Ai manual chapter 07


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Inseminacao Artificial em Bovinos ABS Global

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  • Fertility, how can we measure it; how can we manage it optimally? You will find the chapter on fertility in your manual beginning on page 7-1. Feel free to follow along and make notes.
  • Dairy producers need cows to calve regularly to maximize milk production, a beef producer needs a calf every year. As we learned in the “equation of reproduction” semen fertility is one of the factors that can have a positive or negative impact on pregnancy results. ABS maintains the highest standards for our bulls.
  • Let’s look at some of the areas now.
  • Here are the factors that contribute to a herds conception rate. How can we manage them to maximize fertility?
  • Here are factors that contribute to heat detection efficiency. How can we mange these efficiently?
  • Key factors to understand and manage.
  • How many heifers do you want to freshen per month to maintain cash flow?
  • Do you know how many females are available today?
  • Are your heats detected accurate? This is a good tool to spot check accuracy.
  • How many were serviced during the period? How many became pregnant? This is your conception rate.
  • Lists focus us in the right areas. What other lists might be appropriate here? Maybe cows available to breed, heat lists of cows due in this window, etc.
  • Goals for each of the factors we have discussed.
  • Properly inseminating a female who’s estrus was incorrectly identified won’t help your pregnancy rates. Missing heats gives us no chance to get a pregnancy. Proper time spent heat detecting by a conscientious and knowledgeable person is invaluable and critical to a reproduction program.
  • Comfortable cows perform the best.
  • A tool that is available to you on the ABS website. This worksheet helps evaluate activity in the herd, a cow needs to lay down and masticate 60% of the day, that is a little over 14 hours. When you alter that because of milking times, etc. fertility is affected.
  • There is a point of being too conservative or too aggressive. There are multiple factors that control your herd's fertility.
  • Looking at semen under a microscope is subjective, a time lapse photograph is objective. What is important are the live sperm cells not the dead ones.
  • A good practice is to periodically evaluate the performance of those doing the inseminating.
  • Spot check your heat detectors from time to time with the progesterone test.
  • A cow has an order of life, 1) she needs enough feed to survive, 2) with that met she will come into heat and reproduce, 3) if she gets enough feed she will produce enough milk to raise a calf, or in the case of a dairy cow a hundred or more calves. If she doesn’t have those needs met reproduction is the first thing negatively affected.
  • Work with your vet to develop the right vaccination program for your herd and your area.
  • It takes 9 months to produce a calf, to have a cow calve every 12 to 13 months, we have a window of 95 days to get her bred back. Take away the 45 day VWP and we have a little over 2 heat cycles to get the job done.
  • A good investment.
  • Have a system to monitor these factors, and be proactive when a problem is identified.
  • If you don’t know where you’re going, any road will take you there.
  • Ai manual chapter 07

    2. 2. Detecting Infertility <ul><li>ABS Eliminates All Sub-Fertile and Venereally Infected Bulls </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause of Reproductive Failure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bulls of Questionable Fertility or Failing Tests for Infectious Diseases are NOT Included in the ABS Lineup </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All Semen Must Pass Stringent Quality Control Standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not Enough Live Sperm Prior to Shipment = Entire Collection Discarded </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ABS Semen Contains the Proper Number of Live Sperm for Optimum Fertility if it Has Been Handled and Thawed Correctly! </li></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Detecting Infertility <ul><li>Reproductive Program Goal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Producing Pregnancies With Improved Genetics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accomplishing This Depends on: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Animals Being Serviced (Heat Detection or Submission) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Those Animals Conceiving </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When Reproductive Results are Below Desired Goals There are Many Areas to Investigate </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Conception Rate Flow Chart
    5. 5. Heat Detection Rate Flow Chart
