Advertising is a form of communication for marketing and used to encourage or persuade an audience(viewers, readers or lis...
3 Types of advertising4 Sales promotions5 Media and advertising approaches o    5.1 Rise in new media o    5.2 Niche marke...
Edo period advertising flyer from 1806 for a traditional medicine called KinseitanEgyptians used papyrus to make sales mes...
An 1895 advertisement for a weight gain product.As the economy expanded during the 19th century, advertising grew alongsid...
A print advertisement for the 1913 issue of the Encyclopædia BritannicaAt the turn of the century, there were few career c...
Advertisement for a live radio broadcast, sponsored by a milk company and published in the Los Angeles Times on May 6,1930...
In the United States, the granting of television and radio licenses by the FCC is contingent upon thestation broadcasting ...
[edit]Cable television from the 1980sThe late 1980s and early 1990s saw the introduction of cable television and particula...
2. Knowledge    3. Liking    4. Preference    5. Conviction    6. Purchase   Means-End TheoryThis approach suggests that ...
An advertisement for the Wikimedia FoundationAn advertisement for a diner. Such signs are common on storefronts.Paying peo...
A bus with an advertisement for GAP in Singapore. Buses and other vehicles are popular media for advertisers.A DBAG Class ...
[20]   background              where none exist in real-life. This technique is especially used in televised sporting     ...
notably Casino Royale. In "Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer", the main transport vehicleshows a large Dodge logo ...
they can also be specially equipped cargo trucks or, in some cases, large banners strewn fromplanes. The billboards are of...
the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, China, swimmer Michael Phelps contract with Kelloggs wasterminated, as Kelloggs did not...
signage is being successfully employed in                 [27]supermarkets. Another successful use ofdigital signage is in...
More advanced mobile ads include banner ads,coupons, Multimedia Messaging Service pictureand video messages, advergames an...
Controversy exists on the effectivenessof subliminal advertising (see mind control), andthe pervasiveness of mass messages...
Also brought about by the Internet and the theoryof The Long Tail, advertisers will have anincreasing ability to reach spe...
Super Bowl Ad Meter as the top ad for the yearwhile the winning ads that aired in the 2010Super Bowl were found by Nielsen...
moments provide insight into what is working inan ad in any country or region because themeasures are based on the visual,...
and other services in a favorable and pleasantlight, countries market themselves to populationsabroad in a manner that cou...
technological changes, such as the advance ofonline social networking. A unique model forteaching advertising is the stude...
accept foreign programming, including thosefrom neighboring countries or via satellite.Greece‘s regulations are of a simil...
Many advertisers employ a wide-variety oflinguistic devices to bypass regulatory laws (e.g.In France, printing English wor...
print advertisements, and televisionadvertisements. The purpose of semiotics is tostudy and interpret the message being co...
individuals are influenced by three categories.Certain characteristics of stumuli may enhanceor decrease the elaboration o...
years but mainly for food, household products,                             [58]and feminine care products.[edit]Gender    ...
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Advertising

  1. 1. Advertising is a form of communication for marketing and used to encourage or persuade an audience(viewers, readers or listeners; sometimes a specific group) to continue or take some new action. Mostcommonly, the desired result is to drive consumer behavior with respect to a commercial offering,although political and ideological advertising is also common. In Latin, ad vertere means ―to turn the mindtoward.‖ [1] The purpose of advertising may also be to reassure employees or shareholders that acompany is viable or successful. Advertising messages are usually paid for by sponsors and viewed viavarious traditional media; including mass media such asnewspaper, magazines, televisioncommercial, radio advertisement, outdoor advertising or direct mail; or new media suchas blogs,websites or text messages.Commercial advertisers often seek to generate increased consumption oftheir products or services through "branding," which involves the repetition of an image or product namein an effort to associate certain qualities with the brand in the minds of consumers. Non-commercial advertisers who spend money to advertise items other than a consumer product or serviceinclude political parties, interest groups, religious organizations and governmental agencies. Nonprofitorganizations may rely on free modes of persuasion, such as apublic service announcement (PSA).Modern advertising was created with the innovative techniques introduced with tobacco advertising in the1920s, most significantly with the campaigns of Edward Bernays, which is often considered the founder of [1][2][3]modern, Madison Avenue advertising.In 2010, spending on advertising was estimated at $142.5 billion in the United States and $467 billion [4]worldwideInternationally, the largest ("big four") advertising conglomerates are Interpublic, Omnicom, Publicis, [citation needed]and WPP. Contents [hide]1 History o 1.1 19th century o 1.2 20th century  1.2.1 On the radio from the 1920s  1.2.2 Public service advertising in WW2  1.2.3 Commercial television in the 1950s  1.2.4 Media diversification in the 1960s  1.2.5 Cable television from the 1980s  1.2.6 On the internet from the 1990s2 Advertising theory o 2.1 Hierarchy of effects model o 2.2 Marketing mix
  2. 2. 3 Types of advertising4 Sales promotions5 Media and advertising approaches o 5.1 Rise in new media o 5.2 Niche marketing o 5.3 Crowdsourcing o 5.4 Global advertising o 5.5 Foreign public messaging o 5.6 Diversification o 5.7 New technology o 5.8 Advertising education6 Criticisms7 Regulation8 Advertising research9 Semiotics10 Gender effects in the processing of advertising11 See also12 Notes13 References14 External links[edit]History
