1RFID TECHNOLOGYKshitij VarmaSec- A Roll No- 10Dept. of Electrical & Electronics
Contents2 What is RFID? History Types of Tags Design & Working Applications Scope Conclusion References
What is RFID?3 Radio-frequency identification (R FID) is the use of a wireless system that uses radio frequency electromagnetic fields to transfer data from a tag attached to an object, for the purposes of automatic identification and tracking. RFID is only one of the numerous technologies grouped under the term Automatic Identification (Auto ID), such as bar code, magnetic inks, optical character recognition, voice recognition, touch memory, smart cards, biometrics etc. The latest RFID market research from IDTechEx finds that in 2012 the value of the entire RFID market will be $7.67 billion, up from $6.51 billion in 2011.
History4 Radar is invented in 1935 by Scottish physicist Sir Robert Alexander Watson- Watt. Under him the British developed the first active identify friend or foe (IFF) system, during World War II. In October 1948, Harry Stockman, presented paper on Communication by Means of Reflected Power, Proceedings of the IRE, pp1196-1204. Mario W. Cardullo received the first U.S. patent for an active RFID tag with rewritable memory on January 23, 1973. Alfred Koelle, Steven Depp and Robert Freyman of Los Alamos Laboratory, USA presented work on Short-range radio-telemetry for electronic identification using modulated backscatter in 1975. In1999, the Uniform Code Council, EAN International, Procter & Gamble and Gillette put up funding to establish the Auto-ID Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
Components of a RFID tag5 The IC is a small microprocessor, which has a logic unit that makes decisions and provides memory to store data. The IC needs power to operate. The antenna is connected to the tag IC. It receives the signals from the interrogator and, depending on tag type, it either transmits or reflects the received signal back. The geometry of an antenna determines the frequency at which the tag operates. The substrate holds all other tag components IC together. The tag antenna is deposited or printed on the substrate, and the IC is then attached to this Antenna antenna. Substrate
Passive7 Passive RFID tags have no internal power supply. A small electric current is created in the antenna when an incoming signal reaches it. This current provides enough power to briefly activate the tag, usually just long enough to relay simple information, such as an ID number or product name. Because passive RFID tags do not contain a power supply, they can be very small in size, sometimes thinner than a piece of paper. These tags can be activated from a distance of ten millimetres to over 6 meters away.
Active8 Active RFID tags do contain an internal power source, which allows for a longer read-range and for a bigger memory on the tag itself. The power source also makes it possible to store information sent by the transceiver. Active RFID tags are larger than passive tags, usually slightly bigger than a coin. They can be read from many meters away, and generally have a battery life of about ten years. Advantages of active tags include accuracy, reliability, and superior performance in adverse environments, such as damp or metallic.
Types of RFID tags9 Type of tag EPC Memory R adio Power Reading Class Type frequency Bits Source Distance used (meters) 138 Khz Reader RFID Passive 0 ROM 13.95 Mhz 64 EMF 0.04-3 RFID Active 4 ROM 13.85 Mhz 64 Battery 3-10 RFID Passive 1 EEPROM 138 Khz 96, Reader 0.04-3 Programmable 13.95 Mhz 128 EMF RFID Active 2, 3, 4 EEPROM 138 Khz >128 Battery 3-10 Programmable 13.95 Mhz 13.85 Mhz Data Tag 2, 3, 4 CMOS 985 Mhz(UHF) >128 Battery 3-10 RAM
Electronic Product Code10 01.0000A89.0016F.000169DC0 Header: EPC Object Class: Serial number: identifies the Manager: similar to a specific instance length, type, identifies the stock of the Object structure, version company. keeping unit. Class being and generation 8-35 bits 36-59 bits tagged. of EPC. 0-7 bits 60-95 bits
RFID vs Barcode13 RFID BARCODE Data capacity is more. Several Data capacity is very less. Upto thousand characters. 24 characters. Line of sight not required. Line of sight required. May last several years, depending Paper labels are subject to wear upon the type of tag. and damage, hence less durable. Allows unattended identification. Only a single barcode can be Several tags can be read scanned at a time. simultaneously. No memory storage possible. Some tags can store memory. ..but RFID are not only for identification scope.. But unlike Barcodes, RFID is not merely for identification purposes..
