Development of Personal Manufacturing. Open Kitting Machine
Development of Personal Manufacturing. Knitting Printer Varvara Guljajeva PhD candidate Estonian Art Academy Mar Canet Sola Co-author
FAB LABs● Started in 2005 in the Center for Bits and Atoms, MIT by Neil Gershenfeld● Today there is a significant and growing number of FAB LABs around the world -> at the beginning of 2011, the international Fab Lab network consisted of over 50 Fab Labs in 16 countries.-> The real impact of digital communications and computation came ingiving ordinary people control over the information in their lives; digitalfabrication will likewise give individuals control over their physical worldby allowing them to personally program its construction.
Machine list recommendation Flexible manufacturing equipment within a fab lab can include:● Laser cutter, plasma cutter, water jet cutter, knife cutter: sheet material cutting● 3-axis CNC machines: 3 or more axes, computer-controlled subtractive milling or turning machines● Rapid prototyper: typically a "3D printer" of plastic or plaster parts● Printed circuit board milling: 2 dimensional, high precision milling to create circuit traces in pre-clad copper boards● Microprocessor and digital electronics design, assembly, and test stations
Origin● Digital fabrication tools were originally used for prototyping purpose by the industries. -> NOW the manufacturing machines are used for end-product manufacturing by small-scale producers and one- person-factories.● These tiny manufacturers kicked off without or very little external funding. The main reason for that is low-cost of machines and open source code and design.
Probably the best known example of the emergence of a personaltechnology is that of the personal computer (Lipson and KurmanFactory@Home). -> The history of personal computers began in the1970s (Wikipedia). Xerox Alto, 1973 Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Xerox_Alto.jpg
Industrial revolution Personal manufacturing “evolution”Communication Telegraph, telephone, improved Internet, online shopping, online user communities, commercial printing technologies search and rank algorithms that enable users to find what they’re looking for in the chaos, online blueprintsPower Steam, coal, electricity Powerful computing technologies bring formerly industrial-scale design and analytical capabilities to the massesMachine Steam engines, coal burning Personal fabrication machines are ready for hometechnology machines, looms, automated use, outside the factory. agricultural technologies. Cheaper and easier CAD software Hardware and Factory-scale machines mass electronic components get smaller and cheaper produced standardized objects very and more powerful quicklyDistribution Rail ways, improved roads, the The Internet becomes the distribution postal system infrastructure + local FabbersConsumers Emerging consumer markets Today’s consumers want to be unique and express eagerly purchased lower-cost mass themselves with custom objects produced itemsLabor Unskilled labor could assemble Unskilled consumers, like unskilled computer users, objects on an assembly line can design and operate their own manufacturing machinery
What about knitting and craft in general?● Knitting is very old craft.● The origins of knitting go back to 400-500BC Source: http://maryhanna.net/wp-content/uploads/2010/08/KnittingOldLady.jpg
Knitting Machines The 1st stocking frame knitting machine Invented by William Lee in 1589. Source: http://larkabout.wordpress.com/2009/12/11/the-hosiery-factory/
Circular knitting machine Hand-powered circular knitting machine of the Chemnitz- Based "Strumpfmaschinenfabrik" (Stocking Machine Factory) for the production of stockings with toes and heels, 1880.Source: http://www.german-hosiery-museum.de/technik/07rundstrickmaschinen/Bild_rundstrick_02.htm
When did a knitting machine appear at home? The first simple hand-powered flat-bed knitting Machines were constructed for home use by the cottage industry in 1890. As well small-size factories were using these machines. Source: http://www.german-hosiery-museum.de/technik/06flachstrickmaschinen/Bild
Brother knitting machines models MODEL YEAR KH-500 1955 Non punch-card machines KH-511 1960 KH-561 1964 KH-581 1966 KH-588 1969 Punch-card machines KH-800 1971 KH-810 1973 KH-820 1974 KH-830 1976 KH-840 1978 KH-890 1979 Electronic knitting machines KH-910 1976 KH-930 1980 KH-940 1988 KH-965 1992 KH-970 1996-> although Brother knitting machines have been discontinued, they are still the ones that people have at hoThe two most popular knitting machine lines in the market, namely Brother and Silver Reed/Studio
Electronic/computerized knitting machines - 200stitches can be used for a pattern - has about 600 preprogrammed patterns in internal memory - pattern input waus: mylar paper INPUT mode (manual) Floppy drive The PPD110 and PPD120 allows you to create your own stitch pattern designs or to input stitch patterns from knitting patterns, magazines or books, using a TV as your screen, and then to transfer your stitch patterns to your knitting machine.
Nintendo Knitting Machine (1987)Source: http://www.ign.com/articles/2012/08/31/nintendo-almost-made-a-knitting-add-on-for-nes
The ad says: ● “Youre looking at the Nintendo Knitting Machine. Its not a game; not a toy; not something a young girl can outgrow in three or six months or even a year. Its a machine that interacts with the powerful Nintendo Entertainment System to actually knit sweaters: and not just one or two patterns but a multitude of different and unique designs. The Nintendo Knitting Machine is just one more example of the innovative thinking that keeps Nintendo on the cutting edge of video technology. And your customers on the edge of their seats. Of course we should probably mention that no other video game system offers anything even remotely similar. But why needle the competition?”
Decline of knitting● In 1980s knitting suddenly became unpopular because of appearance of machines, and cheap and available clothing● However with the boom of Internet in late 1990s knitting communities appeared again. Internet enabled sharing, learning, and communication.● Among the first Internet knitting phenomena was the popular KnitList with thousands of members. In 1998, the first online knitting magazine, KnitNet, began publishing. Blogging later added fuel to the development of an international knitting community.
Thanx Internet!● Guardian: But despite this decade-long reign over the lifestyle pages, the last 12 months have been particularly good for knitting. Peter Fitzgerald, a retail director at Google UK, says that while online searches for knitting-related terms have grown steadily since 2004, the growth this year has been really noticeable. "Our data shows that searches for knitting have increased over 150% just this year," he says. The term "knitting for beginners" has increased by 250%.
Hacking KH930The hack of Becky Stern from MAKE magazineFloppy emulation script in Python by by Steve Conklin
Andrew SalomoneSource: http://s3files.core77.com/blog/images/2011/01/0idpbalacl03.jpg
Physical hackInspired by Travis Goodspeed and Fabienne Serriere
Improvements● PatternUploader developed with the help of Davey Taylor – http://www.mcanet.info/patternUploader/ – http://wiki.forskningsavd.se/ElectroknitKH940● User interface● Windows/linux/mac support● Enables to upload patterns via floppy emulation to KH930, KH940, KH950i.● Bigger-size pattern upload● Multiple pattern upload● Multicolor pattern upload (up to 4 colors per row)
Multicolor per row + no floatsPhotos by Andrew Salomone
Conclusions● Knitting machine is the 1st digital personal manufacturing tool at home, which has been totally over looked nowadays in the age of digital fabrication.● Textile fabrication has a huge tradition and importance in society -> available skills & knowledge.● Open knitting has a great potential in the growing field of digital fabrication -> cheap, available and recyclable material, growing community of fabbers/innovators/makers, new business opportunities, and more.● The fabrication and business model is changing (disappearing big- size industries, FAB LABs, startups, factories at home). Hence, knitting and textile manufacturing introduce new possibilities and personalization.
Thank you for listening! Question time Varvara Guljajevawww.varvarag.info - firstname.lastname@example.org Mar Canet Solawww.mcanet.info - email@example.com