Plastic Cards Visual identity application Plain plastic card is enough Magnetic strip (e.g. credit cards) Visual data also available in machine readable form No security of data Electronic memory cards Machine readable data Some security (vendor specific)
What is a Smart Card? A Smart card is a plastic card about the size of a credit card, with an embedded microchip that can be loaded with data, used for telephone calling, cash payments , and other applications, and then periodically refreshed for additional use.
Electrical Signals DescriptionVCC : Power supply inputRST : Either used itself (reset signal supplied from the interface device) or incombination with an internal reset control circuit (optional use by the card) .CLK : Clocking or timing signal (optional use by thecard).GND : Ground (reference voltage). Fig : A smart card pin outVPP : Programming voltage input (deprecated / optional use by the card).I/O : Input or Output for serial data to the integrated circuit inside the card.AUX1(C4): Auxilliary contact; USB devices: D+AUX2(C8) : Auxilliary contact; USB devices: D-
CARD STRUCTURE Out of the eight contacts only six are used. Vcc is the supply voltage, Vss is the ground reference voltage against which the Vcc potential is measured, Vpp connector is used for the high voltage signal,chip receives commands & interchanges data.
Typical Configurations 256 bytes to 4KB RAM. 8KB to 32KB ROM. 1KB to 32KB EEPROM. 8-bit to 16-bit CPU. 8051 based designs are common.
Smart Card Readers Computer based readers Connect through USB or COM (Serial) portsDedicated terminalsUsually with a small screen, keypad, printer,often also have biometric devices such as thumbprint scanner.
Terminal/PC Card Interaction The terminal/PC sends commands to the card (through the serial line). The card executes the command and sends back the reply. The terminal/PC cannot directly access memory of the card so data in the card is protected from unauthorized access. This is what makes the card smart.
Why Smart Cards? Security: Data and codes on the card are encrypted by the chip maker. The Smart Card’s circuit chip almost impossible to forge. Trust: Minimal human interaction. Portability. Less Paper work: Eco-Friendly
Two Types of Chips Memory chip Microprocessor Acts as a small floppy Can add, delete, and disk with optional manipulate its memory. security Acts as a miniature Are inexpensive computer that includes an Offer little security operating system, hard features disk, and input/output ports. Provides more security and memory and can even download applications.
From 1 billion to 4 billion units in 10 years… Worldwide smart card shipments 4500 4285 4000 3580 3500 Microprocessor cards Millions of units Memory cards 3000 2500 3325 2655 2000 1500 1000 500 925 960 925 960 0 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009
Smart Cards in everyday life… Loyalty Transport Ticketing Payment Health cardSmart Poster Communication
Contact Smart Cards Requires insertion into a smart card reader with a direct connection This physical contact allows for transmission of commands, data, and card status to take place
Contactless Smart Cards Require only close proximity to a reader Both the reader and card have antennas through which the two communicate Ideal for applications that require very fast card interfaces
ISO 14443. International standard. Deals – only contactless smart cards. Defines:-a. Interface.b. Radio frequency interface.c. Electrical interface.d. Operating distance.Etc…..
Dual interface smart cards. Also called Combi card. Has a single chip over it. Has both contact as well as contactless interfaces. We can use the same chip using either contact or contactless interface with a high level of security.
Categories of Smart CardsBased on the type of IC chipembedded on the Smart Card.They are categorized into three types :- IC Micro Processor Cards IC Memory Cards Optical Memory Cards
Key AttributesSecurity to make the Digital Life safe and enjoyableEase of Use to enable all of us to access to the Digital WorldPrivacy to respect each individual’s freedom and intimacy SAFE
So many Smart Cards with us at all times….. In our GSM phone (the SIM card) Inside our Wallets Credit/Debit cards HealthCare cards Loyalty cards Our corporate badge Our Passport Our e-Banking OTP … and the list keeps growing
Our Industries Is rapidly changing Interactive billboards Transports New solutions leveraging on mobile contactless services eTicketing Retail
Banking and financeElectronic purse to replace coins for small purchases in vending machines .Credit and debit cardsSecuring payments across the internet
Smart card Pay phones Outside of the United States there is a widespread use of payphones phone company does not have to collect coins the users do not have to have coins or remember long access numbers and PIN codes The risk of vandalism is very low since these payphones are smart card-based. “Generally, a phone is attacked if there is some money inside it, as in the case of coin-based payphone
Transportation Driver’s license Mass transit fare collection system Electronic toll collection system
It’s no longer only «Cards»e-Passport: the first Smart Secure Device 45 Millions e-Passport in 2009
Student id card All-purpose student ID card containing a variety of applications such as electronic purse (for vending machines, laundry machines, library card, and meal card).
By 2020 …20 Billion Smart Secure Devices>4 Billion Mobile Appliances users>4 Billion e-ID documents in use