  3. 3. Edo period advertising flyer from 1806 for a traditional medicine called KinseitanEgyptians used papyrus to make sales messages and wall posters. Commercial messages and politicalcampaign displays have been found in the ruins of Pompeii and ancient Arabia. Lost andfound advertising on papyrus was common in Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. Wall or rock paintingfor commercial advertising is another manifestation of an ancient advertising form, which is present to thisday in many parts of Asia, Africa, and South America. The tradition of wall painting can be traced back to [5]Indian rock art paintings that date back to 4000 BC. History tells us that Out-of-homeadvertising and billboards are the oldest forms of advertising.As the towns and cities of the Middle Ages began to grow, and the general populace was unable to read,signs that today would say cobbler, miller, tailor or blacksmith would use an image associated with theirtrade such as a boot, a suit, a hat, a clock, a diamond, a horse shoe, a candle or even a bag of flour.Fruits and vegetables were sold in the city square from the backs of carts and wagons and theirproprietors used street callers (town criers) to announce their whereabouts for the convenience of thecustomers.As education became an apparent need and reading, as well as printing, developed advertising expanded [citation needed] [when?]to include handbills. In the 18th century advertisements started to appear in weeklynewspapers in England. These early print advertisements were used mainly to promote books andnewspapers, which became increasingly affordable with advances in the printing press; and medicines,which were increasingly sought after as disease ravaged Europe. However, false advertising and so-called "quack" advertisements became a problem, which ushered in the regulation of advertising content.[edit]19th century
  4. 4. An 1895 advertisement for a weight gain product.As the economy expanded during the 19th century, advertising grew alongside. In the United States, thesuccess of this advertising format eventually led to the growth of mail-order advertising.In June 1836, French newspaper La Presse was the first to include paid advertising in its pages, allowingit to lower its price, extend its readership and increase its profitability and the formula was soon copied byall titles. Around 1840, Volney B. Palmer established the roots of the modern day advertising agency inPhiladelphia. In 1842 Palmer bought large amounts of space in various newspapers at a discounted ratethen resold the space at higher rates to advertisers. The actual ad - the copy, layout, and artwork - wasstill prepared by the company wishing to advertise; in effect, Palmer was a space broker. The situationchanged in the late 19th century when the advertising agency of N.W. Ayer & Son was founded. Ayer andSon offered to plan, create, and execute complete advertising campaigns for its customers. By 1900 theadvertising agency had become the focal point of creative planning, and advertising was firmly [6]established as a profession. Around the same time, in France, Charles-Louis Havas extended theservices of his news agency, Havas to include advertisement brokerage, making it the first French groupto organize. At first, agencies were brokers for advertisement space in newspapers. N. W. Ayer &Son was the first full-service agency to assume responsibility for advertising content. N.W. Ayer opened in [6]1869, and was located in Philadelphia.[edit]20th century
  5. 5. A print advertisement for the 1913 issue of the Encyclopædia BritannicaAt the turn of the century, there were few career choices for women in business; however, advertisingwas one of the few. Since women were responsible for most of the purchasing done in their household,advertisers and agencies recognized the value of womens insight during the creative process. In fact, thefirst American advertising to use a sexual sell was created by a woman – for a soap product. Although [citation needed]tame by todays standards, the advertisement featured a couple with the message "The skin [7][non-primary source needed]you love to touch".Modern advertising was created with the innovative techniques used in tobacco advertising beginning inthe 1920s, most significantly with the campaigns of Edward Bernays, which is often considered as the [1][2][3]founder of modern, Madison Avenue advertising. The tobacco industries was one of the firsts tomake use of mass production, with the introduction of the Bonsack machine to roll cigarettes. TheBonsack machine allowed the production of cigarettes for a mass markets, and the tobacco industryneeded to match such an increase in supply with the creation of a demand from the masses through [8]advertising.[edit]On the radio from the 1920s
  6. 6. Advertisement for a live radio broadcast, sponsored by a milk company and published in the Los Angeles Times on May 6,1930In the early 1920s, the first radio stations were established by radio equipment manufacturers andretailers who offered programs in order to sell more radios to consumers. As time passed, many non-profit organizations followed suit in setting up their own radio stations, and included: schools, clubs and [9]civic groups.Advertisements of hotels inPichilemu, Chilefrom 1935.When the practice of sponsoring programs was popularised, each individual radio program was usuallysponsored by a single business in exchange for a brief mention of the business name at the beginningand end of the sponsored shows. However, radio station owners soon realised they could earn moremoney by selling sponsorship rights in small time allocations to multiple businesses throughout their radiostations broadcasts, rather than selling the sponsorship rights to single businesses per show.[edit]Public service advertising in WW2The advertising techniques used to promote commercial goods and services can be used to inform, [citation needed]educate and motivate the public about non-commercial issues, such as HIV/AIDS , politicalideology, energy conservation and deforestation.Advertising, in its non-commercial guise, is a powerful educational tool capable of reaching andmotivating large audiences. "Advertising justifies its existence when used in the public interest—it is muchtoo powerful a tool to use solely for commercial purposes." Attributed to Howard Gossage by DavidOgilvy.Public service advertising, non-commercial advertising, public interest advertising, cause marketing,and social marketing are different terms for (or aspects of) the use of sophisticated advertising andmarketing communications techniques (generally associated with commercial enterprise) on behalf ofnon-commercial, public interest issues and initiatives.
