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  • Hi everybody! My name is … I am your … and welcome to our citation workshop! First, I have a few questions to you. - What stage in your research are you in? - Have you written or drafter your literature review ? - Do you have at least a draft of your reference list ? - Do you experience any problems with referencing your sources? I think you all agree that doing a research is not an easy job. But even if you managed to do a good research you can easily spoil or even ruin your good work by poor (or inaccurate) manner of reporting the results. By reporting I mean presentation - which may be oral or written . Some of us are lucky enough to have good oral as well as written presentation skills. But if you look through some research papers written by master students you will see that there is a lot of problems with citations which hinders the overall comprehension. That is why do hope that our today’s meeting will be helpful to you.
  • O ur workshop will be comprised of two parts: theory and practice. First , we will talk about citing or referencing or documenting sources (these are practically the same notions) Then - we will talk about citation styles used in scientific (academic) writing in general and about the Chicago author-date citation system in particular . After that we will show you various examples of handling citations in your paper. Also, we will give you some practical tips on how to find and import references from databases and the library electronic catalog. In the end of our meeting, we will try to render practical assistance to you as much as possible. I hope you all have a soft or a hard copy of your draft thesis with you. So - you will be able to make some notes during my presentation and ask me as many questions as you can OR you may choose to go to the library where I together with my colleague will assist you on an individual basis.
  • As I already mentioned, citing - referencing– documenting sources are mainly synonymous. But I would like to remind you that there is the difference between quotation and citation. A quotation is the authentic words, that is, the author’s identical text included within the " " marks In you paper, (especially in your literature review) please try to use paraphrasing or summarizing rather than direct quotation. When you quote or paraphrase or summarize someone - you are at the same time citing the source , that is, you briefly tell your reader where the information comes from. And a reference gives the readers details about the source so that they could easily f ind the source themselves if necessary. The references are typically assembled at the end of the paper or report (this section is called List of References (or Bibliography or Works Cited in some styles).
  • Now let me also remind you why properly citing sources is important.
  • By referencing other researches’ works you: -- first of all pay tribute to people for their ideas … -- show that you are responding to this person, agreeing with that person, and adding something of your own .. -- provide evidence for your arguments and add credibility to your work by d emonstrating that you have sought out and considered a variety of resources
  • Your references will s how the depth and scope of your research first of all to your advisor and then to other readers and [ next slide]
  • … also, your good referencing skills may be very helpful in your future career.
  • It allow s readers to locate and further explore the sources you consulted .
  • Usually, they distinguish between two referencing systems: Parenthetical and numerical. Parenthetical referencing is a citation style which uses in-text citations enclosed within round brackets or parentheses and embedded in the text, either within or after a sentence. Parenthetical system is also known as Harvard or Author-Date system. Numerical references are cited in sequential order throughout the body of the text, i.e., 1, 2, 3,... Each number then refer s to either footnotes (notes at the end of the page) or endnotes (a note on a separate page at the end of the paper)
  • Here are some examples of …
  • Here is an example of numerical citation …
  • At GSOM we recommend the Chicago author-date citation style.
  • Again, in the parenthetical system you first [ text…]
  • Let me show now how you can check a citation in some of the databases available to you. But mind that these databases may use an out-of date version of Chicago author-date style. I do hope that after our workshop it will not be difficult for you to make some minor corrections to the citations imported from ProQuest or EBSCO. Also, I would like to show you how to find the information about the book publisher in our electronic library catalog. For example, you have a hard copy of a book by Porter but you cannot find the correct information about the publisher on the front page. In this case, it makes sense to go to our catalog and copy the information you need.
