Powering Rural Telecom: Challenges and
                          Opportunities
                       September 16, 2009
Rural Exchange in
Rajankunte, Karnataka
  2 x 256 line switch
        ~1998


                        All rights reserv ed.
Solar-
                        Solar-powered Base Station
                        from VNL (picture from their
           ...
Outline

• Powering Telecom Basics
• What’s special for Rural Applications
• The Importance of High Efficiency
• Operating...
Where is Power in the Network?




                                              Relevant for Rural

                     ...
Cell Site Power Block Diagram


                                                                                To Base
  ...
Wireless BTS Power Architecture

                                                                         POLs
     Redund...
Power in Rural Areas

• Little or no access to Grid Power
• Poor quality of Grid Power
       –Longer power outages
      ...
The Importance of High Efficiency

• Rural Watt$ are usually more valuable than Urban Watt$
• Why?
   – More expensive to ...
End-to-End Efficiency in A Base Station

                                                                          POLs
  ...
What’s Needed to Improve Efficiency

• AC-DC
     – 96% efficiency rectifiers starting to come out
     – Marginal price p...
Special Functions from the Power Management
System

• Minimize usage of DG
   – Auto phase selection + 3/2/1-Phase operati...
Improved Efficiency Rectifiers

                                            Green Series Rectifiers


                    ...
Active Rectifier Management – ARMTM

ARMTM – Place Rectifiers in Stand-by mode to improve operating efficiency of
remainin...
Lineage Priority SourceTM
   Modules & Systems:


                                          Loads


                      ...
Migration to a Green Network

• Three Technologies that make Lineage 96% rectifiers the best
  choice for your network:
  ...
An Investment in the Future
Lineage Power’s product design capability is focused on energy
efficiency, reliability, cost a...
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Conference on Rural Telecom Markets by Tele.net

