D N O EFI ATI N EVERYTH N AVAI LABLE I N O R EN R N EN W I C I G U VI O M T H H C BE U AN SED TO SATI SFY O R N S,TEC N C U EED H I ALLY AC ESSI BLE,EC N M C C O O I ALLY FEASI BLE AND C LTU ALLY AC EPTABLE I S TER ED AS N R U R C M ATU AL R UC ESO R E.
TH AR C EY E LASSI FI ED O TH BASI S O N E F1.O I G N R I2.C EM C H I AL3.AVAI LABI LI TY
ORIGINOn the basis of origin they are classified as:1.Biotic: Resources which are obtained from biosphere are called as Biotic resources. Examples: Honey,Plants,Animals,Micro organisms2.Abiotic: Resources which are obtained from non organic material are called as Abiotic resources Examples: Minerals,Energy,Water,Land
CHEMICAL On the basis of chemical,they are classified as:1.Mineral Resources: Natural resources available in the form of minerals are called as mineral resources. Example: Coal,Oil,Natural gas etc.2.Energy Resources: Any material that provides energy to do work is called energy resource. Example: Solar energy,Wind energy etc.
AVAILABILITY On the basis of availabity,they are classified as1.Renewable: Resources which are replenishable are called as renewable resources. Example: Water,Air,Soil2.Non Renewable: Resources which are non replenishable or which cannot be reused are called as non renewable resources. Example: Petroleum,Coal
Resources associated with wildlife,water,timber,flora and fauna and which are used for human needs are called as forest resources. Some of the examples of forest resource are food,medicines,wood etc. United Nations Convenment Environmental Development(UNED) is associated for the maintainance of forest resources. Wide range of plants and trees helps and supports ecosystem.
USES Productive Use: In the productive way,forests gives us timber products to make furniture and which supports the sustainability. Rosewood,Sandalwood,Bamboo etc are some of the timber products. In case of non-timber products forests produce food,energy resources,medicines and commercial items like rubber,gum paper etc.
ECOLOGICAL USE 30% of the oxygen is provided to humans by the plants. They are used as bio-geo-chemicals. They can be used in maintaining the fertility of soil. They give us the ability to protect earth’s vegetation. They act as natural cleanser. They provide us water,rainfall for vegetation.
THREATS Deforestation is the major threat to the forest resources which later leads to desertification. Desertification later leads to the decrease in the rainfall and increase in temperature which leads to the loss of bio-diversity. On the basis of origin, threats are classified as natural disasters which includes forest fires,over-grazing,floods,landslides and man- made disasters which include deforestation and desertification
CAUSES Timber Extraction which include four mechanisms called Clear Felling, Selective Logging, Mechanized Logging, Hand Logging. Dams construction which restricts the flow of flood water. Turning forest lands into agricultural lands. Cultivation. Mining. Pollution
DRAWBACKS AND REMEDIESDrawbacks Remedies Rehabilitation of tribals. Afforestation Deforestation. Chipko movement was started in 17th century Salinity: Decrease in where people hug trees.It the ph of soil. came in to exist by Sunderlal Bharma. Soil erosion Join Forest Movement Loss of wildlife. and Forest Conservation Act were also implemented to conserve forest resources.
INTRODUCTION In total 100% water all over the world,97% is of salt water and 3% is of fresh water.In the 3% of fresh water,2% is of ice caps and in the 1%,0.7% is used for agriculture and irrigation and in left out 0.3% ,0.2% is used for household and 0.1% is used for drinking.
IMPORTANCE Drinking/Domestic Used as stabilizer of temperature. Universal Solvent: Being used in industries for commercial purpose. Agriculture: In the form of irrigation.
CLASSIFICATION On the basis of presence they are classified as: Surface Water: Water present in the superficial layer of the earth. Ground Water: Water continually being renewed and recharged through the hydrological cycle. On the basis of salinity, surface water is classified into: Salt water: Oceans and Seas Fresh water. On the basis of movement, fresh water is classified into: Lentic water: Water which are static or fixed at a particular place. Examples: Ponds and lakes. Lotic water: Water which flows. Examples: Rivers and streams.
THREATS Nature Induced: Floods, Tsunamis, Cyclones, Hurricanes. Man Induced: Pollution is the main threat to the water resources from humans. Use of pesticides which are non-biodegradable in nature is also a threat to water pollution. Bio-magnification: Increasing the toxicity. Organic compounds: Examples: Algae. Eutrophication: Increase in the algae due to dumping of organic compounds. Industries: Release toxic chemicals into water. Leather industries: To increase the stiffness of leather, they add heavy metals in which some of them enters into water and pollute them.