  • Citing sources presentation

    1. 1. Citing Sources: Chicago (Author-Date) Style of Referencing <ul><li>GSOM Library </li></ul><ul><li>April 2011 </li></ul>
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>1. Citing/ Referencing/ Documenting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WHY should we document sources? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Citation Styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WHICH citation style to choose? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>3. Handling Citations in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the BODY of your paper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the REFERENCE List </li></ul></ul><ul><li>4. Reference Management Tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>HOW can we simplify the process of collecting and documenting sources? </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Citing = Referencing = Documenting sources <ul><li>means </li></ul><ul><li>systematically showing </li></ul><ul><li>what information or ideas </li></ul><ul><li>you are quoting or paraphrasing , and </li></ul><ul><li>where they come from. </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Why is properly citing sources in a research paper important? </li></ul>
    5. 5. REFERENCING other people’s work (ideas) is a way of: <ul><li>a cknowledg ing the work of other researchers , thus, avoiding plagiarism ; </li></ul><ul><li>d emonstrat ing the body of knowledge on which you have based your work ; </li></ul><ul><li>demonstrating the validity of your own work (novelty, etc.); and </li></ul><ul><li>e nabl ing other researchers to trace your sources easily and lead ing them on to further information . </li></ul>
    6. 6. your citations (references) <ul><li>will show whether your information source s are good (i.e. relevant, sufficient) for your research . </li></ul>
    7. 7. your potential employer <ul><li>may see how proficient you are at </li></ul><ul><li>searching for any kind of information, and </li></ul><ul><li>documenting your sources in the most professional manner. </li></ul>
    8. 8. REMEMBER <ul><li>Your list of references (or bibliography) </li></ul><ul><li>is </li></ul><ul><li>in itself </li></ul><ul><li>a valuable source of information ! </li></ul>
    9. 9. Two referencing systems <ul><li>Parenthetical </li></ul><ul><li>(Author-Date, </li></ul><ul><li>or Name-Year, </li></ul><ul><li>or Harvard system) </li></ul><ul><li>Numerical </li></ul><ul><li>(Note, Numbering) </li></ul>
    10. 10. Examples <ul><li>Parenthetical </li></ul><ul><li>In recent years, there has been a </li></ul><ul><li>rapid increase in car sales in </li></ul><ul><li>Thailand (Honda 1995). </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>In recent years, there has been a </li></ul><ul><li>rapid increase in car sales in </li></ul><ul><li>Thailand (Honda,1995). </li></ul><ul><li>Numerical </li></ul><ul><li>In recent years there has been </li></ul><ul><li>a rapid increase in car sales in </li></ul><ul><li>Thailand [1]. </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>In recent years there has been </li></ul><ul><li>a rapid increase in car sales in </li></ul><ul><li>Thailand 1. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Numerical
    12. 12. Numerical
    13. 13. D ifferent R eferencing Parenthetical Styles <ul><li>MLA (Modern Language Association) </li></ul><ul><li>APA (American Psychological Association) </li></ul><ul><li>Chicago Author- Date </li></ul>
    14. 14. PROBLEM: <ul><li>Mixing two referencing systems </li></ul><ul><li>The most important point is that your referencing should be consistent !!! </li></ul>
    15. 15. Chicago <ul><li>The Chicago Manual of Style (15 th ed.) </li></ul>
    16. 16. WHY Chicago Author-Date ? <ul><li>simplicity </li></ul><ul><li>c larity </li></ul><ul><li>flexibility </li></ul><ul><li>ease of use both for author and reader </li></ul>
