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Nehru's Search for Suitable Architecture

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Nehru's Search for Suitable Architecture

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Nehru's Search for Suitable Architecture

  1. 1. Nehru's Search for Suitable Architecture Damini Bhardwaj , Varsha Mallya Studio III- B S.S.A.A
  2. 2. Partition Of India Figure 2: Post-Partition Map Of India Ref: http://www.mapsofindia.com/maps/india/india-map-prepartition.jpg Figure 1: Pre-Partition Map Of India Ref: http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/modern/images/partition_map.gif After India’s Independence, partition of India took place dividing the country into two parts. The political and the religious conflict between India and Pakistan led to a highly volatile atmosphere.
  3. 3. Political Scenario (1947-1980) Figure 3: Mahatma Gandhi Ref: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/com mons/0/03/MKGandhi.jpg Figure 4: Dr. Rajendra Prasad Death of the 1st President of India Ref: http://www.iloveindia.com/indian-heroes/pics/drrajendra-prasad.jpg Figure 5: Jawaharlal Nehru Ref: http://www.wallpaperswala.com/wpcontent/uploads/2012/09/Nehru-Ji.jpg This period was dominated by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru and can be regarded as Nehru Years.
  4. 4. Nehru years was the time of political and social reforms. Figure 6: Satellite ‘ Aryabhatta’ Ref: http://pib.nic.in/archive/50yrs/50phto/50l/space7.jpg • First Nuclear explosion at Pokhran (1974) • Firing of first rocket (1972) • Launching of satellite ‘ Aryabhatta’ (1975) • Bonded servitude was made illegal
  5. 5. Clients Figure 5: Post-Partition Map Of India Ref: http://www.wallpaperswala.com/wpcontent/uploads/2012/09/Nehru-Ji.jpg • Political leaders • Religious organizations. • New industrialists, Entrepreneurs, Individual house owners.
  6. 6. Revivalism It was an immediate architectural response to the Independence of India. Revivalism took many forms: British colonial buildings were faced with stucco and not stone. • Replication of traditional forms . • The abstraction of past forms. Walter Granville's High Court of 1872, on Esplanade Row, Kolkata, is a vast building, standing on land once occupied by the Supreme Court and three other residences. It has red brick facing with stucco dressings. Figure 7: Walter Granville's High Court Ref: http://www.victorianweb.org/art/architecture/granville/2.html
  7. 7. - Colors chosen were different from the colonial palette. (creams & whites). The new buildings were painted pink to look like sandstone. Figure 8: Ashok Hotel, New Delhi Ref: http://www.theashok.com/ Figure 9: Swami Malai Mandir, New Delhi Ref: http://incredibleindiaphotogallery.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/07_MalaiMandir.jpg
  8. 8. Bhubaneswar City plan from the book Figure 10: City Plan of Bhubaneswar Ref: Architecture and Independence • Koenigsberger’s design laid the city out in a linear pattern with a central artery forming a main spine to which neighborhood units were attached. It was designed for the population 40,000. • Neighborhood units had all the major amenities. Each unit was to house a population for 5,000-6,000.
  9. 9. • It had a clear social agenda in accordance to Nehru’s Policies: neither cast nor socio-economic were to exist and gender equality and education were to be stressed. • By 1961, the population reached 40,000. The plan was revised by Julius Vaz to accommodate eleven neighborhood units instead of four units. • Nehru did not want Bhubaneswar to become a “city of big buildings” . It would accord with the idea of reducing differences between rich and poor.
  10. 10. Chandigarh Ref: http://www.tripadvisor.in/Tourism-g297596-Chandigarh-Vacations.html Jawaharlal Nehru, decided to build a new city – Chandigarh as a capital for the state Punjab after Lahore was lost to Pakistan. He had envisioned this city to mark India’s entry into the modern world , would represent India’s clean break from the colonial rule of the British.
  11. 11. When India became independent, it was found that there were native no trained professionals on city planning. Political leaders hired American architects- Matthew Nowicki, and Albert Mayer to plan the city. Figure 12: Chandigarh Nowicki plan Figure 13: Le Corbusier plan Ref: Architecture and Independence Ref: Architecture and Independence The project was handed over to Le Corbusier in the year 1951 by Jawaharlal Nehru. Le Corbusier led a team that consisted of a French architect Pierre Jeanerette, Englishmen Maxwell Fry and Jane Drew and about twenty Indian architects and developed a new project.
  12. 12. Describing Chandigarh city plans . Le Corbusier conceived the master plan of Chandigarh as analogous to human body, with a clearly defined Head (the Capitol Complex, Sector 1), Heart (the City Centre Sector-17), Lungs (the leisure valley, innumerable open spaces and sector greens), Intellect (the cultural and educational institutions), Circulatory system (the network of roads, the 7Vs) and Viscera (the Industrial Area) Figure 14: Plan Ref: landlab.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/chandigarh-qt8.pdf
