Important Diseases
of
Anthurium,Carnation
and Rose

Varsha Gaitonde
Sr MSc
Dept.of Genetics and plant breeding.
GKVK UAS B...
Diseases of Anthurium
Anthurium Blight
Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae

• A bacterial disease.
Source-affected plant residues.
Bacterial Wilt
Ralstonia solanacearum
•Symptoms:
•Leaf yellowing (chlorosis) is usually the first symptom
observed.
•The d...
Black Nose Disease
: Colletotrichum gloeosporioides

• Symptoms: Black nose can cause havoc in
cut-flower and potted-plant...
Root Rots

Rhizoctonia  Root Rots - brown, mushy roots due
Pythium
to too much water.
Phytophthora  Wilt, yellowing.
...
Diseases of Carnation
• Fusarium wilt(Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi)
• In young plants, the first sign of the disease is fading
or graying ,w...
Alternaria leaf spot (Alternaria
dianthi)
• Symptoms
• The blight or rot at leaf
bases and around nodes,
which are girdled...
. Bacterial wilt (Burkholderia
caryophylli)
• The upper parts of established
plants turn pale and wilt.
• The stem develop...
• Carnation vein mottle virus (CVMV)

of "colour breaks" and calyx splitting are greater. CVMV is
spread from plant to pla...
• Carnation etched ring virus (CERV)
• Carnation mottle virus (CarMV)
• Carnation latent virus (CLV)
Carnation necrotic fl...
Alternaria saponariae
Alternaria blight

= Alternaria dianthi
Alternaria dianthicola

Anther smut

Calyx rot

Ustilago vio...
Diseases of rose
• Powdery Mildew
Air borne.

Fungal thread on leaf surface

Sphaerotheca pannosa

Common in crowded plantings where air ci...
Black Spot

Diplocarpon rosae

• One of the most common diseases of roses
• Disease cycle typically begins on leaves or ca...
Downy Mildew
Peronospora sparsa

•

A very serious disease that can affect all roses!

•

May appear only when favorable c...
Anthracnose
• Initially spots are small and black - easily confused with
blackspot
• Spores believed to be carried by wate...
Botrytis Blight
• When the weather is cool and
wet, the conditions are right for
this fungus
• Most common symptom - young...
Rose Canker
•

•

•

•

A fungal disease that can
affect any part of the plant,
but most common on
stems and canes
After a...
Rust
• A fungal disease common in many areas,
easily identified
•

Appears on the underside of the foliage
as red-orange s...
Bacterial Crown Gall
Agrobacterium tumefaciens

• Bacterial disease usually seen
on bud union, or on the trunk
• Thrives i...
Rose Mosaic
Prunus Necrotic Ringspot Virus

• Probably the most commonly found
virus in roses
• Mosaic is primarily transm...
Rose Rosette Disease (RRD)
• Exact cause unknown
• The distinctive red stems,
misshapen leaves are symptoms
• The main hos...
Basic IDM stretegies
•

•

•

•

•

pH of the growing media - pH strongly influences the 
availability of micronutrients s...
• Oxygen content - Adequate media aeration is critical to
healthy root growth and nutrient uptake and preventing
temporary...
• Air movement - powdery mildew and botrytis.
Open doors causing drafts and fluctuating leaf
and air temperature or horizo...
Cultural Practices
• Symptom recognition
• Sanitation and Roguing
• Use footbaths between greenhouse compartments,
• Rogue...
• Carefully check both the foliage and roots for
disease.
Maintain proper drainage to eliminate puddles
and wet surfaces, ...
•

Avoid extremes, as much as possible, for the
crops. For example, the combination of high
temperature and over-fertiliza...
Monitoring
•reviewing crops for plant growth regulator (PGR) application or
for irrigation.
•monitoring or applying a fung...
• Biosecurity
• Biosecurity is a process to protect a geographic area or individual facility
from pests and diseases. It i...
Biological control
• Rootshield is registered as a bio-fungicide for
suppressionof Fusarium, Pythium and Rhizoctonia on al...
Chemical control
• Apply chlorothalonil, propiconazole, fludioxonil,
copper hydroxide, iprodione, mancozeb, or mancozeb
+ ...
Resistant varieries
• Rose-PM• Charisma ,Pascali Rose ,Parade
Chicago Peace, Prominent Sarabande
,Europeana Pink Peace, Sa...
Questions?