    17. 17. Examples <ul><li>MLA </li></ul><ul><li>Beaudry, C., and G. Swann. &quot;Firm growth in industrial clusters of the United Kingdom. &quot;  Small Business Economics   32.4 (2009): 409-424.  </li></ul><ul><li>Moral, S.. &quot;Industrial Clusters and New Firm Creation in the Manufacturing Sector of Madrid's Metropolitan Region. &quot;  Regional Studies   43.7 (2009): 949.  </li></ul><ul><li>APA </li></ul><ul><li>Beaudry, C., & Swann, G. (2009). Firm growth in industrial clusters of the United Kingdom.  Small Business Economics,   32 (4), 409-424.  </li></ul><ul><li>Moral, S. (2009). Industrial Clusters and New Firm Creation in the Manufacturing Sector of Madrid's Metropolitan Region.  Regional Studies,   43 (7), 949.  </li></ul><ul><li>Chicago (Author- Date) </li></ul><ul><li>Beaudry, C., and G. Swann. 2009. Firm growth in industrial clusters of the United Kingdom.  Small Business Economics  32 (4) : 409-424.  </li></ul><ul><li>Moral, S. 2009. Industrial c lusters and n ew f irm c reation in the m anufacturing s ector of Madrid's Metropolitan R egion.  Regional S tudies  43 ( 7 ) : 949.  </li></ul>
    18. 18. The parenthetical (Harvard, Author-Date) referencing system <ul><li>1. Refer to the source in your text ( the in-text citation ) </li></ul><ul><li>(AUTHOR - DATE) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Give full details of the source in your list of references at the end of your work ( the reference ) </li></ul><ul><li>AUTHOR – DATE – TITLE - PUBLISHER </li></ul>
    19. 19. Books: Single author <ul><li>In-Text Parenthetic Reference </li></ul><ul><li>(Grant 2005 ; Sherman 2004 ) </li></ul><ul><li>Corresponding Reference List Entry </li></ul><ul><li>Grant, R . M. 2005. Contemporary strategy analysis . 5 th ed. Malden, MA: Blackwell. </li></ul><ul><li>Sherman, A . J. 2004. F ranchising and licensing: Two powerful ways to grow your b usiness in any economy. 3d ed. New York: AMACOM. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Books: Two or three authors <ul><li>In-Text Parenthetic Reference </li></ul><ul><li>(Claw and Baack 2004, 23-24) </li></ul><ul><li>(Maher, Stickney, and Well 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>Corresponding Reference List Entry </li></ul><ul><li>Claw, K. E., and D. Baack. 2004. Integrated advertising, promotion, and marketing communications. Upper Saddle River, NJ: PrenticeHall. </li></ul><ul><li>Maher, M. W., C. P. Stickney, and R. L. Well. 2006. Managerial accounting: An introduction to concepts, methods, and uses. 9th ed. Mason, Ohio: Thomson/South-Western. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Books : More than three authors <ul><li>In-Text Parenthetic Reference </li></ul><ul><li>(Allen et al. 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul><ul><li>In a study of Allen and others (2005), </li></ul><ul><li>Corresponding Reference List Entry </li></ul><ul><li>Allen, B . R., E. R . Brownlee II, M . E. Haskins,and L . J. Lynch. 2005. Cases in management accounting and control systems. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. </li></ul>Note: do not change the order of the names, i.e. you cannot write ( Haskins et al. 2005 ) because Haskins is not the main author
    22. 22. Books: Authors with the same last name <ul><li>In-Text Parenthetic Reference </li></ul><ul><li>(A. Volkov 1991) </li></ul><ul><li>(D. Volkov 2006) </li></ul>Corresponding Reference List Entry Volkov, A. 1991. Sweden: Social-economic model. [In Russian.] Moscow: Mysl’. Volkov, D. L. 2006. Financial accounting: Theory, application, and reporting. [In Russian.] St. Petersburg: Publishing House of St. Petersburg State Univ.
    23. 23. Books : published in Russian <ul><li>In-Text Parenthetic Reference </li></ul><ul><li>( Shirokova 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>(Kushelevich and </li></ul><ul><li>Philonovich 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Corresponding Reference List Entry </li></ul><ul><li>Shirokova, G. V. 2005. Organizational change management . [In Russian] St. Petersburg: Publishing House of St. Petersburg State Univ. </li></ul><ul><li>Kushelevich E., and G. Philonovich. 2004. Modeli zhiznennyh tsiklov organizatsii. In Management: Vek ХХ – vek ХХI , eds. Oleg S. Vikhanskii and A.M. Naumov. Moscow: Economist. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Chapter : in a single-author book <ul><li>In-Text Parenthetic Reference </li></ul><ul><li>(Downs 1967, 16-17) </li></ul><ul><li>Corresponding Reference List Entry </li></ul><ul><li>Downs, A. 1967. The life cycle of bureaus . In Inside bureaucracy , 10-45. Boston: Little Brown . </li></ul>
    25. 25. Articles <ul><li>In-Text Parenthetic Reference </li></ul><ul><li>(Greiner 1998) </li></ul><ul><li>Corresponding Reference List Entry </li></ul><ul><li>Greiner, L . E. 1998. E volution and revolution as organizations grow. Harvard Business Review 76(3):55 - 68. </li></ul>Compare with Books : (Grant 2005) Grant, R . M. 2005. Contemporary strategy analysis . 5th ed. Malden, MA: Blackwell .
