Ai manual chapter 02


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Inseminacao Artificial em Bovinos ABS Global

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  • Successful insemination of cows and heifers depends on your basic understanding of the reproductive process and the organs involved. This is covered in your A.I. Management Manual pages 2-1 to 2-11. Feel free to make notes as we continue.
  • Where are the organs and what do they feel like?
  • This diagram shows the relative location of the parts of the reproductive system to the pelvis of the cow.
  • This is the area you will be working in when inseminating. The reproductive system is shown in its normal position.
  • Now let’s get a better understanding of the anatomy of the cow's reproductive system.
  • An actual photo of an incised tract. This is what we will be working with.
  • Starting from the rear of the cow the first part of the reproductive system encountered is the vulva. It consists of two external lips separated by a vertical slit. It is beneath the tail, under the anus.
  • The forward progression of the vulvar slit, called the vestibule connects the vulva to the vagina.
  • The vulva’s key points.
  • The vagina continues the passageway forward to the cervix.
  • The vagina feels like a collapsed bicycle inner tube. The tissue is thick and rubbery.
  • Forward of the vagina is the cervix. In this photo the vagina has been cut off.
  • The cervix is the most important part of the cow’s reproductive system to the inseminator. You must learn how to recognize its location, texture, and be able to manipulate and control it.
  • This amazing organ will dilate from a diameter slightly larger than an insemination syringe to an opening large enough for a fully developed calf to pass through.
  • The cervix feels like a chicken neck, but we don’t actually grab it like this.
  • It is important to understand and recognize the feel and texture of the cervix, because they’re all slightly different.
  • There is no other structure in the cow or heifer that feels like the cervix. With “hands on” experience you will be be able to find and recognize the cervix regardless of variability in size, shape, and location.
  • This is an illustration of the normal location of the cervix.
  • This illustration shows the location as well as the irregular passageway through the cervix.
  • An illustration of the position of a deep cervix. This can occur in older cows that have calved many times because the support ligaments get stretched. It also can occur because the cow is pregnant and the weight of the developing calf pulls the reproductive system down.
  • This illustration shows two of those obstacles, the blind pouch and the cervical ring. Remember these as we will be discussing them many times during insemination practice.
  • An actual photo of the cervix dissected so we can see the rings.
  • Moving forward we come to the end of the cervix and the beginning of the uterus. We do not want the syringe to enter the delicate uterus. We deposit the semen into the forward end of the cervix.
  • See where the semen is deposited.
  • The tissue of the uterus is soft and spongy, much more delicate than the tissue of the vagina and cervix. It is lined with many blood vessels that can be easily damaged by an improperly placed insemination syringe.
  • This illustrates the location of the uterus relative to the other parts of the reproductive system.
  • Note the division of the two horns at the anterior end of the body of the uterus.
  • What do we call the target area of the uterus? The forward end of cervix is as far as the insemination syringe should enter.
  • Attached to the end of each uterine horn are the oviducts or fallopian tubes. They are about the size of the lead in a pencil with a microscopic opening, an indication of the size of the egg.
  • See the location of the fallopian tubes.
  • Actual photo of the tubes, note the twists and turns.
  • As we come to the end of the reproductive system, we encounter the female sex glands, the ovaries.
  • The follicle looks and feels somewhat like a blister, the CL feels like a meaty protrusion.
  • See the difference in the structures.
  • A closer look at the CL.
  • The method of insemination we practice today is rectal palpation, meaning that we will manipulate the reproductive system, while having our hand in the rectum.
  • The rectum is at the end of the digestive tract and it has a mucus lining as well as blood vessels near the surface.
  • Now let’s take a look at what the parts do.
  • We will work our way back to the rear of the system. Beginning with the follicle. It has two basic functions, they are to produce an egg periodically, and while doing so to produce the hormone estrogen.
  • The function is controlled by the pituitary gland at the base of the brain.
  • Estrogen is the hormone that makes A.I. feasible because the changes to the cow create external signs that we can recognize, telling of the onset of her fertile period.
  • These are some of the external signs of estrus.
  • A close up of the developed dominant graafian follicle containing the egg.
  • The other sub organ is the yellow body or CL.
  • Grows at the site of the collapsed follicle and produces progesterone.
  • Progesterone keeps the cow from coming into heat for the duration of the pregnancy or for about 3 weeks if not pregnant. This is what is called the cycle.
  • If pregnant there is no need for additional eggs to be developed. To become pregnant the uterus needs to accept the fertilized egg.