Thank You
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Diseases of anthurium Carnation and Rose.Prepared by Varu Gaitonde.

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  • Not curative.go for preventive measures.Quarantining
  • ontrol and Treatment: The Colletotrichum fungus produces thousands of small hot-dog-shaped spores that can readily be moved by splashing water, air movement, and workers. A strict sanitation program is crucial to control the spread of this pathogen in a production facility.
    Fungicides containing mancozeb (Protect T/O™, Dithane®) are effective. Fungicide applications are usually discouraged because chemical residues diminish the marketability of flowers and plants.
    Anthurium plant breeding programs both in Hawaii and Florida have incorporated disease resistance into many of the current cultivars. Newer cultivars are highly resistant to this pathogen and rarely exhibit black nose. The fungus attacks many temperate and tropical crops and can cause damage to roots, stems, leaves, and flowers. However, in Anthurium the pathogen is highly specific, only attacking the spadix portion of the flower (the nose).
  • transparent polyethylene film (0.1 mm thick) for 30 days gives satisfactory control
  • .Management To reduce the disease incidence, humidity may be kept low by providing proper air circulation. Disease-free planting material should be used.  
  • The base of the cutting is discolored, with an elongated brown area extending upwards.The bacteria invade xylem vessels and spread to infect the young shoots. The vessels are disrupted and the host plant produces meristematic tissues. This new tissue causes an uneven development of cortex which splits open longitudinally. Carnation wilt, a vascular disease may be induced by mechanical plugging, a toxin or a combination of factors. Carnation cuttings wilted when placed in a filtrate of a bacterial suspension of B. caryophylli.In the naturally infected carnation plants the xylem vessels are found partly plugged. Lysis of xylem vessels, is also observed. Infection is carried to upper portions of the branch into the leaves.  Bacteria are not found in parenchyma tissues. Carnation cuttings suspended in bacterial filtrates in which proteins and other large molecular compounds are removed did not wilting symptoms.Management
    Use of cuttings taken from upper parts of the healthy stock plants are less liable for infection and hence advocated as a control measure. Diseased plant debris should be collected and burnt. Overhead watering and splash watering should be avoided. Disease-free planting materials are to be used. Role cultivars viz., Elegance, Northland and Starlite are less susceptible to bacterial wilt.
  • Control
    Since there are no chemical sprays for virus control once a plant is infected with a virus there is little the flower grower can do. The only current method for controlling virus diseases is through the use of virus tested material in conjunction with strict hygienic practices. To prevent infection of this virus-tested material, the carnation grower should enforce hygiene regulations
    for example, washing hands with hot soapy water before handling plants, aphid-proof glasshouses, sterilisation of cutting and propagating instruments etc).
  • Good sanitation will reduce the chance of infection– remove diseased leaves
    Aggressive spring pruning will remove a large source of fungus
    Prune to allow air circulation, and water without wetting the foliage
  • Tissue may drop out of the center of the spots, giving infected leaves its other name of “Shot Hole Fungus”
    Fungus overwinters on leaves and canes
    Can cause leaf drop that weakens the plant
    In extreme cases, it can result in complete defoliation
    Sanitation is best means of control – remove diseased leaves, and dispose in trash
    Plant spacing, use of drip lines or soaker hoses rather than sprinklers should help
    Prune out canes that have infections in fall – dispose in trash, not in compost pile
    Fungicide used for black spot is usually effective
  • Spores are moved to other plants by wind or blowing rain
    Can affect any part of a plant except roots
    Note the grayish fuzzy growth on the cane that indicates botrytis
    Wet or very humid weather may be highly favorable for the spread of the disease
    Good ventilation is also essential in reducing disease incidence
    Fungus may overwinter in dead plant tissue
  • Time fall prune so tips will dry and harden before winter
    Dormant spray can protect pruning cuts
    Disinfect pruners before moving to another bush
    In spring, remove infected canes and spray for fungal disease
    Fungicides that control black spot on ornamentals will also help to control canker
  • Don’t water in the evening so that the leaf surface is wet over night
    Fungicide you use for powdery mildew or black spot is usually effective
  • Successful disease management begins prior to the start of each crop. Knowing the diseases most likely to infect the crop is helpful in anticipating the potential problems that may arise. However, with so many new plant introductions each year, the susceptibility to disease is not always known. Experience has shown that most new plant material is susceptible to many of the same diseases that have frustrated growers for decades.
  • Diseases of anthurium Carnation and Rose.Prepared by Varu Gaitonde.