  7. 7. In the United States, the granting of television and radio licenses by the FCC is contingent upon thestation broadcasting a certain amount of public service advertising. To meet these requirements, manybroadcast stations in America air the bulk of their required public service announcements during the latenight or early morning when the smallest percentage of viewers are watching, leaving more day andprime time commercial slots available for high-paying advertisers.Public service advertising reached its height during World Wars I and II under the direction of more thanone government. During WWII President Roosevelt commissioned the creation of The War AdvertisingCouncil (now known as the Ad Council) which is the nations largest developer of PSA campaigns onbehalf of government agencies and non-profit organizations, including the longest-running PSA [citation needed]campaign, Smokey Bear.[edit]Commercial television in the 1950sThis practice was carried over to commercial television in the late 1940s and early 1950s. A fierce battlewas fought between those seeking to commercialise the radio and people who argued that the radiospectrum should be considered a part of the commons – to be used only non-commercially and for thepublic good. The United Kingdom pursued a public funding model for the BBC, originally a privatecompany, the British Broadcasting Company, but incorporated as a public body by Royal Charter in 1927.In Canada, advocates likeGraham Spry were likewise able to persuade the federal government to adopt apublic funding model, creating the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. However, in the United States,the capitalist model prevailed with the passage of the Communications Act of 1934 which created [9]the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). However, the U.S. Congress did require commercial [10]broadcasting companies to operate in the "public interest, convenience, and necessity". Publicbroadcasting now exists in the United States due to the 1967 Public Broadcasting Act which led tothe Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) and National Public Radio (NPR).In the early 1950s, the DuMont Television Network began the modern practice of selling advertisementtime to multiple sponsors. Previously, DuMont had trouble finding sponsors for many of their programsand compensated by selling smaller blocks of advertising time to several businesses. This eventuallybecame the standard for the commercial television industry in the United States. However, it was still acommon practice to have single sponsor shows, such as The United States Steel Hour. In someinstances the sponsors exercised great control over the content of the show—up to and including havingones advertising agency actually writing the show. The single sponsor model is much less prevalent now,a notable exception being the Hallmark Hall of Fame.[edit]Media diversification in the 1960sIn the 1960s, campaigns featuring heavy spending in different mass media channels became moreprominent. For example, the Esso gasoline company spent hundreds of millions of dollars on a brand [11]awareness campaign built around the simple and alliterative theme Put a Tiger in Your [12] [13] [14]Tank. Psychologist Ernest Dichter and DDB Worldwidecopywriter Sandy Sulcer learned thatmotorists desired both power and play while driving, and chose the tiger as an easy–to–remembersymbol to communicate those feelings. The North American and later European campaign featuredextensive television and radio and magazine ads, including photos with tiger tails supposedly emergingfrom car gas tanks, promotional events featuring real tigers, billboards, and in Europe station pump hoses [12]"wrapped in tiger stripes" as well as pop music songs. Tiger imagery can still be seen on the pumps ofsuccessor firm ExxonMobil.
  8. 8. [edit]Cable television from the 1980sThe late 1980s and early 1990s saw the introduction of cable television and particularly MTV. Pioneeringthe concept of the music video, MTV ushered in a new type of advertising: the consumer tunes in for theadvertising message, rather than it being a by-product or afterthought. As cable and satellitetelevision became increasingly prevalent, specialty channels emerged, including channelsentirely devoted to advertising, such as QVC, Home Shopping Network, and ShopTV Canada.[edit]On the internet from the 1990sMain article: Internet marketingWith the advent of the ad server, marketing through the Internet opened new frontiers for advertisers andcontributed to the "dot-com" boom of the 1990s. Entire corporations operated solely on advertisingrevenue, offering everything from coupons to free Internet access. At the turn of the 21st century, anumber of websites including the search engineGoogle, started a change in online advertising byemphasizing contextually relevant, unobtrusive ads intended to help, rather than inundate, users. Thishas led to a plethora of similar efforts and an increasing trend of interactive advertising.The share of advertising spending relative to GDP has changed little across large changes in media. Forexample, in the US in 1925, the main advertising media were newspapers, magazines, signson streetcars, and outdoor posters. Advertising spending as a share of GDP was about 2.9 percent. By1998, television and radio had become major advertising media. Nonetheless, advertising spending as a [15]share of GDP was slightly lower—about 2.4 percent.A recent advertising innovation is "guerrilla marketing", which involves unusual approaches such asstaged encounters in public places, giveaways of products such as cars that are covered with brandmessages, and interactive advertising where the viewer can respond to become part of the advertisingmessage. Guerrilla advertising is becoming increasingly more popular with a lot of companies. This typeof advertising is unpredictable and innovative, which causes consumers to buy the product or idea. Thisreflects an increasing trend of interactive and "embedded" ads, such as via product placement, havingconsumers vote through text messages, and various innovations utilizing social network services such [citation needed]asFacebook or Twitter.[edit]Advertising theory[edit]Hierarchy of effects model This section contains information of unclear or questionable importance or relevance to the articles subject matter. Please help improve this article by clarifying or removing superfluous information. (August 2012) [16] Hierarchy of effects modelIt clarifies the objectives of an advertising campaign and for each individual advertisement. The modelsuggests that there are six steps a consumer or a business buyer moves through when making apurchase. The steps are: 1. Awareness
