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### Module 4 slides

1. 1. MODULE 4 Development ofAssessment Tools
2. 2. LESSON 1: MULTIPLE CHOICE TEST(MCT) The multiple choice test is a form of assessment in which the students are asked to select the correct or best answer out of the choices from the list. Is composed of a STEM, which sets up the problem, followed by the number of ALTERNATIVE RESPONSES. The other alternatives are DISTRACTORS or FOILS. Can be presented in 3 ways: direct question, incomplete statement and mathematical equation.
3. 3. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MCT Advantages Disadvantages Has a great  Multiple choices are versatility in ambiguous measuring objectives  Can just select Requires less time random Writing is minimized answers/guessing Scoring is objective More amenable to item analysis
4. 4. REFERENCES: Reganit, Arnulfo, Elicay, Ronaldo, & Laguerta, Cresencial (2010). Assessment of Student Learning 1 (Cognitive Learning). C & E Publishing, Inc. Garcia, Carlito D. (2008). Measuring & Evaluating Educational Outcomes. Books atbp. Publishing Corp., Mandaluyong
5. 5. LESSON 2: TRUE OR FALSE TEST This type of test requires the examinee to recognize and mark an item as true or false. Other possible options are agree or disagree, yes or no, valid or invalid, fact or opinion, and cause or effect. Are utilized to assess a student’s ability to recognize the accuracy of a declarative statement. (http://www.park.edu.cetl2/quicktips/truefalse. html)
6. 6. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OFTFT Advantages Disadvantages Answers tend to be  Emphasis on Rote short Memorization Ease of  Dependence on Construction Absolute Judgment Ease of Scoring  Likelihood of Guessing
7. 7. POINTERS ON WRITING TRUE OR FALSEITEMS Construct items that measure important objectives. Avoid using determiners. Avoid using trick questions. Limit each item to the point that is being tested. Avoid excess use of negative words and phrases. Approximately half of the statements are false. Avoid qualitative terms like best, some, many, and several.
8. 8. LESSON 3: MATCHING-TYPE TEST
9. 9. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF MTT Advantages Disadvantages The matching-type test is  It tends to ask students to simple to construct score. It is associate trivial information. well suited in measuring Unfortunately, most associations. Like a multiple- matching-type test choice test, it presents the emphasizes memorization, student with questions and although it is impossible to alternatives. construct items that measure It reduces the effects of more complex cognitive skills. guessing, although the chance of guessing increases as the student progress in answering  In case of commercial answer items. This, however, is easily sheets, matching items can remedied by adding more accommodate no more than options. five options.
10. 10. POINTERS ON WRITING MATCHING-TYPE TESTS If possible, the response list should consist of short phrase, single words, or numbers. Use homogenous options and items. Have more options than the given items. Initially, a matching- item test decrease the students tendencies to guess but as the students progress in answering the test, the guessing tendencies increase. This can be avoided by increasing the options. Arrange the options and items alphabetically, numerically, or magnitudinally. This is one way to help the examinees since they can maximize their time by not searching for the correct answers, especially if there are many options. Limit the number of items within each set. Ideally, the minimum is five and the maximum is ten per set. Place the shorter responses on column B. This time-saving practice allows the students to read the longer items first in column A and then search quickly through the shorter options to locate the correct alternative.
11. 11. 7.PROVIDE COMPLETE DIRECTIONS.DIRECTIONS SHOULDSTIPULATE WHETHER OPTIONS CAN BE USED ONLY ONCE ORMORE THAN ONCE. THEY SHOULD ALSO INSTRUCT THESTUDENTS ON HOW TO RESPOND. THE INSTRUCTIONS SHOULDALSO CLARIFY WHAT COLUMN A AND B ARE ABOUT.8. PLACE THE LIST OF OPTIONS ON THE SAME PAGE AS THELIST OF ITEMS. TIME IS WASTED IF THE STUDENTS HAVE TOFLIP PAGES TO SEARCH THROUGH ALL OPTIONS TO LOCATE THECORRECT ONES. ADDITIONALLY, SOME STUDENTS MAYOVELOOK THAT THERE ARE STILL SOME OPTIONS ON THE NEXTPAGE.9. AVOID SPECIFIC DETERMINERS AND TRIVIAL INFORMATIONTHAT CAN HELP THE STUDENTS FIND THE CORRECT RESPONSEWITHOUT ANY EFFORT ON THEIR PART. THE USE OT "NONE OFTHE ABOVE" A AN OPTION IS RECOMMENDED IF IT IS ONLYCORRECT ANSWER.10. CLEARLY EXPLAIN THE BASIS ON WHICH IS TO BE MADE.
12. 12. SUGGESTIONS FOR MEASURING COMPLEXOBJECTIVES WITH MATCHING-TYPE TESTS Match examples with terminologies. Perhaps this is the most direct and simplest method of increasing the thought content of matching tests provide that the example has not yet been taught before. Use novel pictorial materials.