    26. 26. from a full-text database : (Kazanjian 1988) Kazanjian R. K. 1988. Relation of dominant problems to stages of growth in technology-based new ventures. Academy of Management Journal 31 (2): 257-279. Retrieved from EBSCO. in a popular magazine : (Lashinsky 2006) Lashinsky, A. 2006. The Hurd way: How a sales obsessed CEO rebooted HP. Fortune , April 17, 91-96. Articles:
    27. 27. Books and articles: Same author, same year <ul><li>In-Text Parenthetic Reference </li></ul><ul><li>(Shirokova 2005a) </li></ul><ul><li>(Shirokova 2005b) </li></ul><ul><li>Corresponding Reference List Entry </li></ul><ul><li>Shirokova, G . V. 2005a. Managing stereotypes and organizational life-cycle. [In Russian.] Vestnik of St Petersburg State University: Management Series 8 (2):76-95. </li></ul><ul><li>________. 2005b. Theory O and theory E as organizational change strategies. [In R ussian.] Management in Russia and Abroad 1:61-68. </li></ul>
    28. 28. Note : May not list in your Reference list . Citation is made in running text style as shown below. In-Text : In an article on financial crisis ( New York Times , September 10, 200 8 ), Laurie Good berg and William C l aw describe... Newspaper article:
    29. 29. Online newspapers, news services: <ul><li>(Mitchell and Bruni 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Mitchell, A . , and F . Bruni. 2001. Scars still raw, Bush clashes with McCain. New York Times , March 25. h ttp:// CA.html . </li></ul><ul><li>(Reuters 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Reuters. 2001. Russian blasts kill 21, injure more than 140. Yahoo! News , March 24. . </li></ul>
    30. 30. What should you do if there is no author listed? <ul><li>Editor, translator in place of author: </li></ul><ul><li>(Kamrany and Day 1980) </li></ul><ul><li>Kamrany, N. M., and R. H. Day, eds. 1980. Economic issues of the eighties . Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ. Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Unsigned newspaper article : </li></ul><ul><li>(New York Times 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>New York Times . 2002. In Texas, ad heats up race governor. July 30. </li></ul><ul><li>Organization as author : </li></ul><ul><li>(ISO 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>International Organization for Standardization. 2001. Information and documentation: Bibliographic references. Ottawa: National Library of Canada. </li></ul>
    31. 31. What should you do if you want to use information by Writer X that you have found quoted or paraphrased in Writer Y? <ul><li>( Kotler 1990, cited in Brown 200 3) </li></ul><ul><li>This shows that you found the information from Kotler in a piece by Brown and that you did not read the original, i.e. i f </li></ul><ul><li>there's a mistake, it‘ s Brown 's not yours! </li></ul>In-Text Parenthetic Reference Smith (2001, as quoted in Jones 2004, 63) gives an excellent précis of different research philosophies: “Whichever philosophical position taken…” Corresponding Reference List Entry Smith, R. 2001. How to research. Research Weekly , 12 (8) October: 17-20. Quoted in: Jones, F. 2004. Researching your dissertation. Research Today 4 (6) March: 61- 67.
    32. 32. Site content : <ul><li>(Federation of American Scientists) </li></ul><ul><li>Federation of American Scientists. Resolution comparison: Reading license plates and headlines. (accessed March 30, 2011). </li></ul><ul><li>(Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees) </li></ul><ul><li>Evanston Public Library Board of Trustees. Evanston Public Library strategic </li></ul><ul><li>plan, 2000–2010: A decade of outreach. Evanston Public Library. </li></ul><ul><li> . </li></ul>
    33. 33. Theses and dissertations: <ul><li>(Schwarz 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Schwartz, G.J. 2000. Multiwavelength analyses of classicalcarbon-oxygen. PhD diss., Arizona State Univ. </li></ul><ul><li>Public documents: </li></ul><ul><li>(U.S. Senate Committee 1956, 9-10) </li></ul><ul><li>U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. 1956. The Mutual Security Act of 1956. 84th Cong., 2d sess. S.Rep. 2273. </li></ul>