  9. 9. 2. Knowledge 3. Liking 4. Preference 5. Conviction 6. Purchase Means-End TheoryThis approach suggests that an advertisement should contain a message or means that leads theconsumer to a desired end state. Leverage PointsIt is designed to move the consumer from understanding a products benefits to linking those benefits withpersonal values. Verbal and Visual ImagesThe political economy of advertisement is the theory that a few powerful groups, or ‗knowledgemonopolies,‘ control the thoughts, behaviors, and actions of the public through mass media ascommunication. As a form of communication, advertisement uses repeated verbal and visual images todevelop and alter society. Over time, these repeated images and symbols become associated with eitherpositive or negative attributes and can modify the public‘s evaluation of such cultural objects as people,religions, ethnic groups, and societal roles. Thus, the media forms the beliefs and values of the publicthrough media portrayals. The messages of the ((political economy)) commonly correlate with current [17]economic interests.[edit]Marketing mix This section contains information of unclear or questionable importance or relevance to the articles subject matter. Please help improve this article by clarifying or removing superfluous information. (August 2012)Main article: Marketing mixThe marketing mix has been the key concept to advertising. The marketing mix was suggested byprofessor E. Jerome McCarthy in the 1960s. The marketing mix consists of four basic elements called thefour P‘s. Product is the first P representing the actual product. Price represents the process ofdetermining the value of a product. Place represents the variables of getting the product to the consumerlike distribution channels, market coverage and movement organization. The last P stands for Promotionwhich is the process of reaching the target market and convincing them to go out and buy the [citation needed]product.[edit]Types of advertising
  10. 10. An advertisement for the Wikimedia FoundationAn advertisement for a diner. Such signs are common on storefronts.Paying people to hold signs is one of the oldest forms of advertising, as with thishuman billboard pictured above
  11. 11. A bus with an advertisement for GAP in Singapore. Buses and other vehicles are popular media for advertisers.A DBAG Class 101 with UNICEF ads at Ingolstadt main railway stationVirtually any medium can be used for advertising. Commercial advertising media can include wallpaintings, billboards,street furniture components, printed flyers and rack cards, radio, cinema andtelevision adverts, web banners, mobile telephone screens, shopping carts, web popups, skywriting, busstop benches, human billboards and forehead advertising, magazines, newspapers, town criers, sides ofbuses, banners attached to or sides of airplanes ("logojets"), in-flight advertisements on seatback traytables or overhead storage bins, taxicab doors, roof mounts and passenger screens, musical stageshows, subway platforms and trains, elastic bands on disposable diapers, doors of bathroom stalls,stickers on apples in supermarkets, shopping cart handles (grabertising), the opening sectionof streaming audio and video, posters, and the backs of event tickets and supermarket receipts. Anyplace an "identified" sponsor pays to deliver their message through a medium is advertising.Television advertising / Music in advertising The TV commercial is generally considered the most effective mass-market advertising format, as is reflected by the high prices TV networks charge for commercial airtime during popular TV events. The annual Super Bowl football game in the United States is known as the most prominent advertising event on television. The average cost of a single thirty-second TV spot during this game has reached US$3.5 million (as of 2012). Some television commercials feature a song or jingle that listeners soon relate to the product. Virtual advertisements may be inserted into regular television programming through computer graphics. It is typically inserted into [18] otherwise blank backdrops or used to replace local billboards that are not relevant to the [19] remote broadcast audience. More controversially, virtual billboards may be inserted into the
  12. 12. [20] background where none exist in real-life. This technique is especially used in televised sporting [21][22] [23][24] events. Virtual product placement is also possible.Infomercials An infomercial is a long-format television commercial, typically five minutes or longer. The word "infomercial" is a portmanteau of the words "information" & "commercial". The main objective in an infomercial is to create an impulse purchase, so that the consumer sees the presentation and then immediately buys the product through the advertised toll-free telephone number or website. Infomercials describe, display, and often demonstrate products and their features, and commonly have testimonials from consumers and industry professionals. Radio advertising Radio advertising is a form of advertising via the medium of radio. Radio advertisements are broadcast as radio waves to the air from a transmitter to an antenna and a thus to a receiving device. Airtime is purchased from a station or network in exchange for airing the commercials. While radio has the limitation of being restricted to sound, proponents of radio advertising often cite this as an advantage. Radio is an expanding medium that can be found not only on air, but also online. According to Arbitron, radio has approximately 241.6 million weekly listeners, or more than 93 percent of the U.S. population. Online advertising Online advertising is a form of promotion that uses the Internet and World Wide Web for the expressed purpose of deliveringmarketing messages to attract customers. Online ads are delivered by an ad server. Examples of online advertising include contextual ads that appear on search engine results pages, banner ads, in text ads, Rich Media Ads, Social network advertising,online classified advertising, advertising networks and e-mail marketing, including e- mail spam. Product placements Covert advertising, also known as guerrilla advertising, is when a product or brand is embedded in entertainment and media. For example, in a film, the main character can use an item or other of a definite brand, as in the movie Minority Report, where Tom Cruises character John Anderton owns a phone with the Nokia logo clearly written in the top corner, or his watch engraved with theBulgari logo. Another example of advertising in film is in I, Robot, where main character played by Will Smith mentions his Converseshoes several times, calling them "classics," because the film is set far in the future. I, Robot and Spaceballs also showcase futuristic cars with the Audi and Mercedes-Benz logos clearly displayed on the front of the vehicles. Cadillac chose to advertise in the movie The Matrix Reloaded, which as a result contained many scenes in which Cadillac cars were used. Similarly, product placement for Omega Watches, Ford, VAIO, BMW and Aston Martin cars are featured in recent James Bond films, most