    6. 6. Records Analysis <ul><li>Current Effective Measures of Reproduction Include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pregnancy Rate (PR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat Detection Rate (HDR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heat Detection Accuracy (HDA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conception Rate (CR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action Lists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Calving Interval or Days Open Indices Have Been Used to Identify Poor Programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Problem is That They Contain a Large Amount of Data and May Not Accurately Indicate Current, Recent, or Future Performance </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Pregnancy Rate (PR) <ul><li>QUESTION: Are Eligible Animals Becoming Pregnant at a Rate Fast Enough to Sustain Herd Size and Fuel the Young Stock Program? </li></ul><ul><li>PR Should be Measured per 21-Day Period </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the Ratio of Pregnant Divided by Total Eligible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li># Pregnant / # of Eligible 21-Day Cycles = PR </li></ul></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Heat Detection Rate (HDR) <ul><li>QUESTION: Are Eligible Animals Being Detected in Heat During a Specified Window of Time? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Commonly Referred to as “Submission Rate” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the Ratio of Heats Found Divided by the Total Eligible: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li># Heats / # Eligible 21-Day Cycles = HDR </li></ul></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Heat Detection Accuracy (HDA) <ul><li>QUESTION: Are Animals Detected in Heat Actually in Heat? </li></ul><ul><li>Determined by Examining Insemination Intervals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Erratic Insemination Intervals Can Indicate: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Animal Was Not in Heat During Insemination </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early Embryonic Death is Occurring. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Milk Progesterone Assays are More Accurate in Determining HDA </li></ul>
    10. 10. Conception Rate (CR) <ul><li>QUESTION: Are the Animals That are Being Inseminated Conceiving? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CR Represents the Risk of an Animal Becoming Pregnant Once Inseminated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is the Number Pregnant Divided by the Total Number Serviced </li></ul></ul><ul><li> # Pregnant / Total # Serviced = CR </li></ul>
    11. 11. Action Lists <ul><li>QUESTION: Which Animals Should I Manage Once I Have Found a Problem? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Action Lists Allow the Manager to Concentrate on the Actual Animals That Need Attention to Correct Problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Example: A List of All Animals Past a Cutoff DIM and Not Bred </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Reproductive Indices Goals <ul><li>PR </li></ul><ul><li>HDR </li></ul><ul><li>HDA </li></ul><ul><li>CR </li></ul><ul><li>≥ 20% </li></ul><ul><li>≥ 65% </li></ul><ul><li>≥ 85% </li></ul><ul><li>> 30% </li></ul>
    13. 13. Troubleshooting Heat Detection <ul><li>REMEBER: Semen Must be Delivered to a Normal Female in the Right Place at the Right Time </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Absence of Any of These Three Factors Means the Egg Cannot be Fertilized. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In Many Herds the Most Common Cause of Infertility is Missed Heats ! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research at Cornell Shows That: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>30-50% of All Possible Heats are Missed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 20% of Recorded Heats are Inaccurate </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>Excessive Time On Concrete (TOC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduces the Expression of Heats </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long Holding Times During Milking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor Freestall Design and Over-Crowding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>See the Activity Chart on the Next Slide or on the ABS Global Website in the VIP Lounge. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Nutritionists and Veterinarians Should be Used to Detect and Fix Poor Heat Expression Due to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutritional Deficiencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delivery of Rations </li></ul></ul>Troubleshooting Heat Detection
    15. 15. Activity Chart
    16. 16. Troubleshooting Conception Rate <ul><li>Too Much Emphasis Has Been on CR </li></ul><ul><li>Goal Should Be to Optimize HDR & CR, While Maximizing Pregnancy Production </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rarely is it Profitable to Breed Fewer Cows to Increase CR. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low Herd CR Investigations Should Include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Semen Quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technician Technique </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accuracy of Heat Detection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutritional Status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproductive Diseases </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Semen Quality <ul><li>May Need to be Validated During a Reproductive Investigation. </li></ul><ul><li>ABS Semen Undergoes Numerous Quality Control Checks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Damage Can Happen: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>During Shipment • During Transfer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Due to Inappropriate Handling or Storage on Farm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ABS Semen Can be Returned to ABS to Detect Possible Damage Post Shipment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dark Field Microscopy is Necessary to Properly Access and Quantify Actively Motile Sperm Numbers. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Technique and Placement <ul><li>Critical to Optimize CR Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be Checked by Using a Dye or Plug Kit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used on Reproductive Tracts and by Ultrasound or Palpation on Live Animals. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    19. 19. Heat Detection Accuracy <ul><li>Common Cause for Low CR </li></ul><ul><li>Can Easily be Checked Using Milk Progesterone Assays </li></ul><ul><li>A Goal of 100% is NOT Realistic or Profitable </li></ul><ul><li>A Goal of >85% is Acceptable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures Pregnancy Production is Not Reduced at the Expense of High Conception Rates </li></ul></ul>