13. 13. LESSON 4: COMPLETION TESTAcompletion test is a format oftesting that requires thestudents to complete with thecorrect word or phrase.
14. 14. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OFCT Advantages Disadvantages Construction of  Completion test are relatively test is difficult to score. relative easy.  They typically Guessing is measure rote eliminated. memory. Item sampling is improved.
15. 15. POINTERS OF COMPLETION TEST Write items that clearly imply of response desired. Use only one blank per item. Put the blank at the end of the item if possible. Avoid specific determiners. Structure an item so that they require response should be concise. Blanks provided for answer should be be equal in length. Provide sufficient space for the answer.
16. 16. REFERENCES:Gracia, Carlito D. (2008). Measuring andEvalauting Outcomes. Books Atbp. PublishingCorp.,MandaluyongReganit, Artulfo, Elicay, Ronaldo & Laguerta,Cresencia (2010)http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/completiontesthttp://ph.adsfn.com/money-wordsterm6490completion test
17. 17. LESSON 5: CLOZE TEST Cloze or cloze deletion test is an exercise. Test. Or assessment consisting of a portion of a text with certain words removed (cloze text) and the students are asked to replace the missing words. The cloze test requires the ability to understand context and vocabulary to be able to identify the correct words or type of words that belong in the deleted passages of the text. Words may be deleted from the text in question either mechanically or selectively, depending on what aspect the test intends to give emphasis to.
18. 18. EXAMPLE: TODAY I WENT TO THE _________________AND BOUGHT SOME MILK AND EGGS. I KNEW IT WASGOING TO RAIN, BUT I FORGOT TO TAKE MY_________________, AND ENDED UP GETTING WETON MY WAY ____________.ADVANTAGES OF CLOZE TEST. TESTS MADE BY THECLOSE PROCEDURE HAVE DONE MUCH TO SOLVE THESEPROBLEMS. A CLOZE TEST CAN BE MADE OVER ANYPASSAGE BY REPLACING EVERY FIFTH WORD WITH ANUNDERLINED BLANK SPACE OF A STANDARD OF A LENGTH.
19. 19. REFERENCES:*ASSESSMENT OF STUDENT LEARNING 1*JOURNAL OF EDUCATIONALMEASUREMENT
20. 20. LESSON 6: ESSAY TEST (ET) An essay test permits direct assessment of the attainment of numerous goals and objectives. In contrast to with the objective test item types, an essay test demands less construction time per fixed unit of student time but a significant increase in labor and time for scoring.
21. 21. ADVANTAGES OF ESSAY TESTS Essays give students freedom to respond within broad limits. Essay examinations allow students to express their ideas with relatively few restraints. Guessing is eliminated. Essays involve recall and there are no options to select from. The student is expected to supply rather that select the proper response. Essay items are practical for testing a small number of students. However, as the number of students increases, the advantage of essay tests decrease. Essay test reduce assembling time. Less time is required for typing, mimeographing, and assembling. If only a few questions are asked, the teacher can just write them on the board. They can measure divergent thinking. Divergent thinking is indicated by unconventional, creative, relatively free responses. Because they allow great freedom in answering, the opportunity to obtain unusual responses is increased.
22. 22. DISADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS OF ESSAYTESTS Essays are difficult to score objectively because students have greater freedom of expression. Extended essays measure only the limited aspects of student knowledge. Essay questions are time-consuming for teachers and students. Essays eliminate guessing but not bluffing. Most essays require a little more than rote memory. Essay tests place a premium on writing.
23. 23. THE USE OF ESSAY TESTS TO FACILITATELEARNING Favorable Disadvantages Raises the quality of  Essay tests do not writing allow students to Teaches students to revise and rewrite organize, outline and their work since time summarize is limited. assignments rather  The teachers’ over- than simply look for facts, dates and attention to details details expected in T- can destroy the F or multiple choice themes of essays. tests.
24. 24. SITUATIONS THAT SUGGEST THE USE OFESSAY QUESTIONS If the test objectives specify that students have to write, recall or supply information, an essay type of test may be necessary. When the class size is small, a teacher can afford to spend more time to read and check the essay responses. If a test can be used only once, an essay examination may be more convenient than a multiple-choice one.
25. 25. POINTERS ON WRITING ESSAY QUESTIONS Specify limitations. The teachers should tell the students the length of the desired response and the weight each question will be given when determining scores. With these, the students will be able to know the time to be spent on each item, the maximum points per item, the approximate number of words and space for each item. Structure the task. The instructions in the essay test should clearly specify the task. Most of the questions in the essay tests are so vague that the real intentions of the instructors are lost. Make each item relatively short and increase the number of items. The more items there are, the greater chance there is of the sampling of knowledge. Give all the students the same essay questions if content is relevant. Sometimes, teachers give the students the opportunity to deal with one or two items from a set of essay questions. Ask questions in a direct manner. Avoid deviousness and pedanticism when framing questions.