  • This diagram shows the alternating functions that create the estrus cycle.
  • While waiting in the fallopian tubes the sperm is acclimating to the cows body, and getting ready to fertilize the egg. If you see blood after a heat it merely indicates that a heat did occur.
  • Even though you are going to use A.I. it is good to have a general understanding of the male's reproductive system.
  • Now that we understand the organs, what happens when a cow is bred? She stands to be mounted by the bull, he inserts his penis through the vulva into the vagina and deposits the semen. The semen travels through the cervix and the uterus to wait in the tubes for the egg. Once fertilization occurs the egg will take a few days to reach the uterus.
  • The fertilized egg will live on uterine milk until the membranes lining the uterus are ready. The calf will feed and dispose of its waste through this membrane.
  • Once the fetus has reached maturity it begins the birth process, the cervix relaxes and the uterus contracts propelling the calf out the birth canal.
  • In a normal presentation at birth the calf comes front feet first, with the head between them. This acts like a wedge with the small end first, its body also fits the curve of the birth canal.
  • Here’s a look at the estrus cycle. Focus on the ranges as every female is an individual.
  • How long does it take for the cow to breed back? This chart has the % conception on the right and the days in milk (DIM) on the bottom, the left is the number of cows involved. Note the increase at 50 days and beyond.
  • This repair takes time.
  • This is an illustration of a uterus immediately after calving. The caruncles are very large and protrude from the walls. They must regress to become flush with the walls and the horns shrink back to accept a new pregnancy.
  • Caruncles are the receiving site, cotyledons are the buttons. Next time you look at a placenta (afterbirth) spread it out and you can see the cotyledons, they appear as white spots. In the case of a retained placenta the two didn’t separate.
  • Together the caruncle and the cotyledon form the placentome. These can be three to five inches in size by the time of calving.
  • Understand that the blood system of the mother and the blood system of the calf are separate and independent. The calf absorbs nutrients from the cow and she in turn absorbs the calf’s waste and eliminates it from her body.
  • First calf heifers will take longer than an older cow to return to heat.
  • Here’s a photo of a uterus 10 days after calving - note the thickness of the walls and the size of the cervix. The caruncles must regress to 1/4 to 3/8 of an inch.
  • Here we have a uterus with a retained placenta 17 days after birth. What would you notice? Maybe a discharged puss or a foul odor.
  • This uterus has 3 more days rest and had a normal delivery. Note the healthier look to the tissue, but there is still some puss and the buttons are still enlarged. Not ready to rebreed.
  • If she aborts she still needs recovery time.
  • At 28 days we see no puss or dead blood but the buttons are not regressed to accept a new pregnancy yet.
  • 35 days and still the buttons are large, and we have some inflammation. Still not ready.
  • 50 days after a normal calving, we have a follicle. See how flat the buttons are and how thin the walls of the uterus are again. The cervix too is back to normal. This uterus is ready to rebreed successfully.
  • The next 3 slides will help us review what we have just learned.
  • Ai manual chapter 02

    2. 2. Anatomy <ul><li>The Structural Make-up of the Reproductive System </li></ul>
    3. 3. Female Reproductive Tract Location
    4. 4. Female Reproductive Tract Location
    5. 5. Female Reproductive Tract
    6. 6. Bovine Reproductive Tract Uterine Horn Uterus Cervix Vagina Ovary
    7. 7. Vulva
    8. 8. Vulva Vulva Vestibule Vagina
    9. 9. Vulva <ul><li>Entrance to the Reproductive Tract </li></ul><ul><li>Below the Intestinal Tract Entrance </li></ul><ul><li>Beneath the Tail </li></ul><ul><li>Continued Forward by the Vagina </li></ul>
    10. 10. Vagina Vagina
    11. 11. Vagina <ul><li>8 to 12 Inches in Length </li></ul><ul><li>Strong Thick-Walled </li></ul><ul><li>Usually a Collapsed Tube </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When Collapsed, Folds Run Lengthwise </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Normally Unobstructed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When Shortened, Folds are Similar to Accordion </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12. Bovine Reproductive Tract Cervix
    13. 13. Cervix Cervix
    14. 14. Cervix <ul><li>Most Important Part of Reproductive Tract for Insemination </li></ul><ul><li>Thick-walled Tube with Irregular Passageway </li></ul><ul><li>Valve Between Delicate Inside Organs and Tougher Outer Organs </li></ul>
    15. 15. Cervix <ul><li>Feels Like a Chicken Neck </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Firm and Dense to Touch, Gristly Feeling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 to 4 1/2 Inches in Length; 3/4 to 2 Inch Diameter </li></ul></ul>