    1. 1. Important Diseases of Anthurium,Carnation and Rose Varsha Gaitonde Sr MSc Dept.of Genetics and plant breeding. GKVK UAS Bangalore
    2. 2. Diseases of Anthurium
    3. 3. Anthurium Blight Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae • A bacterial disease. Source-affected plant residues.
    4. 4. Bacterial Wilt Ralstonia solanacearum •Symptoms: •Leaf yellowing (chlorosis) is usually the first symptom observed. •The disease spreads rapidly throughout the vascular system of the plant, turning veins in the leaves and stems a brown, bronze color . •Bacterial ooze (brown slime) will be present if cuts are made into the stems of highly infected plants. Plants will exhibit wilt symptoms even though adequate soil moisture is available.
    5. 5. Black Nose Disease : Colletotrichum gloeosporioides • Symptoms: Black nose can cause havoc in cut-flower and potted-plant production. Flowers and flowering potted plants cannot be sold with this condition. • The first symptoms observed are small, brown to black flecks on the floral spadix (nose) These spots rapidly enlarge, become watery, turn brown to black, and may totally encompass the spadix. The spadix may eventually fall off. Growers may also observe black, spore-containing structures (acervuli) on dead leaves and stems. • Source-Splashing water,air movement and workers.
    6. 6. Root Rots Rhizoctonia  Root Rots - brown, mushy roots due Pythium to too much water. Phytophthora  Wilt, yellowing.  Abscission of leaves from the base Sclerotium up. Fusarium  Death of the roots results. Pythium,Phytopthora and Rhizoctonia Pythium Pythium spp
    7. 7. Diseases of Carnation
    8. 8. • Fusarium wilt(Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. dianthi) • In young plants, the first sign of the disease is fading or graying ,wilting of the leaves and young stems. • It is followed by eventual collapse of the whole plant. • When older plants are infected, similar symptoms are produced but the older leaves may show chlorosis followed by an indistinct purple-red discoloration. • The vascular tissues of infected stems is stained dark brown. • Mature plants show wilt symptoms over a period of several months before they die and eventually become straw coloured.
    9. 9. Alternaria leaf spot (Alternaria dianthi) • Symptoms • The blight or rot at leaf bases and around nodes, which are girdled. Spots on leaves are ashy white. • The centre of old spots are covered with dark brown to black fungal growth. • . Branches die-back at the girdled area and black crusts of conidia are formed on the cankers
    10. 10. . Bacterial wilt (Burkholderia caryophylli) • The upper parts of established plants turn pale and wilt. • The stem develops elongated discolored stripes and split. • The roots are rotted partially and the cortical tissues become sticky and shows discoloration. • The leaves are twisted. The roots remain discolored. • Source-Infected samples,and weed hosts.
    11. 11. • Carnation vein mottle virus (CVMV) of "colour breaks" and calyx splitting are greater. CVMV is spread from plant to plant by aphids and is found wherever carnations are grown
    12. 12. • Carnation etched ring virus (CERV) • Carnation mottle virus (CarMV) • Carnation latent virus (CLV) Carnation necrotic fleck virus (CNFV)
    13. 13. Alternaria saponariae Alternaria blight = Alternaria dianthi Alternaria dianthicola Anther smut Calyx rot Ustilago violacea Stemphylium botryosum Pleospora tarda [teleomorph] Charcoal rot Macrophomina phaseolina Downy mildew Peronospora dianthicola Fairy-ring leaf spot Fusarium bud rot Fusarium stem rot Mycosphaerella dianthi Cladosporium echinulatum [anamorph] Fusarium tricinctum Fusarium graminearum Gibberella zeae [teleomorph]
    14. 14. Diseases of rose
    15. 15. • Powdery Mildew Air borne. Fungal thread on leaf surface Sphaerotheca pannosa Common in crowded plantings where air circulation is poor The fungus can over winter on infected canes, and leaves left on the bush. spores move to new growth foliage in spring to begin disease cycle.
    16. 16. Black Spot Diplocarpon rosae • One of the most common diseases of roses • Disease cycle typically begins on leaves or canes infected the previous season • Leaves less than two weeks old are the most susceptible • Lower areas are more likely to be infected as spores are splashed up on new foliage during rains or irrigation– will continue up the stem - as disease spreads, leaves go from green to yellow and then drop