  13. 13. notably Casino Royale. In "Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer", the main transport vehicleshows a large Dodge logo on the front. Blade Runner includes some of the most obvious productplacement; the whole film stops to show a Coca-Cola billboard. Press advertisingPress advertising describes advertising in a printed medium such as a newspaper, magazine, ortrade journal. This encompasses everything from media with a very broad readership base, suchas a major national newspaper or magazine, to more narrowly targeted media such as localnewspapers and trade journals on very specialized topics. A form of press advertising is classifiedadvertising, which allows private individuals or companies to purchase a small, narrowly targetedad for a low fee advertising a product or service. Another form of press advertising is the DisplayAd, which is a larger ad (can include art) that typically run in an article section of a newspaper. Billboard advertisingBillboards are large structures located in public places which display advertisements to passingpedestrians and motorists. Most often, they are located on main roads with a large amount ofpassing motor and pedestrian traffic; however, they can be placed in any location with largeamounts of viewers, such as on mass transit vehicles and in stations, in shopping malls or officebuildings, and in stadiums. The RedEye newspaper advertised to its target market at North Avenue Beach with a sailboat billboard on Lake Michigan. Mobile billboard advertisingMobile billboards are generally vehicle mounted billboards or digital screens. These can be ondedicated vehicles built solely for carrying advertisements along routes preselected by clients,
  14. 14. they can also be specially equipped cargo trucks or, in some cases, large banners strewn fromplanes. The billboards are often lighted; some being backlit, and others employing spotlights.Some billboard displays are static, while others change; for example, continuously or periodicallyrotating among a set of advertisements. Mobile displays are used for various situations inmetropolitan areas throughout the world, including: Target advertising, One-day, and long-termcampaigns, Conventions, Sporting events, Store openings and similar promotional events, andBig advertisements from smaller companies. In-store advertisingIn-store advertising is any advertisement placed in a retail store. It includes placement of aproduct in visible locations in a store, such as at eye level, at the ends of aisles and nearcheckout counters (aka POP—Point Of Purchase display), eye-catching displays promoting aspecific product, and advertisements in such places as shopping carts and in-store videodisplays. Coffee cup advertisingCoffee cup advertising is any advertisement placed upon a coffee cup that is distributed out of anoffice, café, or drive-through coffee shop. This form of advertising was first popularized inAustralia, and has begun growing in popularity in the United States, India, and parts of the Middle [citation needed]East. Street advertisingThis type of advertising first came to prominence in the UK by Street Advertising Services tocreate outdoor advertising on street furniture and pavements. Working with products suchas Reverse Graffiti, air dancers and 3D pavement advertising, the media became an affordable [citation needed]and effective tool for getting brand messages out into public spaces. Sheltered Outdoor AdvertisingThis type of advertising opens the possibility of combining outdoor with indoor advertisement byplacing large mobile, structures (tents) in public places on temporary bases. The large outeradvertising space exerts a strong pull on the observer, the product is promoted indoor, where thecreative decor can intensify the impression. Celebrity brandingThis type of advertising focuses upon using celebrity power, fame, money, popularity to gainrecognition for their products and promote specific stores or products. Advertisers often advertisetheir products, for example, when celebrities share their favorite products or wear clothes byspecific brands or designers. Celebrities are often involved in advertising campaigns such astelevision or print adverts to advertise specific or general products. The use of celebrities toendorse a brand can have its downsides, however. One mistake by a celebrity can be detrimentalto the public relations of a brand. For example, following his performance of eight gold medals at
  15. 15. the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, China, swimmer Michael Phelps contract with Kelloggs wasterminated, as Kelloggs did not want to associate with him after he was photographed smokingmarijuana. Celebrities such as Britney Spears have advertised for multiple products includingPepsi, Candies from Kohls, Twister, NASCAR, Toyota and many more. [edit]Sales promotions Sales promotions are another way to advertise. Sales promotions are double purposed because they are used to gather information about what type of customers you draw in and where they are, and to jumpstart sales. Sales promotions include things like contests and games, sweepstakes, product giveaways, samples coupons, loyalty programs, and discounts. The ultimate goal of sales promotions is to stimulate [25] potential customers to action. [edit]Media and advertising approaches This section may contain original research. (April 2012) This section needs additionalcitations for verification. (April 2012) Increasingly, other media are overtaking many of the "traditional" media such as television, radio and newspaper because of a shift toward consumers usage of the Internet for news and music as well as devices like digital video [26] recorders (DVRs) such as TiVo. Digital signage is poised to become a major mass media because of its ability to reach larger audiences for less money. Digital signage also offer the unique ability to see thetarget audience where they are reached by the medium. Technological advances have also made it possible to control the message on digital signage with much precision, enabling the messages to be relevant to the target audience at any given time and location which in turn, gets more response from the advertising. Digital
  16. 16. signage is being successfully employed in [27]supermarkets. Another successful use ofdigital signage is in hospitality locations such as [28] [29]restaurants. and malls.Advertising on the World Wide Web is a recentphenomenon. Prices of Web-based advertisingspace are dependent on the "relevance" of thesurrounding web content and the traffic that thewebsite receives.Reasons for online display advertising: Displayads generate awareness quickly. Unlike search,which requires someone to be aware of a need,display advertising can drive awareness ofsomething new and without previous knowledge.Display works well for direct response. Display isnot only used for generating awareness, it‘s usedfor direct response campaigns that link to alanding page with a clear ‗call to action‘.E-mail advertising is another recentphenomenon. Unsolicited bulk E-mail advertisingis known as "e-mail spam". Spam has been aproblem for e-mail users for many years.A new form of advertising that is growing rapidlyis social network advertising. It is onlineadvertising with a focus on social networkingsites. This is a relatively immature market, but ithas shown a lot of promise as advertisers areable to take advantage of the demographicinformation the user has provided to the socialnetworking site. Friendertising is a more preciseadvertising term in which people are able todirect advertisements toward others directly [citation needed]using social network service.As the mobile phone became a new mass mediain 1998 when the first paid downloadable contentappeared on mobile phones in Finland, it wasonly a matter of time until mobileadvertising followed, also first launched inFinland in 2000. By 2007 the value of mobileadvertising had reached $2.2 billion andproviders such as Admob delivered billions of [citation needed]mobile ads.