    34. 34. Papers presented at meetings : <ul><li>(O’Brien 1987) </li></ul><ul><li>O’Brien, T.C. 1987. Touching greatness: Some aspects of … . Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association, New York. </li></ul><ul><li>Working papers and other unpublished </li></ul><ul><li>works : </li></ul><ul><li>(Ferber 1971) </li></ul><ul><li>Ferber, R. 1971. Family decision-making and economic behavior. Faculty Working Paper 35, College of Commerce and Business Administration, Univ. o f Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. </li></ul>
    35. 35. Encyclopedia entries: <ul><li>Note: May not list in your references . Citation is made in running text style as shown below. </li></ul><ul><li>In-Text: </li></ul><ul><li>In his article on Marketing in the fifteenth edition of the </li></ul><ul><li>Encyclopedia Britannica , Hibbard and other noted that... </li></ul>
    36. 36. Personal communication (lecture, interview): <ul><li>More and more buildings are now recycling energy according to R. </li></ul><ul><li>Jann (personal communication, 22 March 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>In an email message to the author on March 31, 2005, John Doe </li></ul><ul><li>revealed … </li></ul><ul><li>In a telephone conversation with the author on October 12, 2010, </li></ul><ul><li>W. Rich revealed that… </li></ul>
    37. 37. In-text citation: tables, figures <ul><li>F </li></ul><ul><li>Figure 1. SWOT analysis Table 1. The net pension expense </li></ul><ul><li>(Whittington 1993, 56) (Penman 2007, 439) </li></ul>2004 2003 2002 Service cost Interest cost Expected return on plan assets Amortization of prior service cost Recognized net actuarial loss (again) Other Net periodic benefit cost $ 87.4 296.2 (324.0) 7.3 83.3 4.6 _______ $ 154.8 $ 76.1 288.0 (286.3) 8.7 74.0 5.4 _______ $ 165.9 $ 67.7 272.1 (330.7) 5.8 14.4 2.4 ________ $ 31.7
    38. 38. In-Text Author-Date Citations <ul><li>Lane and Milesi-Ferretti (2004) explore the theoretical link between … </li></ul><ul><li>In a recent paper, Mishkin (2008) enumerates … </li></ul><ul><li>Maxwell (2008, 213) gives three possible reasons for high levels of personal debt. These are… </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, Lucas’s (1987) work suggested that … </li></ul><ul><li>Recent management research has began to explore dynamic capability and … (Teece et al. 2002; Teece and Pisano 2004). </li></ul><ul><li>There is a large empirical literature studying the role of … . For example, using a variety of methods, several researches, including Sachs and Warner (1995), Frankel (1999) and Dollar and Kraay (2002), show that … </li></ul><ul><li>Berg and Kruger (2003), Baldwin (2003), and Winters (2004) provide extensive surveys of the literature on trade and growth. </li></ul>
    39. 39. In-Text Author-Date Citations (continued) <ul><li>Evidence suggested that … … (Berg and Pattillo 1999a). </li></ul><ul><li>A chronology of crises in the region was obtained from Caprio and Klingebiel (1999) and Bordo and others (2001). </li></ul><ul><li>Several authors have contended that privatization will mean higher costs and less access on the Internet (Brown 2005; Sedov 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>Analysts, such as Kuznets, Burns, and others thought that … (Kuznets 1961; Colm 1962; and Samuelson 1992). </li></ul><ul><li>In light of this research, IMF staff has implemented various models to predict …, as described in Berg and others (2000). </li></ul><ul><li>There were about 21 million people thrown on a job market of about 60 million including the armed forces and the defense establishment (U.S. Bureau of the Census 2003, Table 220). </li></ul>
    40. 40. Assembling a list of the works cited : <ul><li>Alphabetical order </li></ul><ul><li>Indent </li></ul><ul><li>Punctuation marks </li></ul><ul><li>Italics </li></ul>
    41. 41. A Sample Reference List
    42. 42. Reference Management Tools to help you collect, manage, and cite your research sources : <ul><li>1. Databases: ProQuest </li></ul><ul><li>Also, ProCite, EndNote or Reference Manager , Zotero (a free Firefox extension ) and many others. </li></ul>
    43. 43. ProQuest (ABI/ INFORM Global) Citation option
    44. 44. ProQuest (ABI/ INFORM Global)
    45. 45. IRBIS (GSOM Library catalog) publisher
    46. 46. Sources <ul><li>The Chicago Manual of Style. 15 th ed. 2003. </li></ul>
    47. 47. <ul><li>Contact details: </li></ul><ul><li>Marianna N. Brovkina </li></ul><ul><li>GSOM Library </li></ul><ul><li>+7(812) 323 8443 </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>