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Pea

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Floral biology and breeding techniques

Published in: Education

Pea

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  2. 2. INTRODUCTION • Scientific Name : Pisum sativum • Family : Leguminaceae • Chromosome No. : 2n = 2x = 14 2
  3. 3. IMPORTANCE • Fresh peas are consumed as vegetable • Peas are mostly grown for dry seeds • Consumed in fresh form and various processed forms like freezed, canned etc. • It is rich source of carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins[A,C &B-complex] ,Ca & Mg. • It is used in genetic studies. 3
  4. 4. ORIGIN & DISTRIBUTION • Origin: Southwest Asia & Northeast Africa • Distribution: it is cool season crop, grown all over the world, but widely grown in USA, Mexico, China, & Medeterranian countries. 4
  5. 5. SYSTEMATIC POSITION • Kingdom : Plantae • Division : Magnoliophyta • Class : Magnoliospida • Order : Fabales • Subfamily : Faboideae • Tribe : Vicieae • Genus : Pisum • Species : sativum 5
  6. 6. SUB SPECIES • P.sativum subsp. abyssiniam • P.sativum subsp. asiatium • P.sativum subsp. elatius • P.sativum subsp. sativum • P.sativum subsp. transcaucasium 6
  7. 7. FLORAL BIOLOGY 7 FLORAL BIOLOGY FLORAL MORPHOLOGY FLORAL ANTHESIS
  8. 8. THE FLOWER • It is having typical papilionaceous flower • Flower consists of 5 sepals[fused],5 petals comprising of one standard, two wings & two keel petals[boat shaped]. • Androecium consists of 10 stamens, the filaments of 9 fused at the base to form the staminal column & one free[diadelphous]. • Gynoecium consists of a pistil with style borne laterally on the ovary. 8
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  11. 11. FLORAL BIOLOGY • Chasmogamous flower. • Stigma becomes receptive 1-2 days earlier to flower opening . • Anthers dehiscence takes place just before flower opening. • The stigma is covered with full of pollen grains at the time of flower opening. 11
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  13. 13. ANTHESIS • Starts in morning around 6 am and continues till 11 am • Maximum flower opening – 11am to 5 pm • Pollen viability 5-6 hrs. • Stigma receptivity for 1-2 days. 13
  14. 14. POLLINATION • It is predominantly a self pollinated crop because of chasmogamous nature. ▫Only 0.5 to 3% cross pollination can occure due to insects 14
  15. 15. SELFING TECHNIQUES • Bagging of young flower bud to prevent natural out crossing by visiting insects. 15
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  17. 17. CROSSING TECHNIQUES • Includes ▫ Emasculation ▫ Pollen collection ▫ Artificial pollination 17
  18. 18. SELECTION OF FLOWER BUD • Select a bud in which anthesis will commence 12 - 16 hours later • Petals just out of the bud • Corolla colour is slight yellow or even paler 18
  19. 19. EMASCULATION • It is the removal of male part from the bisexual flower. • Use sharp forceps & needles. • Remove wing and keel petal with the help of forceps and then remove anthers 19
  20. 20. POLLINATION… • Take well opened flower. • Gently push the back of the flower & get the pollens. • Then put pollens on emasculated flower. • Then bag it. 20
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  23. 23. ARTIFICIAL POLLINATION… • Success rate – 33% • Depends upon temperature and humidity • Emasculation carried out before noon • Pollinate the emasculeted flowers on the same day or following day 23

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