    16. 16. Cervix <ul><li>2 to 4 1/2 Inches Long </li></ul><ul><li>Longer in Brahman Derivative Cattle </li></ul><ul><li>Cows 3/4 to 2 Inches in Diameter </li></ul><ul><li>Heifers 1/4 to 1/2 Inch in Diameter </li></ul><ul><li>Size and Consistency Change With Age and Pregnancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Late in Pregnancy Softer and Larger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Postpartum Much Larger and Very Soft </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Cervix Location <ul><li>Usually Found at Cow’s Midline on Front Edge of Pelvic Floor (Brim) </li></ul><ul><li>In Aging Cows, Cervix May be Well Forward of Pelvic Brim </li></ul><ul><li>During Pregnancy Cervix Tends to be Forward and Downward Beyond the Pelvic Brim </li></ul><ul><li>Cows and Heifers That are Straining Cause the Cervix to be Toward the Rear End of the Bony Pelvis </li></ul>
    18. 18. Cervix Location
    19. 19. Normal Cervix
    20. 20. Aging or Pregnant Cow Cervix
    21. 21. Beware of Obstacles <ul><li>Blind Pouch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Front End of Vagina </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1/2 to 1 Inch Deep, Surrounds Entire Back of Cervix </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fingerlike Projections </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Arranged in 3 or 4 Circular Rings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cause Passageway to be Crooked, Contain Blind Pockets, or Dead Ends </li></ul></ul>
    22. 22. Natural Obstructions
    23. 23. Bovine Reproductive Tract Cervical Rings
    24. 24. The Target <ul><li>Semen Should be Deposited Into the Uterine Body </li></ul><ul><li>Syringe Should Not Enter the Uterus </li></ul>
    25. 25. The Target
    26. 26. Uterus <ul><li>Where Calf Develops </li></ul><ul><li>Single Short Body and Two Horns </li></ul><ul><li>Horns Vary in Length From 8 to 15 Inches, and 5/8 to 2 Inches in Diameter </li></ul><ul><li>Walls of Uterus are Soft and Spongy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid Passing Syringe Beyond the Front End of Cervix </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>It is Easy to Poke Into or Through the Uterine Wall </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Can Cause Infection or Even Fatal Peritonitis </li></ul></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Uterus Uterus
    28. 28. Bovine Reproductive Tract Uterine Horn Body of Uterus Uterine Horn
    29. 29. Uterus
    30. 30. Oviducts <ul><li>Also Known as Fallopian Tube </li></ul><ul><ul><li>8 to 10 Inches Long </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outside Diameter is the Size of a Pencil Lead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inside Diameter is Microscopic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tube That Provides Route Between Ovary and Uterine Horn </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sperm and Eggs Move Through These Tubes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fertilization Occurs Halfway Down Oviduct </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Site Called Ampullary-Isthmic Junction </li></ul></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Oviducts Oviducts
    32. 32. Bovine Ovary Uterine Tube Corpus Luteum
    33. 33. Ovaries <ul><li>Oval-Shaped </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 to 2 Inches Long </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two Per Cow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Left and Right </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Produce Tiny Eggs (Ovulate) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right Ovary Releases Slightly More Than 1/2 of the Eggs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chance Determines Which Ovary Will Produce Egg at Ovulation </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Structures in the Ovary <ul><li>Graafian Follicle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid Filled Sac Where Egg Develops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluid is Rich in Hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bring About Temporary Physical and Psychological Changes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At a Certain Time the Follicle Ruptures </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Corpus Luteum (CL) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also known as the Yellow Body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develops at Site of Collapsed Follicle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid Growing, Solid, Meaty Structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remains Throughout Pregnancy </li></ul></ul>
    35. 35. Ovarian Structures <ul><li>Graafian Follicle • Corpus Luteum </li></ul>
    36. 36. Corpus Luteum
    37. 37. Rectum
    38. 38. Rectum <ul><li>Thin-walled Tube </li></ul><ul><ul><li>10 to 12 Inches Long and Stretchable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manipulate Cervix Through it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anus is Valve Between Rectum and Outside </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made up of Circular Muscle Under the Skin </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stretchable - Hand and Arm Enter Easily </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Circular Contractions Move Along Rectal Wall Toward the Outside </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When Strong They can Make Manipulation Difficult </li></ul></ul>