    17. 17. Downy Mildew Peronospora sparsa • A very serious disease that can affect all roses! • May appear only when favorable conditions of humidity over 85% and temps of 65 - 75° F • Under cool and moist spring conditions, young leaves, stems and flowers may show purple to red or brown irregular blotches that tend to follow the leaf veins • Advanced infections will have yellowing of leaves
    18. 18. Anthracnose • Initially spots are small and black - easily confused with blackspot • Spores believed to be carried by water or rain to new leaves and stems • As disease progresses, spots become purple to brown and centers turn gray or white with dark margin • This light-colored center best defines the difference with blackspot • Can be severe under cool, moist spring conditions Sphaceloma rosarum
    19. 19. Botrytis Blight • When the weather is cool and wet, the conditions are right for this fungus • Most common symptom - young flower buds droop, turn black at the base • Later produce the cottony grey-black mycelium of the fungus Gail Trimble Botrytis cinerea
    20. 20. Rose Canker • • • • A fungal disease that can affect any part of the plant, but most common on stems and canes After a cold wet winter, pruned stems provide wound sites for canker causing fungi Canker can also enter thru leaf scars – do NOT tear off leaves during fall pruning! The stems will yellow, often have red spots and later become brown or black Coniothyrium spp
    21. 21. Rust • A fungal disease common in many areas, easily identified • Appears on the underside of the foliage as red-orange spots • Thrives in cool, moist weather • The summer stage is cyclic, and may repeat every 10 to 14 days in favorable weather • Fungus overwinters on infected leaves and canes • Spores are wind borne • Can defoliate the plant Phragmidium spp
    22. 22. Bacterial Crown Gall Agrobacterium tumefaciens • Bacterial disease usually seen on bud union, or on the trunk • Thrives in warm, sunny weather; not active in cold weather • Cork-like substance that will turn brown and harden as it ages • Plants will usually be stunted in their growth habits
    23. 23. Rose Mosaic Prunus Necrotic Ringspot Virus • Probably the most commonly found virus in roses • Mosaic is primarily transmitted by propagation • Usually appears in spring as a distortion of growing tips and leaves • Symptoms include coloration patterns (shown), distorted leaf growth, slow to develop, and fewer quality blooms. • Transmitted by infected stock,cuttings.
    24. 24. Rose Rosette Disease (RRD) • Exact cause unknown • The distinctive red stems, misshapen leaves are symptoms • The main host is R. multiflora • New growth appears unusually soft and pliable • RRD is suspected to be carried from plant to plant by mites • Can be confused with plant damage from chemicals like Roundup®
    25. 25. Basic IDM stretegies • • • • • pH of the growing media - pH strongly influences the  availability of micronutrients such as iron and manganese and  can influence the development of the root system in the growing  media.  Nutrient levels and their balance - These affect the plant tissue  content and can trigger toxicity or deficiency symptoms. This  tissue is typically more susceptible to attack by pathogens.  EC (electrical conductivity created by soluble salts) - High  EC can damage root hairs creating a wound site for attack by  root disease pathogens. Moisture-holding capacity - Media must hold sufficient  available water to prevent desiccation of the roots once the root  system becomes pot-bound. Media texture to allow good drainage - Adequate coarsefibred peat is required to ensure sufficient aeration when the  growing media is at full water holding capacity to prevent water  logging and oxygen deprivation of the roots.
    26. 26. • Oxygen content - Adequate media aeration is critical to healthy root growth and nutrient uptake and preventing temporary exposure of roots to anaerobic conditions. • Media temperature - Roots develop best at temperatures somewhat lower than those required for shoot growth. High media temperature causes significant root death in most crops when media temperatures are above 26-28°C. Aerial environment characteristics that must be considered include: • Light levels - Exposure of high light requiring plants to low light levels or heavy shading often triggers soft, weak growth that is more susceptible to leaf rot pathogens. • Temperature Fluctuation resulys in higher incidence of root and foliar disease problems. For example, crops typically considered cool crops when grown during high temperature periods of the year are usually more susceptible to crown and root rot pathogens.