  17. 17. More advanced mobile ads include banner ads,coupons, Multimedia Messaging Service pictureand video messages, advergames andvarious engagement marketing campaigns. Aparticular feature driving mobile ads is the 2DBarcode, which replaces the need to do anytyping of web addresses, and uses the camerafeature of modern phones to gain immediateaccess to web content. 83 percent of Japanesemobile phone users already are active users of [citation needed]2D barcodes.Some companies have proposed placingmessages or corporate logos on the side ofbooster rockets and the International Space [citation needed]Station.Unpaid advertising (also called "publicityadvertising"), can provide good exposure atminimal cost. Personal recommendations ("bringa friend", "sell it"), spreading buzz, or achievingthe feat of equating a brand with a common noun(in the United States, "Xerox" = "photocopier","Kleenex" = tissue, "Vaseline" = petroleum jelly,"Hoover" = vacuum cleaner, and "Band-Aid"= adhesive bandage) — these can be seen asthe pinnacle of any advertising campaign.However, some companies oppose the use oftheir brand name to label an object. Equating abrand with a common noun also risks turning thatbrand into a genericized trademark - turning itinto a generic term which means that its legalprotection as a trademark is lost.From time to time, The CW TelevisionNetwork airs short programming breaks called"Content Wraps," to advertise one companysproduct during an entire commercial break. TheCW pioneered "content wraps" and someproducts featured were HerbalEssences, Crest, Guitar Hero II, CoverGirl, andrecently Toyota.Recently, there appeared a new promotionconcept, "ARvertising", advertising [citation needed]on Augmented Reality technology.
  18. 18. Controversy exists on the effectivenessof subliminal advertising (see mind control), andthe pervasiveness of mass messages [citation needed](see propaganda).[edit]Rise in new media US Newspaper Advertising Revenue [30] Newspaper Association of America published dataWith the Internet came many new advertisingopportunities. Popup, Flash, banner,Popunder, advergaming, and emailadvertisements (all of which are often unwantedor spam in the case of email) are nowcommonplace. Particularly since the rise of"entertaining" advertising, some people may likean advertisement enough to wish to watch it lateror show a friend. In general, the advertisingcommunity has not yet made this easy, althoughsome have used the Internet to widely distributetheir ads to anyone willing to see or hear them.In the last three quarters of 2009 mobile andinternet advertising grew by 18.1% and 9.2%respectively. Older media advertising sawdeclines: −10.1% (TV), −11.7% (radio), −14.8% [citation(magazines) and −18.7% (newspapers ).needed][edit]Niche marketingAnother significant trend regarding future ofadvertising is the growing importance ofthe niche market using niche or targeted ads.
  19. 19. Also brought about by the Internet and the theoryof The Long Tail, advertisers will have anincreasing ability to reach specific audiences. Inthe past, the most efficient way to deliver amessage was to blanket the largest massmarket audience possible. However, usagetracking, customer profiles and the growingpopularity of niche content brought about byeverything from blogs to social networking sites,provide advertisers with audiences that aresmaller but much better defined, leading to adsthat are more relevant to viewers and moreeffective for companies marketing products.Among others, Comcast Spotlight is one suchadvertiser employing this method in their videoon demand menus. These advertisements aretargeted to a specific group and can be viewedby anyone wishing to find out more about aparticular business or practice at any time, rightfrom their home. This causes the viewer tobecome proactive and actually choose what [31]advertisements they want to view.[edit]CrowdsourcingMain article: CrowdsourcingThe concept of crowdsourcing has given way tothe trend of user-generated advertisements.User-generated ads are created by consumersas opposed to an advertising agency or thecompany themselves, most often they are aresult of brand sponsored advertisingcompetitions. For the 2007 Super Bowl, the Frito-Lays division of PepsiCo held the Crash theSuper Bowl contest, allowing consumers tocreate their [32]own Doritos commercial. Chevrolet held asimilar competition for their Tahoe line of [32]SUVs. Due to the success of the Doritos user-generated ads in the 2007 Super Bowl, Frito-Lays relaunched the competition for the 2009and 2010 Super Bowl. The resulting ads wereamong the most-watched and most-liked SuperBowl ads. In fact, the winning ad that aired in the2009 Super Bowl was ranked by the USA Today
  20. 20. Super Bowl Ad Meter as the top ad for the yearwhile the winning ads that aired in the 2010Super Bowl were found by Nielsens BuzzMetrics [33][34]to be the "most buzzed-about".This trend has given rise to several onlineplatforms that host user-generated advertisingcompetitions on behalf of a company. Foundedin 2007, Zooppa has launched ad competitionsfor brands suchas Google, Nike, Hersheys, GeneralMills, Microsoft, NBC Universal, Zinio, and MiniCooper. Crowdsourced advertisements havegained popularity in part to its cost effectivenature, high consumer engagement, and abilityto generate word-of-mouth. However, it remainscontroversial, as the long-term impact on the [35]advertising industry is still unclear.[edit]Global advertisingAdvertising has gone through five major stagesof development: domestic, export, international,multi-national, and global. For global advertisers,there are four, potentially competing, businessobjectives that must be balanced whendeveloping worldwide advertising: building abrand while speaking with one voice,developing economies of scale in the creativeprocess, maximising local effectiveness of ads,and increasing the company‘s speed ofimplementation. Born from the evolutionarystages of global marketing are the three primaryand fundamentally different approaches to thedevelopment of global advertising executions:exporting executions, producing local executions, [36]and importing ideas that travel.Advertising research is key to determining thesuccess of an ad in any country or region. Theability to identify which elements and/or momentsof an ad contribute to its success is howeconomies of scale are maximised. Once oneknows what works in an ad, that idea or ideascan be imported by any other market. Marketresearch measures, such as Flow ofAttention, Flow of Emotion and branding