    39. 39. Physiology of Reproduction <ul><li>Functions of the Various Parts of the Reproductive System </li></ul>
    40. 40. Follicle
    41. 41. Role of the Follicle <ul><li>Pituitary Gland Hormone Stimulates Egg Growth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (F.S.H.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Many Follicles Recruited for Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One Selected to Become Graafian Follicle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Follicle Grows Larger; Secretes More Estrogen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affects the Nervous System; Causes Restlessness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes Cow to Stand for Mounting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prompts Uterus Contractions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases Blood Flow to Genital Organs </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. Estrogen <ul><li>Circulates Throughout the Body </li></ul><ul><li>Production is Greatest When Follicle Reaches its Largest Size </li></ul><ul><li>Causes Changes in the Cow </li></ul>
    43. 43. Signs of Heat <ul><li>Stands for Mounting by Other Cows </li></ul><ul><li>Stands and Accepts Service From Bull </li></ul><ul><li>Vulva Swells </li></ul><ul><li>Mucus is Discharged </li></ul><ul><li>Cow is Nervous and Restless </li></ul>
    44. 44. Graafian Follicle
    45. 45. Corpus Luteum
    46. 46. Role of the Yellow Body <ul><li>Luteinizing Hormone (L.H.) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Causes Follicle to Undergo Changes to Release Egg </li></ul></ul><ul><li>About 10 to 14 Hours After Heat Ends </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Follicle Ruptures and Ovulation Occurs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Egg Released </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cells Inside Collapsed Follicle Grow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms Yellow Body or Corpus Luteum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretes Pregnancy Hormone - Progesterone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare Uterus to Accept Fertilized Egg </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Maintains Pregnancy by Preventing Heat Cycles </li></ul></ul></ul>
    47. 47. Role of the Yellow Body <ul><li>If Egg is Not Fertilized </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corpus Luteum Stops Producing Progesterone 16 Days After Heat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduction of Progesterone Allows New Follicle and Egg Development and New Heat at 21 Days </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If Egg is Fertilized and Accepted </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing Calf’s Presence in Uterus Causes Yellow Body to Remain Active </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alternating Dominance of Follicle/Estrogen and Yellow Body/Progesterone = Estrous Cycle </li></ul>
    48. 48. Progesterone <ul><li>Stops Follicle/Egg Production </li></ul><ul><li>Prepares Uterus for Fertilized Egg </li></ul>
    49. 49. Summary of Female Reproductive Hormones
    50. 50. Other Reproductive Activity <ul><li>Sperm Waits in Oviducts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sperm Travels From the Target in 2 1/2 Minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sperm Requires Time in Female Reproductive System Before Being Capable of Fertilization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Special Chemicals in Female Tract Aid Sperm Maturation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Uterus Lining Changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thickens to Support and Sustain Fertilized Egg </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bloody Mucus 2 to 4 Days After Heat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does Not Signal Pregnancy or No Pregnancy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signals Cow Was in Heat a Couple Days Ago </li></ul></ul>
    51. 51. <ul><li>Sperm Produced in Testicles </li></ul><ul><li>Sperm Accumulate and Mature in Epididymides </li></ul><ul><li>Sperm Pass on to Larger Collection Tube in Vas Deferens </li></ul><ul><li>Urethra Provides Canal for Discharge </li></ul><ul><li>Sperm Discharged During Ejaculation </li></ul><ul><li>63 Days are Required for Sperm Production to Ejaculation </li></ul>
    52. 52. Breeding <ul><li>Natural Service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bull Ejaculates Semen Deeply in Cow’s Vagina </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deposits 4-6 Billion Sperm Cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Artificial Insemination </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Semen Deposited in Body of Uterus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sperm is Carried Through Uterus to Oviducts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fertilization = Single Sperm Penetrates Egg </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3 to 5 Days Later Fertilized Egg Reaches Uterus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initial Cell Divisions Have Taken Place </li></ul></ul>