Supply Chain Management and15 RFID •Information about the contents to be loaded from a factory can be written onto the tag, e.g. quantity, weight, serial number, date, time etc. •This allows the information to be easily checked after transit, without having access to an on-line database. This can be very useful to check if items have gone "missing" during transit. •Using the tag on the shipment and RFID readers on each of the loading bays, it is possible to identify the shipment, as it is loaded. •The advantage is that the reading and verification is done completely automatically, therefore manual labour is
Healthcare17 All patients admitted to the hospital are given an RFID-based wristband with a passive RFID chip in it. This chip stores a unique patient ID number and relevant medical information. The caregiver uses a handheld computer with an RFID interrogator to read the data encoded on the patients ID bracelets. Over a wireless LAN connection, the hospital staff can access the patient’s medical history as well as treatment record.
Passports18 • The first RFID passports ("E-passports") were issued by Malaysia in1998. In addition to information also contained on the visual data page of the passport, they record the travel history (time, date, and place) of entries and exits from the country. • Italian passports have a RFID tag since 26th October 2006. • Throughout Europe, RFID passes conforming to the Calypso (RFID) international standard are used for public transport systems.
Objects become self19 discovering Each tag is augmented with a photo sensor to significantly extend the functionality and support radio frequency identity and geometry (RFIG) discovery
Livestock and Animal Tracking20 A tag is inserted through a Single Use Disposable syringe into the animal. It remains under the skin of the animal. The number of the RFID tag is unique and cannot be altered. When an animal is to be scanned, it is either brought near RFID reader or scanner or a hand-held reader is used. The reader is connected to a remote database which correlates the unique RFID tag number on the animal with other data on the animal. This helps in easily maintaining electronic records of vaccination and medication, health checkups, etc.
Other applications…21 The Texas Instruments Digital Signature Transponder (DST) is a cryptographically-enabled RFID device used in a variety of wireless authentication applications. The largest deployments of the DST include the Exxon-Mobil Speedpass payment system (approximately 7 million transponders), as well as a variety of vehicle immobilizer systems used in many late model Ford, Lincoln, Mercury, Toyota, and Nissan vehicles.
RFID reader integrated mobile phones22 Mobile phones will be integrated with RFID reader powered by mobile phone’s battery. RFID tags can be read through these mobile phones and information can be sent to the mobile phone service provider for many types of transactions. This functionality can provide many services like banking, billing, purchasing, electronic payment etc.
Initiatives in India on RFID23 W ipro Technologies: Member of the Electronic Product Code (EPC). Setting up a lab to study RFID. Working on pilot projects Infosys Technologies: RFID consulting on logistics player in the RFID space. TCS: Tied up with Hyderabad University to produce RFID tagged mark sheets & degrees to deter use of fake degree. Patni Computer Systems Lab: Implemented Animal Tracking System. Intellicon: Pilot project for BEL Bangalore, Tags installed on employee buses. Buses inside the BEL campus were tracked with the aim of gauging employee punctuality. Mumbai: The busiest Suburban Rail Transport in the world, which
Conclusion24 •The real value of RFID technology stems from the insight that stands to be gained from the identification, location and subsequent control of that item and applying that insight to business. •RFID is not industry specific—it’s business value specific. RFID is more than a locator beacon. •RFID is an enabling tool that is not only a source of powerful information, but a source of true business innovation.
References25 K Finkenzeller, RFI ha nd bo o k: fund a m e nta ls a nd a p p lic a tio ns in D c o nta c tle s s s m a rt c a rd s a nd id e ntific a tio n, 2nd ed., R. Waddington, Ed. West Sussex, England: John Wiley & Sons Ltd, 2003. Q. Z. Sheng, X. Li, and S. Zeadally, "Enabling next-generation RFID applications: Solutions and challenges," Co m p ute r, vol. 41, pp. 21-28, Sept. 2008. A. Juels, RFID Security and Privacy: A Research Survey, Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal. Publication Date:Feb. 2006 Volume: 24, Issue: 2 On page(s): 381- 394 R. E. Sorace, V. S. Reinhardt, and S. A. Vaughn, “High-speed digital-to-RF converter,” U.S. Patent 5 668 842, Sept. 16, 1997 ISO website. http://www.iso.orgl The EPCglobal website. http://www.epcglobalinc.orgl The RFID Journal website www.rfidjournal.com HowStuffWorks www.howstuffworks.com