  21. 21. moments provide insight into what is working inan ad in any country or region because themeasures are based on the visual, not verbal, [37]elements of the ad.[edit]Foreign public messagingSee also: Soft Power and International TourismAdvertisingForeign governments, particularly those that ownmarketable commercial products or services,often promote their interests and positionsthrough the advertising of those goods becausethe target audience is not only largely unaware ofthe forum as a vehicle for foreign messaging butalso willing to receive the message while in amental state of absorbing information fromadvertisements during television commercialbreaks, while reading a periodical, or whilepassing by billboards in public spaces. A primeexample of this messaging techniqueis advertising campaigns to promote internationaltravel. While advertising foreign destinations andservices may stem from the typical goal ofincreasing revenue by drawing more tourism,some travel campaigns carry the additional oralternative intended purpose of promoting goodsentiments or improving existing ones among thetarget audience towards a given nation or region.It is common for advertising promoting foreigncountries to be produced and distributed by thetourism ministries of those countries, so theseads often carry political statements and/ordepictions of the foreign governments desiredinternational public perception. Additionally, awide range of foreign airlines and travel-relatedservices which advertise separately from thedestinations, themselves, are owned by theirrespective governments; examples include,though are not limited to, theEmiratesairline (Dubai), SingaporeAirlines (Singapore), QatarAirways (Qatar), China Airlines (Taiwan/Republicof China), and Air China (Peoples Republic ofChina). By depicting their destinations, airlines,
  22. 22. and other services in a favorable and pleasantlight, countries market themselves to populationsabroad in a manner that could mitigate prior [citation needed]public impressions.[edit]DiversificationIn the realm of advertising agencies, continuedindustry diversification has seen observers notethat ―big global clients dont need big global [38]agencies any more‖. This is reflected by thegrowth of non-traditional agencies in variousglobal markets, such as Canadianbusiness TAXI and SMART in Australia and hasbeen referred to as "a revolution in the ad [39]world".[edit]New technologyThe ability to record shows on digital videorecorders (such as TiVo) allow users to recordthe programs for later viewing, enabling them tofast forward through commercials. Additionally,as more seasons of pre-recorded box sets areoffered for sale of television programs; fewerpeople watch the shows on TV. However, thefact that these sets are sold, means thecompany will receive additional profits from thesales of these sets.To counter this effect, a variety of strategieshave been employed. Many advertisers haveopted for product placement on TV showslike Survivor. Other strategies include integratingadvertising with internet-connected EPGs,advertising on companion devices (likesmartphones and tablets) during the show, andcreating TV apps. Additionally, some like brandshave opted for social [citation needed]television sponsorship.[edit]Advertising educationAdvertising education has become widelypopular with bachelor, master and doctoratedegrees becoming available in the [citation needed]emphasis. A surge in advertisinginterest is typically attributed to the strongrelationship advertising plays in cultural and
  23. 23. technological changes, such as the advance ofonline social networking. A unique model forteaching advertising is the student-runadvertising agency, where advertising studentscreate campaigns for real [40]companies. Organizations such as AmericanAdvertising Federation and AdU Network partnerestablished companies with students to createthese campaigns.[edit]CriticismsMain article: Criticism of advertisingWhile advertising can be seen as necessary foreconomic growth, it is not without socialcosts. Unsolicited commercial e-mail and otherforms of spam have become so prevalent as tohave become a major nuisance to users of theseservices, as well as being a financial burden [41]on internet service providers. Advertising isincreasingly invading public spaces, such asschools, which some critics argue is a form of [42][43]child exploitation. In addition, advertisingfrequently uses psychological pressure (forexample, appealing to feelings of inadequacy) onthe intended consumer, which may be harmful.Many even feel that often, advertisements exploitthe desires of a consumer, by making aparticular product more appealing, bymanipulating the consumers needs and wants.[edit]RegulationMain article: Advertising regulationThere have been increasing efforts to protect thepublic interest by regulating the content and theinfluence of advertising. Some examples are: theban on television Tobacco advertising imposedin many countries, and the total banof advertising to children under 12 imposed bythe Swedish government in 1991. Though thatregulation continues in effect for broadcastsoriginating within the country, it has beenweakened by the European Court of Justice,which had found that Sweden was obliged to
  24. 24. accept foreign programming, including thosefrom neighboring countries or via satellite.Greece‘s regulations are of a similar nature,―banning advertisements for childrens toysbetween 7 am and 10 pm and a total ban on [44]advertisement for war toys".In Europe and elsewhere, there is a vigorousdebate on whether (or how much) advertising tochildren should be regulated. This debate wasexacerbated by a report released by theKaiserFamily Foundation in February 2004 whichsuggested fast food advertising that targetschildren was an important factor in the epidemicof childhood obesity in the United States.In New Zealand, South Africa,Pakistan,Afghanistan, Canada, and many Europeancountries, the advertising industry operates asystem of self-regulation. Advertisers, advertisingagencies and the media agree on a code ofadvertising standards that they attempt touphold. The general aim of such codes is toensure that any advertising is legal, decent,honest and truthful. Some self-regulatoryorganizations are funded by the industry, butremain independent, with the intent of upholdingthe standards or codes like the AdvertisingStandards Authority in the UK.In the UK most forms of outdoor advertising suchas the display of billboards is regulated by theUK Town and County Planning system. Currentlythe display of an advertisement without consentfrom the Planning Authority is a criminal offenseliable to a fine of £2,500 per offence. All of themajor outdoor billboard companies in the UKhave convictions of this nature.In the US many communities believe that manyforms of outdoor advertising blight the public [45]realm. As long ago as the 1960s in the USthere were attempts to ban billboard advertising [46]in the open countryside. Cities such as São [47]Paulo have introduced an outright ban withLondon also having specific legislation to controlunlawful displays.