    53. 53. Pregnancy <ul><li>By Week 4 Fetal Membranes Line Uterus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stretch From Right to Left Uterine Horn Tips </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developing Calf/Embryo Grows in Membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Later Cotyledons Form </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attachment Between Membrane and Uterine Lining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form in About 100 Specific Sites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide Nutrients for Developing Calf From Dam’s Blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transfer Waste From Calf’s Blood to Dam’s Blood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gestation Normally Lasts 280 Days (9 Months) </li></ul>
    54. 54. Birth <ul><li>Calf Initiates Complex Birth Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cervix Relaxes Under Hormonal Influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uterus Contracts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Forces Fetal Fluids in Fetal Membranes to Open Cervix </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Membranes and Calf Enter and Stretch Vagina </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contractions of Abdominal Wall and Diaphragm Muscles With Uterine Contractions Rupture Fetal Membranes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fetal Fluids are Discharged </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calf is Forced Through Remainder of Birth Canal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fetal Membranes Discharged 1/2 to 8 Hours Later </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uterus Gradually Contracts and Repairs Itself </li></ul></ul>
    55. 55. Ideal Calf Position At Birth
    56. 56. Summary
    57. 57. Re-breeding Fertility Levels
    58. 58. Close-up of Re-breeding Fertility Levels
    59. 59. Voluntary Waiting Period (VWP) <ul><li>45 to 50 Days Needed to Repair Uterus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must Shrink From Sack That Held </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>80 to 100 Pound Calf </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5 to 8 Gallons of Fluid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10 Pounds of Afterbirth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To a Small 1 − 2 Pound Organ the Size of a Pair of Man’s Fists </li></ul></ul>
    60. 60. Postpartum Uterus
    61. 61. Placentomes <ul><li>100 Distinct Button-Like Sites Attach the Fetal Membranes to the Lining of the Uterus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carancules are Located on the Uterine Lining </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cotyledons are Located on the Fetal Membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each Carancule is Covered by a Cotyledon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Makes up a Structure Called the Placentome </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At Calving Some Will Reach 3 x 5 x 2 Inches </li></ul><ul><li>For Normal Discharge of Fetal Membranes, Cotyledons and Carancules Must Promptly Separate </li></ul>
    62. 62. Placentome
    63. 63. Nutrient Exchange <ul><li>Placentome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No Mixing of Blood, But Transfers Nutrients & Waste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrients Dissolved in Cow’s Blood - Pass Through Thin Membrane Into Calf’s Blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste Products From Calf Transfer Through Same Membrane Into Cow’s Blood for Elimination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass of Tiny Blood Vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Separated by Thin Tissue Layers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Permit High Volume of Blood Flow </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enables Easy Exchange of Nutrients and Waste </li></ul></ul></ul>
    64. 64. Recovery Delays <ul><li>Considering Size and Function of Tissues </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Takes Considerable Time to Return to Normal Condition </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Return to Normal Condition Delays Include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Calving Difficulties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uterine Diseases at Calving </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Retained Fetal Membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other Uterine Infections </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some Diseases Within the Cow </li></ul></ul>
    65. 65. 10 Days After Calving <ul><li>Horns are Very Relaxed </li></ul><ul><li>Uterine Cavity Still Large </li></ul><ul><li>Caruncles Still an Inch Long </li></ul><ul><li>Uterine Cavity Contains Bloody Fluid </li></ul>Photo Courtesy of: Dr. N.L. UanDemark, Cornell University
    66. 66. 17 Days After Calving Twins <ul><li>Uterus Retained Fetal Membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Walls are Very Thick </li></ul><ul><li>Contains Bloody Puss </li></ul><ul><li>Caruncles Have Not Reduced Size </li></ul><ul><li>Without Treatment Will Not be Ready for Breeding at 45 Days </li></ul><ul><li>Untreated Infection Could Spread to Fallopian Tubes Causing Blockages </li></ul>Photo Courtesy of: Dr. N.L. UanDemark, Cornell University