Thermal pollution: Water bodies get polluted by introducing high temperature water into low temperature water. Dissolved Oxygen: The atmospheric oxygen which is mixed up with water and pollute it. Oil spills: Oil forms a thick layer over water surface which again forms a barrier between the oxygen providing atmosphere and marine animals. Dumping of electronic goods and plastic is also a major threat to water resources. Over Exploitation: High utility or using of water resources without certain acreages. Construction of water dams.
DRAWBACKS of water resources leads to Drought: Over utilization drought. It also occurs due to deforestation which is again caused by humans. Droughts are classified as: Meteorological: Occurs when there is a decrease in the rainfall of 25%.They are also called as temporary droughts. Hydrological: Occurs when there is a decrease in the rainfall of 50%. Agricultural: Occurs when there is water crisis or less water rainfall and its impact on agriculture. Socio Economic: Water crisis problem to humans and industries are called as social economic droughts. Famine is also drawback of water resources which is due to shortage of food.
CONTROL MEASURES Water Harvesting. Sewage treatment: The solid pollutance with liquid coming from an industry is called as sewage and the treatment of solid is called sewage treatment. Effluent: The pollutance without liquid impurities coming out from industries. Drought can be avoided by recycling the ground water which ca be used for future needs also
INTRODUCTION A homogenous chemical substance that has a definable internal structure is called as mineral They are commercially available.
CLASSIFICATION On the basis of properties, they are classified as: Metallic: Metals which are crystalline in nature. Examples: Al, Copper, Mica, Gold, Pb, Fe, Au, Hg, Zinc. Non-Metallic: Metals which are non-crystalline or powdered form. Examples: Coal, Gypsum, Limestone, Silica. Based on the economy, they are classified as: Critical: The one which are economically available: Examples: Gold, Copper etc. Strategic: The one which are most available for nation, defense purpose. Examples: Mg, Iridium, Uranium.
TYPES OF MINERALS Metallic: Fe: Used as strengthen purpose. It is available in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Jharkhand. It is also used for manufacturing equipments. Chromium(Cr): Generally used in tannery industries for strengthen purpose. Al: Used for utensils, household purposes, domestic purposes and for a healthy life. Copper(Cu): Generally used for electrical and electronic purposes. It is found in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. Lead: Used in all the electronic goods. Gold: Used for commercial purpose and is non toxic for humans.
Non-Metallic: Gypsum: Used in cement industries. Lime stone: Used in beverage industries and cement industries. Coal: Used as energy metal. Silica: Used in construction purpose and is a basic source of glasses.
Process of extracting minerals from ore. Steps: Exploration: Searching and analyzing on the land that is used for extraction of minerals. Prospection: Identifying minerals and sorting. Extraction: Extracting minerals from ores. Purification: To purify the extracted minerals. Mining is classified into: Surface mining: Extracting minerals from the superficial layer of earth. Examples: Coal. Sub surface mining: Extraction minerals from underground. Examples: Nuclear, Radio-Isotopes.
THREATS Disturbances in the mantle layer: In the mantle, a floating layer is present which maintains the balance between the above and below layers. When the disturbance occurs, the entire balance goes out leads to disasters like earthquakes, tsunamis etc. Drowning of land. Deforestation: Leads to the loss in bio-diversity. Acid mine drainage: Acid coming from extraction get mixed up with soil and then water which leads to acid mine drainage.
EFFECTS REMEDIES Exploration: Which leads to Bio-mining or Bio-leaching deforestation, loss of bio- Thiobacillus Ferroxidans: diversity, tribal Bacteria identified in the rehabilitation. deeper layers where the Prospection: Which leads volcano erupts. It extracts to the disturbance to soil minerals by oxidation. They micro organisms/nutrients. can perform at higher Extraction: Disturbance to temperatures also. the mantle layer, decreases Enhanced Oil Recovery: the ph of soil. Used for oil mining.EFFECTS AND REMEDIES
World Food Problems Combination of amino acids: Lipids: Fats or fatty acids that consists of saturated and unsaturated acids. Acts as energy provides and insulators for marine animals. Carbohydrates: Decrease in proteins is called as kwashiorkor disease. Improper Agricultural Practices: Population explosion: Drastic increase in the population which leads to a major impact on the food resources. Malnutrition: Deficiency of vitamins and nutrients is called as malnutrition or under nourishment. Africa is the most under nourished country.
On the basis of agriculture, they are classified as: Traditional farming. Modern farming. On the basis of production, traditional farming is classified into: Subsistence farming: Farming on small area. Intensive farming: Farming on large area.
