CHAPTER 4 <ul><li>FINDING THE INSEMINATOR’S TARGET </li></ul>
Preparation to Find Target <ul><li>Choose Arm for Manipulating the Cervix </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a Positive Attitude an...
Choose Arm for Manipulation
Keep Fingernails Short
Preparation to Find Target <ul><li>Put on Shoulder-Length Disposable Glove </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep Fingernails Short </...
Lubricate the Glove
Entering the Cow <ul><li>Place Small Amount of Lubricant on Hand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do NOT Use Soaps or Detergents </li...
Entering the Cow
Finding the Cervix <ul><li>Insert Hand to Wrist </li></ul><ul><li>Open Hand From Coned Position </li></ul><ul><li>Push Dow...
Finding the Cervix
Possible Obstructions <ul><li>Soft Feces Can Usually be Ignored </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If Some Must be Removed  </li></ul><...
Picking Up Cervix <ul><li>After Location  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine Width, Length and Consistency </li></ul></ul><ul...
 
Manipulation <ul><li>Lift Cervix  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holding it With Thumb and Fingers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be Gentle...
The Syringe <ul><li>Before Insertion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thoroughly Wipe Area Around the Vulva </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ta...
Inserting the Syringe <ul><li>Insert the Syringe at a 35 to 45 Degree Angle </li></ul><ul><li>Level Out After Several Inch...
Navigating the Vagina <ul><li>Gently Push the Syringe Through the Vagina </li></ul><ul><li>Occasionally You Will Need to G...
Vaginal Fold
Entering the Cervix <ul><li>Position Thumb and First Two Fingers on End of Cervix Protruding Into Vagina </li></ul><ul><ul...
Blind Pouch <ul><li>Start of Cervix (External OS)  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Projects Back Into Vagina </li></ul></ul><ul><li>...
Eliminating the Blind Pouch <ul><li>Close Pouch by Gently Pressing Vaginal Walls Around the Projecting Cervix </li></ul><u...
 
Bypass Dead Ends <ul><li>Inside Cervix are  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cervical Rings and Projections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ke...
Cervix <ul><li>Shapes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes Cervix Bends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cervical Kinks Will Need to ...
 
Stop at Target <ul><li>Target is Where Front End of Cervix Joins the Body of the Uterus </li></ul><ul><li>To Stop on Targe...
Stopping on Target <ul><li>Never  Pass Syringe Tip Into Cow’s Uterus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scraping Uterine Lining Can Cau...
Dye Test <ul><li>ABS District Sales Managers Can Arrange for Test With an ABS Dye Insemination Kit </li></ul>
Is Cow Already Pregnant? <ul><li>Normal Cows May Show Heat During Pregnancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between 5 and 15% of Cow...
Suspect Pregnancy If . . . 1 <ul><li>The time since calving is unusually long, or if the cow seems to be returning to heat...
Suspect Pregnancy If . . . 2 <ul><li>The cervix feels low, heavy, far forward of the pelvic brim and can’t easily be drawn...
Suspect Pregnancy If . . . 3 <ul><li>There’s a sticky feeling and constant drag as the syringe passes through the cervix. ...
Suspect Pregnancy If . . . 4 <ul><li>Thick yellow and sometimes blood-streaked mucus is passing from the vulva.  The cow h...
Suspect Pregnancy If . . . 5 <ul><li>There is obvious thinning and enlargement of the uterus. </li></ul>
Suspect Pregnancy If . . . 6 <ul><li>You can feel any part of the calf or movement in the uterus. </li></ul>
 
Summary <ul><li>Think in Terms of Putting the Cow Onto the Syringe </li></ul><ul><li>Do Fingertip Manipulation Where the T...
Question 1 <ul><li>You should always wear shoulder-length gloves as protection for both you and the cow.  </li></ul><ul><l...
Question 2 <ul><li>You’re about to insert your hand into the cow’s rectum.  </li></ul><ul><li>How far should you go before...
Question 3 <ul><li>Sometimes it’s difficult to work around feces in the rectum.  </li></ul><ul><li>What should you do to m...