    27. 27. • Air movement - powdery mildew and botrytis. Open doors causing drafts and fluctuating leaf and air temperature or horizontal air fans (HAF) foliar diseases. • Relative humidity (RH) - Fluctuating RH with high RH at night (above 90%) increases the incidence of foliar diseases. • Air quality - Chronic low level air pollution often associated with ethylene-like hydrocarbons can trigger premature senescence of older leaves whose tissue is more prone to opportunistic fungi like Botryis.
    28. 28. Cultural Practices • Symptom recognition • Sanitation and Roguing • Use footbaths between greenhouse compartments, • Rogue the plants,and dispose properly. Dedicate wheelbarrows or soil carts used to discard diseased material strictly for disposal purposes. • pathogen exclusion, construction of traps, pruning, and burning of diseased plants or leaves in a safe location
    29. 29. • Carefully check both the foliage and roots for disease. Maintain proper drainage to eliminate puddles and wet surfaces, as these provide ideal breeding sites for fungus gnats and shoreflies. diseases such as Pythium and Fusarium. Keep the greenhouse free of weeds that may harbour diseases. For rose, steam soil before planting winter crops to minimize the carryover of root and crown rot pathogens • •
    30. 30. • Avoid extremes, as much as possible, for the crops. For example, the combination of high temperature and over-fertilization promotes Fusarium crown and root rot in cyclamen, while the combination of high temperature and high RH is favourable to Rhizoctonia attacking cuttings during or just after propagation. Also avoid low temperatures to prevent outbreaks of Pythium in warmtemperature crops.
    31. 31. Monitoring •reviewing crops for plant growth regulator (PGR) application or for irrigation. •monitoring or applying a fungicide: • date • compartment or section in the greenhouse • crop species and cultivar • stage of plant development • diseases present or suspected • control action (pesticide used, rate, area treated, time taken, etc.) • greenhouse environmental conditions (temperature, RH, light levels, shading used).
    32. 32. • Biosecurity • Biosecurity is a process to protect a geographic area or individual facility from pests and diseases. It includes reducing the risk of the introduction of new pests and diseases and eradicating or effectively managing the spread of those that have already arrived. • Disinfectants • Agribrom - used to control microbial slimes in greenhouse evaporative cooling systems and to control algae and microbial slimes in irrigation systems. • A 0.5-1% final solution of sodium hypochlorite bleach -Used when there is a severe disease out break.Used as a disinfectant. • Horti-Klor - a chlorinated cleaner or detergent that can be used initially to remove algae and plant residue from packing equipment, planting lines, plug trays and coolers. Follow manufacturer's directions. • Other compounds like Quaternary ammonium chloride, ZeroTol,Virkon ,Floralife D.C.D,KleenGrow,Strip-It etc.
    33. 33. Biological control • Rootshield is registered as a bio-fungicide for suppressionof Fusarium, Pythium and Rhizoctonia on all ornamental crops. • Actinovate SP is registered as a contact biological fungicide for PM and Botrytis. • Regalia Maxx supress PMs. Cyclone, suppress powdery mildew and blackspot on greenhouse roses when applied as a foliar spray. •
    34. 34. Chemical control • Apply chlorothalonil, propiconazole, fludioxonil, copper hydroxide, iprodione, mancozeb, or mancozeb + thiophanate methyl to control leaf spots. • Apply chlorothalonil, cupric hydroxide, iprodione, mancozeb, or fludioxonil for Blight. • Plant in pasteurized, raised beds. Apply thiophanate methyl, PCNB or iprodione as a soil drench for soil borne diseases.Polyethylene film for 30 days for wilt. (1mm) • Apply chlorothalonil, propiconazole, myclobutanil, ziram, mancozeb + thiophanate methyl, triadimefon, or triforine for rust.
    35. 35. Resistant varieries • Rose-PM• Charisma ,Pascali Rose ,Parade Chicago Peace, Prominent Sarabande ,Europeana Pink Peace, Saratoga ,Margarita etc. • Black spot-Angel Face, Ivory Fashion, Proud Land, Carrousel, Miss All-American Beauty, Queen Elizabeth .
    36. 36. Questions? Thank You

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