    67. 67. 20 Days After Calving <ul><li>Uterus Filled With Puss </li></ul><ul><li>Caruncles Large and Discolored </li></ul>Photo Courtesy of: Dr. N.L. UanDemark, Cornell University
    68. 68. 50 Days After Calf Aborted <ul><li>Recovery Was Rapid </li></ul><ul><li>Generally if Abortion Occurs After 3 Months Should Give Cow a 50-day Rest </li></ul><ul><li>If Obvious/Severe Uterine Infection Follows Abortion, Get Veterinary Treatment, Needed Rest Time May be Longer </li></ul>Photo Courtesy of: Dr. N.L. UanDemark, Cornell University
    69. 69. 28 Days After Calving <ul><li>Free From Obvious Puss and Dead Blood </li></ul><ul><li>Caruncles are Still Enlarged and Swollen </li></ul>Photo Courtesy of: Dr. N.L. UanDemark, Cornell University
    70. 70. 35 Days After Calving <ul><li>Caruncles are Still Large </li></ul><ul><li>A Little Puss and Some Inflammation of Uterus Lining </li></ul>Photo Courtesy of: Dr. N.L. UanDemark, Cornell University
    71. 71. 50 Days After Calving <ul><li>Uterus is Ready for Rebreeding </li></ul><ul><li>Fully Contracted </li></ul><ul><li>Free From Inflammation </li></ul><ul><li>Caruncles are Small, Almost Level Spots </li></ul>Photo Courtesy of: Dr. N.L. UanDemark, Cornell University
    72. 72. Summary <ul><li>Cervix Can be Manipulated Through the Rectal Wall </li></ul><ul><li>The Vagina Provides Passage to the Cervix </li></ul><ul><li>Cervix is Generally Located on the Front Edge of the Pelvic Floor </li></ul><ul><li>The Target for Depositing Semen is the Uterine Body </li></ul><ul><li>Uterus is Where Embryo Grows Into Calf </li></ul>
    73. 73. Summary <ul><li>Uterus Consists of Three Parts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small Body and Two Horns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extending From Uterine Horns are Fallopian Tubes </li></ul><ul><li>At End of Fallopian Tubes are Ovaries </li></ul><ul><li>Every 21 Days Ovaries Produce Egg </li></ul><ul><li>Egg Develops Within Graafian Follicle </li></ul><ul><li>As Follicle Grows it Secretes Estrogen </li></ul>
    74. 74. Summary <ul><li>10 to 14 Hours After Heat Ends, Egg is Ovulated </li></ul><ul><li>Collapsed Follicle Grows Into Corpus Luteum </li></ul><ul><li>Corpus Luteum Produces Progesterone </li></ul><ul><li>Progesterone Stops Follicle and Egg Development </li></ul><ul><li>Gestation for a Calf is About 280 Days </li></ul><ul><li>A 45-Day Rest Between Breedings is Required for Reasonable Conception Rates </li></ul>
    75. 75. Question 1 <ul><li>Trace the female reproductive tract. Name the organs involved as you follow the tract, starting outside the animal. </li></ul>Vulva, Vagina, Cervix, Body of Uterus, Uterine horns, Oviducts, and Ovaries
    76. 76. Question 2 <ul><li>When you’re doing A.I., the cervix is the most important part of the female. How can you tell for sure where the cervix begins and ends? </li></ul>The cervix tissue feels like a chicken or turkey neck. The vagina feels soft and elastic. The uterus is soft and spongy-like tissue.
    77. 77. Question 3 <ul><li>To achieve the highest fertility rate, where should you deposit semen? </li></ul><ul><li>By what other name is this area sometimes called? </li></ul>The body of the uterus. The inseminator’s “target”.
    78. 78. Question 4 <ul><li>Eggs are produced in the ovaries. Do both ovaries release eggs in each estrual cycle? </li></ul>No only one. Chance determines which one will produce the egg.
    79. 79. Question 5 <ul><li>What are two functions of the follicle? </li></ul>To produce the egg by producing FSH, and to produce estrogen.
    80. 80. Question 6 <ul><li>Describe how the hormone estrogen affects females. </li></ul>Estrogen causes the female to become restless and to stand to be mounted by another animal. It also increases blood flow to the uterus and causes glands in the vagina and at the cervix to produce mucus.
    81. 81. Question 7 <ul><li>How frequently can you expect healthy, non-pregnant heifers and cows to come into heat? </li></ul><ul><li>How long does standing heat last? </li></ul>Approximately every 21 days. Between 6 and 30 hours with an average of 18 hours.
    82. 82. Question 8 <ul><li>What are two functions of the yellow body? </li></ul>Replace the follicle, and secrete progesterone to prepare the uterus for pregnancy and prevent heat.
    83. 83. Question 9 <ul><li>Explain how progesterone affects the female? </li></ul>Progesterone helps to prepare the uterus for accepting the fertilized egg by reducing uterine muscle contractions and promoting development of the uterine lining. It also helps maintain pregnancy by preventing heat cycles.
    84. 84. Question 10 <ul><li>How soon after heat ends does ovulation, or egg release, occur? </li></ul>Between 10 and 14 hours, but it can range from 6 to 18 hours.
    85. 85. Question 11 <ul><li>After you’ve properly deposited semen, how long does it take sperm to reach the end of the oviduct where fertilization can occur? </li></ul><ul><li>Can sperm immediately fertilize the egg if it is available? </li></ul>Approximately two and a half minutes. No, it must mature in the oviduct first.