genetic superiority, but progeny testing goes a step further and separates out those superior breeding bulls that pass on their genetic superiority.