  25. 25. Many advertisers employ a wide-variety oflinguistic devices to bypass regulatory laws (e.g.In France, printing English words in bold andFrench translations in fine print to deal with theArticle 120 of the 1994 Toubon Law limiting the [48]use of English). The advertisement ofcontroversial products such as cigarettes andcondoms are subject to government regulation inmany countries. For instance, the tobaccoindustry is required by law in most countries todisplay warnings cautioning consumers aboutthe health hazards of their products. Linguisticvariation is often used by advertisers as acreative device to reduce the impact of suchrequirements.[edit]Advertising researchMain article: Advertising researchAdvertising research is a specialized form ofresearch that works to improve the effectivenessand efficiency of advertising. It entails numerousforms of research which employ differentmethodologies. Advertising research includespre-testing (also known as copy testing) andpost-testing of ads and/or campaigns—pre-testing is done before an ad airs to gauge howwell it will perform and post-testing is done afteran ad airs to determine the in-market impact ofthe ad or campaign on the consumer.Continuous ad tracking andtheCommunicus System are competingexamples of post-testing advertising research [citation needed]types.[edit]SemioticsMain article: Advertising researchToday‘s culture is made up of meanings betweenconsumers and marketers. These meaningsdepict signs and symbols that are encoded in [49]everyday objects. Semiotics is the study ofsigns and how they are interpreted. Advertisinghas many hidden signs and meaningswithin brand names, logos, package designs,
  26. 26. print advertisements, and televisionadvertisements. The purpose of semiotics is tostudy and interpret the message being conveyedin advertisements. Logos and advertisements can be interpreted at two levels known as thesurface level and the underlying level. Thesurface level uses signs creatively to create animage or personality for their product.These signs can be images, words, fonts, colors,or slogan. The underlying level is made up ofhidden meanings. The combination of images,words, colors, and slogan must be interpreted by [50]the audience or consumer. The ―key toadvertising analysis‖ is the signifier and thesignified. The signifier is the object and the [51]signified is the mental concept. A product hasa signifier and a signified. The signifier isthe color, brand name, logo design, andtechnology. The signified has two meaningsknown as denotative and connotative. Thedenotative meaning is the meaning of theproduct. A television‘s denotative meaning wouldbe that it is high definition. The connotativemeaning is the product‘s deep and hiddenmeaning. A connotative meaning of a television [52]would be that it is top of the line.Apple is an excellent example ofusing semiotics in their advertising campaign.Apple‘s commercials used a black silhouette of aperson that was the age of Apples target market.They placed the silhouette in front of a bluescreen so that the picture behind the silhouettecould be constantly changing. However, the onething that stays the same in these ads is thatthere is music in the background and thesilhouette is listening to that music on a whiteiPod through white headphones. Throughadvertising, the white color on a set of earphonesnow signifies that the music device is an iPod.The white color signifies almost all of Apple‘s [53]products.The semiotics of gender plays a key influence onthe way in which signs are interpreted. Whenconsidering gender roles in advertising,
  27. 27. individuals are influenced by three categories.Certain characteristics of stumuli may enhanceor decrease the elaboration of the message (ifthe product is perceivedas feminine or masculine). Second, thecharacteristics of individuals canaffect attention and elaboration ofthe message (traditional or non-traditional gender role orientation). Lastly,situational factors may be important to influence [54]the elaboration of the message.There are two types of marketingcommunication claims-objective and [55]subjective. Objective claims stem from theextent to which the claim associates the brandwith a tangible product or service feature. Forinstance, the camera has auto focus features.Subjective claims convey emotional, subjective,impressions of intangible aspects of a product orservice. They are non-physical features of aproduct or service that cannot be directlyperceived, as they have no physical reality. Forinstance the brochure has a [56]beautifuldesign. Males tend to respond betterto objective marketing communications claimswhile females tend to respond better to [57]subjective marketing communications claims.In advertisements, men are represented asindependent. They are shown in moreoccupations than women. Women arerepresented mainly as housewives and mothers.Men are more likely to be shown advertising carsor business products, while women advertisedomestic products. Men are more likely to beshown outdoors or in business settings. Womenare depicted in domestic settings. Men are moreoften portrayed as authorities. As far as ads go,with age men seem to gain wisdom andauthority. On the other hand women seem todisappear with age. Voiceovers are commonlyused in advertising. Most voiceovers are men(figures of up to 94% have been reported). Therehave been morefemale voiceovers in recent
  28. 28. years but mainly for food, household products, [58]and feminine care products.[edit]Gender effects in theprocessing of advertisingAccording to a 1977 study by DavidStatt, females process information comprehensively, while males process information throughheuristic devices such as procedures, methodsorstrategies for solving problems, which couldhave an effect on how they interpret [59]advertising. According to this study, menprefer to have available and apparent cues tointerpret the message where females engage inmore creative, associative, imagery-lacedinterpretation.More recently, research by Martin (2003) revealsthat males and females differ in how they react toadvertising depending on their mood at the timeof exposure to the ads, and the affective tone ofthe advertising. When feeling sad, males preferhappy ads to boost their mood. In contrast,females prefer happy ads when they are feelinghappy. The television programs in which the adsare embedded are shown to influence a [60]consumers mood state.

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