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  1. 1. Powering Rural Telecom: Challenges and Opportunities September 16, 2009
  2. 2. Rural Exchange in Rajankunte, Karnataka 2 x 256 line switch ~1998 All rights reserv ed.
  3. 3. Solar- Solar-powered Base Station from VNL (picture from their Web site) ~2009 All rights reserv ed.
  4. 4. Outline • Powering Telecom Basics • What’s special for Rural Applications • The Importance of High Efficiency • Operating on and off the Grid © 2009 Lineage Power All rights reserv ed. 4
  5. 5. Where is Power in the Network? Relevant for Rural All rights reserv ed.
  6. 6. Cell Site Power Block Diagram To Base Station Static Voltage Regulators Rectifier AC Mains Rectifier Air Conditioner Engine Transfer Generator Switch Lighting Engine Batt. Chg. G Power Management System Controller All rights reserv ed.
  7. 7. Wireless BTS Power Architecture POLs Redundancy AC 48V or 24V Bus 5 or 12V 3.3V Digital 1.8V Isolated Loads ~ = 1.2V 6 – 9V Pre-amp Standard 28V PA or Custom DC-DC 28V, 6 – 9V modules 1.2/1.8/3.3/5V All rights reserv ed.
  8. 8. Power in Rural Areas • Little or no access to Grid Power • Poor quality of Grid Power –Longer power outages –Wide range of grid voltage –Surges/sags due to agricultural loads starting/stopping –Only one or two of three phases may be available, may be unbalanced – More exposure to lightning • Unmanned sites – Difficult/expensive to access – Longer time/more expensive to repair/maintain • Poorer environmental conditions – dusty, more windy © 2009 Lineage Power All rights reserv ed. 8
  9. 9. The Importance of High Efficiency • Rural Watt$ are usually more valuable than Urban Watt$ • Why? – More expensive to deliver • How much more valuable? $/Rural W – Grid AC always available $/Urban Watt 0.7X 0 1 2 3 $/Rural W – Grid available 50% + DG $/Urban Watt 2X 0 1 2 3 $/Rural W – Grid available 20% + DG $/Urban Watt 2.6X 0 1 2 3 $/Rural W – No Grid – DG Only $/Urban Watt 3X 0 1 2 3 $/Rural W – No Grid – Solar + DG $/Urban Watt ~2X 0 1 2 3 © 2009 Lineage Power All rights reserv ed. 9
  10. 10. End-to-End Efficiency in A Base Station POLs Redundancy AC 48V or 24V Bus 5 or 12V 3.3V 1.8V Isolated ~ = 1.2V 6 – 9V Pre-amp 28V PA Today 1.22W 1.14W 1W 93% 88% 1.13W Tomorrow 1.09W 1W 96% 92% • Power conversion subsystems typically are 2 – 5% of equipment costs All rights reserv ed.
  11. 11. What’s Needed to Improve Efficiency • AC-DC – 96% efficiency rectifiers starting to come out – Marginal price premium (~10 to 20%) – 97% (or even 98%) possible with better FETs (e.g. GaN) • DC-DC – PA higher efficiency requires a cost premium (diode rectification vs. synchronous rectification ~ 20%) – POL efficiency can be improved with price premium (better FETs) of ~20% – Isolated efficiency can also be improved with price premium (better FETS, thicker PWB copper) of ~ 20% • Overall – Payback analysis indicates that for about $0.06 increase/W of DC power processing, 0.09W can be saved (payback period is 1.1 years for on-grid and 0.37 years for rural off-grid) All rights reserv ed.
  12. 12. Special Functions from the Power Management System • Minimize usage of DG – Auto phase selection + 3/2/1-Phase operation + Can operate without neutral – Wider input range (155VAC to 480VAC ph-ph) – Longer operation on battery – Delay turning on air conditioner based on shelter temperature • Future – operation from multiple AC sources All rights reserv ed.
  13. 13. Improved Efficiency Rectifiers Green Series Rectifiers Rectifier Efficiency @ Nominal Vin, 25C 98.0% 96.0% 94.0% 92.0% Efficiency (%) 90.0% 88.0% 86.0% Current 1Ph HE 84.0% 82.0% New NE050AC48 80.0% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Load (%) All rights reserv ed.
  14. 14. Active Rectifier Management – ARMTM ARMTM – Place Rectifiers in Stand-by mode to improve operating efficiency of remaining rectifiers System Efficiency vs Load 95 100 95 90 Efficiency (%) 90 85 85 80 80 75 Adaptive Standby Standard 75 70 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Load (%) © 2009 Lineage Power All rights reserv ed. 14
  15. 15. Lineage Priority SourceTM Modules & Systems: Loads 48V or 24V DC Distribution Batteries AC 1Ø AC 3Ø Or DC AC 1Ø AC 3Ø DC DC AC or DC © 2009 Lineage Power All rights reserv ed. 15
  16. 16. Migration to a Green Network • Three Technologies that make Lineage 96% rectifiers the best choice for your network: Lineage Priority TM IDA TM Source TM ARM 1869 1984 1996 2001 2008 © 2009 Lineage Power All rights reserv ed. 16
  17. 17. An Investment in the Future Lineage Power’s product design capability is focused on energy efficiency, reliability, cost and advanced monitoring and control • Designing for Improved Efficiency and 97% 96% 6,000 A Plant Example w ith Sw itch-Mode 220A 480V ac Rectifiers (595LTA) Energy Management 95% 94% • Rectifier Efficiency Increased rectifier efficiency to 96% 93% 92% High Eff. All On • 91% Plant level efficiency optimization – 90% 89% HE ARM Active LTA - All On Active Rectifier Management 88% LTA - ARM Active 87% • Innovative architectural improvements 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% Pla nt L oad 60% 70% 80% 90% to reduce distribution losses Focus on Efficiency • Design Innovation to Reduce Product Complexity • Improved cost and reliability • Controller features to optimize operations • Remote visibility and control • Battery management, testing and monitoring Galaxy Network Manager • Network power monitoring – Galaxy Manager • Product Migration paths • Legacy Plants High Efficiency SMR • Alternative Energy Sources • Integration of solar, wind, hydro, fuel cells, new battery technology © 2009 Lineage Power All rights reserv ed. 17

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