Drawbacks and RemediesDRAWBACKS REMEDIES Organic farming: Soil erosion: Decrease in the Combination of traditional production which later leads and modern farming. to the deforestation. Mulching. Eutrophication: Increase in Composting. the algae due to dumping of Green Manure. organic compounds. Agricultural Practices: Non target micro-organisms: Decreases in soil fertility. Crop rotation: Adding of nutrients. Water logging: Leads to water pollution Terrace/Contour: To avoid soil erosion and water problems.
INTRODUCTION Land: Area which consists of biotic and abiotic components. Soil: Organic mixture of all minerals which are deposited as sediments. Pedology: Study of soil. Formation: It is formed by weathering process where the rocks slides down from the mountain.
TYPES OF SOIL Soils are classified on the basis of size, color and texture: Alluvial soil: It is also called as agricultural soil since it is rich in various nutrients. Black soil: Blackish color consisting large amount of nutrients which are close proximity. It supports plants. Red soil: Reddish in color due to the presence of iron. They are of far proximity. Helps in growing some leafy vegetables. Laterite soil: It is called due to the mixture of hydroxides, K, S. Desert soil: The proximity between to elements of the soil is very far.
THREATS TO SOIL Soil erosion: Decrease in the fertility of soil which leads to deforestation. Wind and Water also causes soil erosion. Soil erosion is called due to improper agricultural practices. Land degradation: The loss of top most layer of land is called land degradation which is leads to the decrease in the cultivation.
Wind: Wind storm which is a natural calamity decreases the soil fertility. Water: Rill erosion: Formation of ridges in soil due to heavy rainfall. Gully erosion: Combination of all ridges is called as gully erosion. Rigarian erosion: Erosion of river banks or stream banks due to the high velocity of water flow because of increase in the rain. Sheet erosion: During heavy floods and storms, a sheet of land is eroded which is called as sheet erosion and it generally occurs in hilly areas. Human activities: Monoculture and introduction of alien species.
CONTROL MEASURES Biological: Mulching. Polyculture: Cultivating two different crops in the same area. Crop rotation. Mechanical: Contour. Terrace farming.
CLASSIFICATION On the basis of abundance: Renewable:1. Solar energy: Provides 1000MW of energy which we cannot store. Applications: They can be used as solar heaters, solar cookers and solar lamps. Advantages: It is a clean energy without carbon compounds and it is sufficient in large amount. Drawbacks: High cost, occupies more space and cannot be applied in cold countries and nights.2.Wind energy: When wind flows mechanical energy is converted into electrical energy. Minimum required rate of flowing is 8.5m/s. In India, 50% of electricity is provided by wind energy. Largest area of wind mill in India is in Kanyakumari.
Drawbacks: Costly, required flow rate and should be present only in elevated or coastal areas.3.Water: Generation of electricity by turbines. Outflow and Inflow is 50% Drawbacks: Costly and disturbance to aquatic life.4.Ocean thermal energy: Volcanoes under oceans erupt and heat is used to generate electricity.5.Biogas.6.Geo thermal energy.
Non Renewable:1. Coal: Formed from the partial degradation of plants. Formation: Peat: The first initial stage of coal. Lignite: A bit harder material where a large amount of coal is present. Bituminous: Formed by the conversion of lignite. Anthracite: Much amount of coal. Peat contains 40% of carbon. Lignite and Bituminous are soft coals and contains 70%-80% of carbon and Anthracite contains 90% of carbon. Application: 90% of electricity is produced from coal. Coal based methane from coal mines generates electricity. Drawbacks: Pollution to air and air to global warming.
2. Crude oil: Improper burning forms liquid substance rich in C, N, S which is called crude oil. Application: Transportation, electricity. Drawbacks: Global warming and Acid rains.3. Natural gas: Gas rich in methane. Application: Cooking, transportation. Drawbacks: Large quantity some times leads to explosion.
Need for Conservation: Use of natural resources is increasing but the amount of these resources by decreasing. Deforestation caused the loss of energy resources. Relational and international capacities conserving the resources are not properly organized, must have some common conservation strategy.Objectives of conservation ofnatural resources: Methods of conservation:To maintain the essential For conservation of water.ecological processes i.e. food Keeping the water taps closed, when not inchain recycling of mineral use.resources etc and the life support Using less water-consuming toilets.system – Watering the plants to be done in thesoil, air, water, pond, plants, anima evening tours.ls etc. Using drip irrigation and sprinkling irrigationTo ensure the availability and systems water lawns etc.sustainability of resources which Treating water to be provided for irrigationassumes the survival of all species purpose.is a healthy and easy manner. Water to be used carefully andTo preserve the diversity at the economically for domestically for domestic