    20. 20. Nutrition <ul><li>Difficult to Diagnose </li></ul><ul><li>Key Areas Should be Closely Monitored </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get Fresh Animals Off to a Good Start </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood Profiling May be Useful to Validate </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Investigation Should be Done With a Veterinarian and Nutritionist </li></ul>
    21. 21. Reproductive Diseases
    22. 22. Voluntary Waiting Period (VWP) <ul><li>Cows Bred Back Less Than 45 Days Post Calving Will Have a Decreased Fertility </li></ul><ul><li>45 to 50 Days Needed to Repair the Uterus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must Shrink From Sack that Held: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>80 to 100 Pound Calf </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5 to 8 Gallons of Fluid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10 Pounds of Afterbirth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To a Small 1 to 2 Pound Organ the Size of a Pair of Man’s Fists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cows That Had Uterine Infections or Complications After Calving Should Not be Rebred Early! </li></ul>
    23. 23. Working With Your Veterinarian <ul><li>Use Your Vet to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drive Pregnancy Rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce Calving Intervals by: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early diagnosis of pregnancy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weekly Visits Reduce Valuable Days Open for Non-Pregnant Animals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Take Action on All Cows Found Open During Herd Check </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 24. Other Considerations <ul><li>Dairy Producers and Vets Should Validate Several Important Factors for Reproductive Results: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Are Animals Cycling and Ready to Breed at the End of the VWP? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are Animals Being Detected in Heat? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are Environmental, Design or Other Cow Factors Preventing Animals From Expressing Heats? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are Inseminations Being Done Accurately? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keen Observation and Simple Diagnostics Can Keep Your Herd Program Free of Reproductive Failure! </li></ul>
    25. 25. Summary <ul><li>Improve Herd Fertility by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying and Establishing Goals, Measurements and Historical Performances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Identify Problem Areas and Reasons </li></ul><ul><li>Most Common Cause of Poor Reproductive Results is Missed Heats </li></ul><ul><li>Venereal Diseases Can Decrease Fertility </li></ul><ul><li>Cows Should be Given 45 to 50 Days to Rest Before Rebreeding </li></ul>
    26. 26. Herd Fertility Goals
    27. 27. Question 1 <ul><li>Name 4 measurements of reproductive efficiency that can be evaluated from records analysis. </li></ul>Pregnancy Rate (PR), Heat Detection Rate (HDR), Heat Detection Accuracy (HDA), and Conception Rate (CR)
    28. 28. Question 2 <ul><li>What is a good goal for Heat Detection Accuracy (HDA)? </li></ul><ul><li>How can one measure HDA? </li></ul>85% Use a milk progesterone test. At pregnancy testing how many cows were open that were presented for checking. Divide that number by the total number presented to get a percent.
    29. 29. Question 3 <ul><li>How many heats (percent) are normally missed? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some common reasons? </li></ul>30 - 50% Missed heats, excessive time on concrete, overcrowding
    30. 30. Question 4 <ul><li>Describe the various reproductive diseases, along with their control and prevention. </li></ul>Vibrosis affects heats causing temporary infertility and midterm abortions. Trichomoniasis venereal disease causing temporary infertility. Leptospirosis causes abortions if female exposed during pregnancy. Repeat breedings and poor CR. Brucellosis (Bangs) causes abortions, retained placentas, infertility, and Undulant Fever in humans.
    31. 31. Question 5 <ul><li>What are 3 practices that involve your veterinarian and will increase pregnancy rates? </li></ul>Dairy: Early pregnancy checking, 30-35 days, weekly vet checks, act on all cows found open during herd checks. Beef: Early pregnancy checking, vaccination program, parasite control.
    32. 32. Question 6 <ul><li>Why should you wait more than 45 days after calving before first insemination? </li></ul>To give the uterus time to prepare for a new pregnancy.