Question 4 <ul><li>After you’ve located the cervix, how should it be held if you want to manipulate it onto the tip of the...
Question 5 <ul><li>Why should you thoroughly wipe the area around the vulva before you insert the syringe? </li></ul>Helps...
Question 6 <ul><li>How do you know if your syringe tip gets caught in a vaginal fold? </li></ul><ul><li>What should you do...
Question 7 <ul><li>How can you eliminate the trap created by the circular blind pouch? </li></ul>By closing the pouch off ...
Question 8 <ul><li>Halfway through the cervix the tip of your syringe won’t easily move forward anymore.  You think the ce...
Question 9 <ul><li>After several failed attempts to find the target you decide that it would be easier to pass the tip of ...
Question 10 <ul><li>How do you know exactly when the tip of the syringe has reached the target? </li></ul>With your index ...
Question 11 <ul><li>If you suspect a cow is pregnant, what should you do? </li></ul>Do not go all the way through the cerv...
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Ai manual chapter 04

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Inseminacao Artificial em Bovinos ABS Global

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  • In this chapter we will examine the mechanics of insemination. You will find Chapter 4 on page 4-1 of your manual, feel free to make notes as we go through the chapter. Insemination is a series of mechanical steps that need to be preformed precisely in a specific order. You can’t change a tire until you have removed the lug nuts.
  • Some basics need to be addressed before beginning to inseminate. If you are right handed your left hand will enter the cow and manipulate the cervix. Your right hand will guide the insemination syringe. Short fingernails will protect the cow and you. Relax, tension tires the muscles faster. A positive person is one that focuses on the solution rather than the challenge.
  • To begin we need to choose the hand we will use to palpate the reproductive system. Generally this is your left hand if you are right handed or your right hand if you are left handed.
  • Short fingernails are important to reduce the damage to the cow’s rectum and to the inseminator&apos;s sleeve.
  • Use only KY Jelly or ABS A.I. Lube, not soaps or detergents. Remember if it kills germs it kills sperm.
  • Grasp the cow’s tail and gently rub the anus to get it to relax, then enter your cupped fingers and using the tail as leverage, push your arm into the rectum.
  • Here you see the cupped hand entering the cow.
  • Once you’re in to wrist depth, begin to look for the cervix, open your hand, press down and sweep from side to side, you will feel the pelvic cavity and find the gristly cervix.
  • Note the open hand.
  • Ballooning causes major problems for the inseminator; therefore, try to avoid bringing air into the rectum by pumping in and out.
  • Once the cervix has been located, you need to pick it up to be able to manipulate it. Sweep your hand under it and curve your fingers around it.
  • Here’s a diagram of the hand position to pick up the cervix.
  • Gently but firmly lift and move the cervix with steady pressure. The key is to use enough force to control it, not abuse it.
  • Wipe the vulva area with a towel to prevent contamination of the syringe and reproductive tract. Hold the syringe between your thumb and first two fingers. More like holding a dinner fork, not a screwdriver. Handle the syringe with a light touch, not jabs or stabs.
  • As you insert the syringe push up until you feel it stop, then level off and proceed forward. This will avoid entering the bladder and get it through the vestibule.
  • As you move the syringe forward in the vagina, gently but firmly move the cervix forward to help eliminate any vaginal folds. Always know where your syringe tip is as you proceed.
  • What happens to this fold when you move the cervix forward? Answer: It goes away because of the tightened tissue.
  • Now we need to enter the syringe into the cervix. To do this you need to have your thumb and first two fingers near the back end of the cervix where it joins the vagina. The syringe will rest on your last two fingers and you will use them to guide it into the cervix
  • This illustrates why you must work with the rear end of the cervix to get the syringe started. If this pouch is not closed off your syringe will continue to slide by the opening.
  • You can use the pelvis to help close off the blind pouch by holding the rear of the cervix against it. The key is to be sure your fingers are positioned at the rear of the cervix. Too much grabbing pressure will collapse the canal, adding to the difficulty.
  • Here’s an example of using the pelvis to help close off the blind pouch.