  13. 13. •The primary module of city’s design is a Sector, a neighborhood unit of size 800 meters x 1200 meters. •Each SECTOR is a self-sufficient unit having shops, school, health centers and places of recreations and worship. •The population of a sector varies between 3000 and 20000 depending upon the sizes of plots and the topography of the area. Figure 16 Figure 15: Neighbourhood plan Ref: landlab.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/chandigarh-qt8.pdf Figure 17 Ref:landlab.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/chandigarhqt8.pdf Ref:landlab.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/chandigarhqt8.pdf View of typical Roads and Round-abouts in the city
  14. 14. HIERARCHY of GREEN AREAS 1.City Level Public Green Space with Artificial Water Body 2.Free- Flowing Green Space, connecting the entire site 3.Semi-Private Green Areas for neighbourhood pockets 4.Private Green Areas for Residential Units Figure 18: Plan demarcating green areas Ref: landlab.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/chandigarh-qt8.pdf
  15. 15. The Basic Building Typology is observed as extremely Rectilinear with similar proportions. Figure 19: Typology Ref: landlab.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/chandigarh-qt8.pdf In both the developments the smaller individual Residential Units are arranged around central common Green Spaces, although the shapes are different. Figure 20: Typology Ref: landlab.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/chandigarh-qt8.pdf
  16. 16. The Superior Court of Justice Figure 21: Front View Ref: http://www.slideshare.net/ctlachu/planning-of-chandigarh-by-le-corbusier
  17. 17. Parasol roof extending to form arches Full Height Entrance Coloured Pillars Ref:http://www.slideshare.net/ctlachu/p lanning-of-chandigarh-by-le-corbusier It consists of an L-shaped block framed by a concrete that in the shape of arches, and that somehow establishes an reference to the covers of the havelis in Mughal architecture.
  18. 18. This space between the double cover offers a smooth ventilation in the summer and protection during the rainy season. Figure 23: Ashok Hotel, New Delhi Ref:http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_J0XsQeUu1tE/R5XstFDFjFI/AAAAAAAAEvA/5UwM0 Zyha9w/s400/DSCN6862.JPG Figure 24: Painted Concrete columns dividing the High court from the Supreme court. Ref:http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_J0XsQeUu1tE/R5Xv6VDFjSI/AAAAAAAAEwo/lybwZ v89d-E/s400/DSCN7154.JPG Figure 25: Terrace Ref:http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_J0XsQeUu1tE/R5Xv6lDFjTI/AAAAAAAAEww/mwsl2 5HEOOY/s400/DSCN7164.JPG The building contains 8 high courts and a supreme court . Le Corbusier devised a set of outdoor terraces, which now are used as warehouses.
  19. 19. The Secretariat, 1958 Figure 25: Secretariat Ref: http://www.slideshare.net/ctlachu/planning-of-chandigarh-by-le-corbusier
  20. 20. Roof Garden Projected porticos Figure 28: Front Façade Ref: http://www.slideshare.net/ctlachu/planning-of-chandigarh-by-le-corbusier Ramp enclosure Square windows Rough concrete finish Figure 27: Ramp Figure 26: free Facade Ref: Ref:http://www.slideshare.net/ctlachu/planningof-chandigarh-by-le-corbusier Ref: http://www.slideshare.net/ctlachu/planning-of-chandigarh-by-le-corbusier
  21. 21. The Assembly Hall Figure 29: Assembly Hall Ref: http://www.slideshare.net/ctlachu/planning-of-chandigarh-by-le-corbusie
  22. 22. Rough concrete finish ramp Figure 31: View of the ramp Ref: http://www.slideshare.net/ctlachu/planning-ofchandigarh-by-le-corbusier Figure 30: View from the road Ref: http://www.slideshare.net/ctlachu/planning-ofchandigarh-by-le-corbusier Concrete double roof
  23. 23. Modernist Architecture Achyut Kanvinde: sought to create buildings that represented modern technology and the machine age. • Open plan, with clearly separated ‘functional areas’. • The administration-cumlaboratory block is a perfect rectangular form . • Southern façade has sun shades running across in a continuous line. • Continuous bands of glass are flush with the wall on the north façade. Figure 32: The Ahmedabad Textile Industry's Research Association building Ref:http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/46/Ahmedabad_Textile_Industry%27s_R esearch_Association_building_%2815_05_2006%29.jpg
  24. 24. References 1) Jon T. Lang , Madhavi Desai , Miki Desai. Architecture and Independence: The Search for Identity - India, 1880-1980 2) http://www.slideshare.net/ctlachu/planning-of-chandigarh-by-le-corbusier 3) http://landlab.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/chandigarh-qt8.pdf 4) http://architecturalmoleskine.blogspot.in/2012/12/chandigarh-and-lecorbusier-ii.html

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