Edc303

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Edc303

  1. 1. Course: EDC 303Cognitive DevelopmentChapter 5: Learning and Teaching• Cognitivism• The Modal Model of Memory• Process in Long-Term Memory• Teaching for RetrievalPresenter: SVAY VANTHAN
  2. 2. CognitivismCognitivism BehaviorismCognitivism emphasizes therole of mental structure,or organization, in theprocesses of knowing.Behaviorism emphasizes thestudy of actual behaviors andtheir consequences.Theories of learning primarily concerned with such topicsas perception, problem solving, information processing,and understanding.vs
  3. 3. • Sensory• Short-Term• Long-Term
  4. 4. Sensory Memory ALTERNATE LABELS : DURATION : STABILITY : CAPACITY : GENERALCHARACTERISTICS :Echoic or iconicLess than 1-secondFleetingLimitedMomentary, unconsciousimpression
  5. 5. SHORT-TERM ALTERNATE LABELS : DURATION : STABILITY : CAPACITY : GENERALCHARACTERISTICS :Primary or workingLess than 20 secondsEasily disruptedLimited (7+2 items)Working memory;immediateconsciousness; active,maintained by rehearsal
  6. 6. LONG-TERM ALTERNATE LABELS : DURATION : STABILITY : CAPACITY : GENERALCHARACTERISTICS :SecondaryIndefiniteNot easily disruptedUnlimitedKnowledge base;associationistic; passive;the result of encoding
  7. 7. Types of Long-Term Memory
  8. 8. Processes in Long-Term Memory Rehearsal: A memory process involving repetition,important for maintaining information in short-termmemory and transferring it to long-term memory. Elaboration: A long-term memory process involvingchanging or adding to material, or makingassociations to make remembering easier. Organization: A memory strategy involving groupingand relating material to maintain it in long-termmemory.
  9. 9. EXPLANATION&POSSIBLE INSTRUCTIONAL COUNTERMEASURES
  10. 10. Fading Memory traces dacay from disuse. Provide opportunities for repetition and rehearsal;teach in a variety of settings using differentapproaches.
  11. 11. Distortion Memory is constructive; we often remember the gistand make up the rest; hence, what is recalled changesover time. Emphasize the most important or salient features ofwhat is to be learned.
  12. 12. Repression Traumatic experiences are unconsciously buried andno longer consciously accessible. Avoid traumatizing students (Is the bear serious? Washe traumatized as a cub?).
  13. 13. Interference Old memories interfere with learning new material(proactive), or new learning interferes with recall ofold learning (retroactive) Teach for transfer, highlight similarities anddifferences.
  14. 14. Retrieval Cue Failure Learner lacks cues to enable specific recall. Point out relationships and associations that can serveas retrieval cues; teach specific retrieval cues; teachlearners some of the memory aids described in thischapter.

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