  • You will feel the tube slip into the cervix. Once in the cervix you will encounter some cervical rings or projections, these will be overcome by cervical manipulations with your fingertips at the tip of the syringe. Rocking, rolling and tilting the cervix will accomplish this.
  • Cervixes come in various shapes and sizes some with kinks and some without. Locations can vary too, in heifers it will be well toward the rear, in older cows it can be farther forward. In heifers the size will be smaller than in older cows that have had several calves.
  • Here are some examples of different shaped cervixes
  • Once the syringe has passed through cervix we need to stop it on target (where the uterus and the cervix join). To recognize when the syringe has passed through the cervix your index finger needs to be placed on the top of the forward end of the cervix to feel the tip come through. Once the tip is through the syringe will have a free floating feel; no resistance.
  • Note the index finger on top. Take the time to be sure of the location of the tip. It takes 9 months to get a calf, taking a few seconds to be sure isn’t much.
  • Refresher courses stressing semen placement are available in many areas.
  • How do I know if the cow is pregnant? Start with breeding records, anytime the cow shows a heat. Learn to recognize the signs of pregnancy.
  • Let’s review what we’ve covered.
  • Ai manual chapter 04

    1. 1. CHAPTER 4 <ul><li>FINDING THE INSEMINATOR’S TARGET </li></ul>
    2. 2. Preparation to Find Target <ul><li>Choose Arm for Manipulating the Cervix </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a Positive Attitude and Relax </li></ul><ul><li>Always Stand Sideways Behind the Cow </li></ul>
    3. 3. Choose Arm for Manipulation
    4. 4. Keep Fingernails Short
    5. 5. Preparation to Find Target <ul><li>Put on Shoulder-Length Disposable Glove </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep Fingernails Short </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use a New Glove Every Time to Reduce Disease Transfer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keep Inseminating Syringe Warm, Clean and Dry </li></ul>
    6. 6. Lubricate the Glove
    7. 7. Entering the Cow <ul><li>Place Small Amount of Lubricant on Hand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Do NOT Use Soaps or Detergents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do NOT Use Manure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gently Rub the Anal Area </li></ul><ul><li>Insert One Then Multiple Fingers Held Together </li></ul><ul><ul><li>With Fingers Forming a Cone Shape, Place an Equal and Opposite Force on the Cow’s Tail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continue to Push Hand Through Anus Into the Rectum Till Wrist Deep </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. Entering the Cow
    9. 9. Finding the Cervix <ul><li>Insert Hand to Wrist </li></ul><ul><li>Open Hand From Coned Position </li></ul><ul><li>Push Down and Begin Sweeping From Side to Side </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Helps You Recognize Extent of Pelvic Cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Note Pelvic Floor’s Front Drop-off (Pelvic Brim) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Press Fingertips Down to Pelvic Floor at the Midline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cervix Should be Found Near There </li></ul></ul>
    10. 10. Finding the Cervix
    11. 11. Possible Obstructions <ul><li>Soft Feces Can Usually be Ignored </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If Some Must be Removed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Remove Only as Much as Necessary to Perform Manipulations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid Excessive in and Out Motions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows Air to Enter Rectum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Causes Ballooning </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove Ballooning by: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Gently Slapping or Patting the Rectal Wall or </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reach to Forward Part of Ballooned Area and Gently Tug a Fold in the Rectal Wall Backward </li></ul></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Picking Up Cervix <ul><li>After Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Determine Width, Length and Consistency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Approach Cervix From Side </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sweep Edge of Hand Under it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn Hand so Fingers Extend Under Cervix </li></ul></ul>
    13. 14. Manipulation <ul><li>Lift Cervix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Holding it With Thumb and Fingers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be Gentle but Firm </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Move Cervix With Slight but Steady Pressure </li></ul>
    14. 15. The Syringe <ul><li>Before Insertion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thoroughly Wipe Area Around the Vulva </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Take Syringe From Coveralls or Shirt </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hold Between Thumb and First Two Fingers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Handle as a Feather, Not as a Sword </li></ul></ul>
    15. 16. Inserting the Syringe <ul><li>Insert the Syringe at a 35 to 45 Degree Angle </li></ul><ul><li>Level Out After Several Inches are Inserted </li></ul><ul><li>This Technique Minimizes Syringe Tip Entering the Urethral Opening </li></ul>
    16. 17. Navigating the Vagina <ul><li>Gently Push the Syringe Through the Vagina </li></ul><ul><li>Occasionally You Will Need to Guide the Syringe Around Vaginal Folds </li></ul><ul><li>To Remove a Fold You Can Gently Push the Cervix Forward </li></ul><ul><li>Keep Gently Inserting Until You Encounter the Cervix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tissue Will be Hard Rather Than Soft and Elastic </li></ul></ul>
    17. 18. Vaginal Fold
    18. 19. Entering the Cervix <ul><li>Position Thumb and First Two Fingers on End of Cervix Protruding Into Vagina </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow for Simultaneous Recognition of Cervical Opening and Syringe Tip </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Put Last Two Fingers Behind Cervix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Them to Help Guide Syringe Into the Cervix </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Think of Pulling Cervix Onto Syringe, NOT Pushing Syringe Tip Into Cervix </li></ul><ul><li>Never Force, Gouge or Drill an Opening With the Syringe </li></ul>
    19. 20. Blind Pouch <ul><li>Start of Cervix (External OS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Projects Back Into Vagina </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creates a Circular Blind Pouch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Syringe Will Usually End Up in Pouch When Not Guided </li></ul></ul>
    20. 21. Eliminating the Blind Pouch <ul><li>Close Pouch by Gently Pressing Vaginal Walls Around the Projecting Cervix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Thumb on Top </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Forefinger on the Side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use Middle Finger on the Bottom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hold Rear of Cervix Against the Pelvic Wall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remaining Two Fingers Help Guide Syringe Into Cervix </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do Not Press Too Hard or You May Close Off the Cervical Opening </li></ul>
    21. 23. Bypass Dead Ends <ul><li>Inside Cervix are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cervical Rings and Projections </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Keep Syringe Tip Moving </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lift, Tilt, Rock and Roll Cervix </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do Not Hold Cervix in Palm of Hand </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May Close Off Passage Way and Prevent Fingertip Action at Syringe Tip </li></ul></ul>
    22. 24. Cervix <ul><li>Shapes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sometimes Cervix Bends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cervical Kinks Will Need to be Straightened to Allow Syringe Advancement </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Locations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Virgin Heifers and Beef Cows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Generally Intra-Pelvic, Easy to Locate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dairy Cows After Second Calving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Extra-Pelvic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Locate Cervix and Bring Into Pelvic Cavity </li></ul></ul></ul>
    23. 26. Stop at Target <ul><li>Target is Where Front End of Cervix Joins the Body of the Uterus </li></ul><ul><li>To Stop on Target: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Put Index Finger at Cervix’s Front Limit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Area Where Gristly Cervical Tissue Changes Into Spongy Uterine Tissue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Press Down Slightly With Fingertip </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Will be Able to Feel Syringe Tip Pass Through Last Cervical Ring </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deposit Semen Slowly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inject Half of Semen, Re-check Position, Deposit Rest </li></ul></ul></ul>
    24. 27. Stopping on Target <ul><li>Never Pass Syringe Tip Into Cow’s Uterus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scraping Uterine Lining Can Cause Damage or Infection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Syringe Jammed Into Uterine Wall Can Cause an Abscess or Fatal Peritonitis </li></ul></ul>
    25. 28. Dye Test <ul><li>ABS District Sales Managers Can Arrange for Test With an ABS Dye Insemination Kit </li></ul>
    26. 29. Is Cow Already Pregnant? <ul><li>Normal Cows May Show Heat During Pregnancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Between 5 and 15% of Cows Will Show at Least One Heat While Pregnant </li></ul></ul><ul><li>You May Begin to Inseminate a Pregnant Cow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn to Recognize Signs of Possible Pregnancy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If Pregnancy is Suspected, Pass Syringe Only 2/3 to 3/4 of Way Through Cervix </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can Help Avoid Causing an Abortion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mark Suspected Pregnancy on Barn Chart </li></ul></ul>
    27. 30. Suspect Pregnancy If . . . 1 <ul><li>The time since calving is unusually long, or if the cow seems to be returning to heat after a delay. Determine date of last calving or insemination from the barn chart or individual cow record card. </li></ul>
    28. 31. Suspect Pregnancy If . . . 2 <ul><li>The cervix feels low, heavy, far forward of the pelvic brim and can’t easily be drawn backward and upward. </li></ul>
    29. 32. Suspect Pregnancy If . . . 3 <ul><li>There’s a sticky feeling and constant drag as the syringe passes through the cervix. It may seem like you’re trying to maneuver through bubble gum. </li></ul>
    30. 33. Suspect Pregnancy If . . . 4 <ul><li>Thick yellow and sometimes blood-streaked mucus is passing from the vulva. The cow has been inseminated and has probably missed heats for several months. This animal is probably in the early stages of aborting its calf. </li></ul>
    31. 34. Suspect Pregnancy If . . . 5 <ul><li>There is obvious thinning and enlargement of the uterus. </li></ul>
    32. 35. Suspect Pregnancy If . . . 6 <ul><li>You can feel any part of the calf or movement in the uterus. </li></ul>
    33. 37. Summary <ul><li>Think in Terms of Putting the Cow Onto the Syringe </li></ul><ul><li>Do Fingertip Manipulation Where the Tip is Located </li></ul><ul><li>Always Hold Tip With Gentle Forward Pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Develop and Fine-tune Technique for Recognizing Syringe Tip as it Enters the Target </li></ul>
    34. 38. Question 1 <ul><li>You should always wear shoulder-length gloves as protection for both you and the cow. </li></ul><ul><li>Do gloves need to be changed after each cow or heifer? </li></ul><ul><li>Why or why not? </li></ul>Yes Disease can be transferred with dirty gloves.
    35. 39. Question 2 <ul><li>You’re about to insert your hand into the cow’s rectum. </li></ul><ul><li>How far should you go before you begin searching for the cervix? </li></ul>Wrist deep.
    36. 40. Question 3 <ul><li>Sometimes it’s difficult to work around feces in the rectum. </li></ul><ul><li>What should you do to make it easier? </li></ul>If necessary remove enough feces to perform the required manipulations. Avoid excessive in and out movement, as this causes the rectum to balloon and must be removed.
    37. 41. Question 4 <ul><li>After you’ve located the cervix, how should it be held if you want to manipulate it onto the tip of the syringe? </li></ul>Between the thumb and fingertips from the side.
    38. 42. Question 5 <ul><li>Why should you thoroughly wipe the area around the vulva before you insert the syringe? </li></ul>Helps keep the inside of the vagina free from contamination.
    39. 43. Question 6 <ul><li>How do you know if your syringe tip gets caught in a vaginal fold? </li></ul><ul><li>What should you do? </li></ul>You can feel it outside the cervix, or it is pushing in soft elastic tissue. Back up and maneuver around the fold.
    40. 44. Question 7 <ul><li>How can you eliminate the trap created by the circular blind pouch? </li></ul>By closing the pouch off with your thumb and fingertips.
    41. 45. Question 8 <ul><li>Halfway through the cervix the tip of your syringe won’t easily move forward anymore. You think the cervix bends sharply downward. </li></ul><ul><li>What action should you take to keep the syringe moving forward? </li></ul>Carefully manipulate the cervix to pass through the folds to reach the “target”.
    42. 46. Question 9 <ul><li>After several failed attempts to find the target you decide that it would be easier to pass the tip of the syringe all the way through the cervix, into the uterus and then back up to the target.Your instructor tells you that you shouldn’t do this. </li></ul><ul><li>Why not? </li></ul>Because you can damage the fragile uterine tissue by scraping it or puncturing it.
    43. 47. Question 10 <ul><li>How do you know exactly when the tip of the syringe has reached the target? </li></ul>With your index finger on top of the cervix you can feel the tip of the syringe at the end of the hard tissue of the cervix.
    44. 48. Question 11 <ul><li>If you suspect a cow is pregnant, what should you do? </li></ul>Do not go all the way through the cervix with the syringe.

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