OXYGEN AND CARBON CYCLE on plants Mineralization of died living thingsCO2 diffuse into the organic substances mineralized by palisade tissue produce oil and microorganism natural gas Oil and natural gas CO2 required in CO2 and H2O are burnt, releasing photosynthesis required by plants to CO2 to the releasing O2 run photocynthesis atmosphere on plants O2 inhaled by Metabolism release CO2 diffuse into the human to run CO2 and H2O as its palisade tissue metabolism waste
HOW ATMOSPHERE TAKE THE CARBON ? Through respiration Through Through the organisms that decomposition form a tissue of of animals and carbon. plants Through atmosphere Burning fossilphotosynthesis
NITROGEN CYCLEVERTEBRATE vertebrate consume nitrogen in the through nutrient body it will digested into a smaller form of excreted amino acids by urin and components of and feces nucleotides the excess used for will be the synthesis oxidized to of proteins obtain and nucleic energy acids
NITROGEN CYCLEPLANTS back to the N2 Anabaena (Nitrogen) atmosphere azolla Decomposed by NH3 microorgani (Ammonia) ms Nitrosomonas died sp. and Nitrosococcus Used sp. NO2- by (Nitrit) plants by root NO3- Nitrobacter (Nitrat) sp.
PHOSPHORUS CYCLE formation of sediment decomposed from erosion at the sea by fungi and and bacteria weathering of rocks animals plant takes released in phosphate phosphate in dissolved in the urine soil water and feces Herbivoreson land obtain phosphorus from eating and carnivorous obtain from herbivores
CLASSIFICATION air pollution visual water pollution pollution POLLUTIONthermal landpollution pollution light sound pollution pollution
effects on living beings, in some degree, can cause mutations, a variety of diseases caused by gene abnormalities, and even death. AIR POLLUTION No. Pollutant Produced Form 1 Carbon dioxide (CO2) Fossil fuel use (oil and coal), natural gas, and forest burning. 2 Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and Fossil fuel use such as for nitrogen monoxide (NO) motor vehicles that produce exhaust 3 Carbon monoxide (CO) Fossil fuel use such as for motor vehicles that produce exhaust from incomplete combustion 4 Chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) Cooling agent in AC, fridge, and aerosol spray 5 Radiation of radioactive From nuclear materials
AIR POLLUTIONNo. Pollutant Effects 1 Carbon dioxide (CO2) Greenhouse effect (Temperature increases. So, the ice sheets can melt especially glaciers especially at the South pole. Melting ice may increase sea levels all over the world and drown cities and number of islands. This may also increase storms and climatic changes that affect farming, fisheries and human life). 2 Carbon monoxide (CO) When the body is lacking oxygen, it can cause nausea and headache. Once the content of carbon monoxide in air reaches 0.1%, it can cause death. 3 Sulphur dioxide (SO2) and Nitrogen Acid rain or acid snow (can cause dioxide (NO2-) damages to forest, crop plants, and plantation. It also causes rusting of materials that are made of metal such as bridges, railways, and buildings. Acid rain decreases the pH of soil, rivers, and lakes that affect the health and survival of the organisms within them).
AIR POLLUTIONNo. Pollutant Effects 4 Ozone (O3) This thinning of ozone layer results in reduced ability to perform its shielding function in keeping UV radiation from the earth. UV radiation that reaches earth may cause destruction and disturbance of human health, skin cancers and cataracts, disturbance of oceanic food chains and destruction of crop plants and plantations.
LAND POLLUTION domestic wastes pollution mining farming wastes wastes
CAUSES • from garbage in large amounts • from plastic rubbish difficult destroyed, bottles, synthetic rubber, broken glass, and cans, detergents which are non bio degradabledomestic (naturally difficult wastes described) • from the use of artificialfarming fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicideswastesmining • from the use of mercury (Hg)wastes
EFFECTS • decreased quality of ground water. it can be seen from its physical characteristic such as odor, color, anddomestic taste, even the presence of oil. wastes • plants wilt and reduce their yield and may eventually even die • endanger and killed soil organisms that important to decaying processfarming • causing cancer and is lethalwastes • mercury is toxic and can be lethal if it enters themining organismswastes
WATER POLLUTION farming industry wastes wastes oildomestic tanker wastes spillages pollution
WATER POLLUTIONdomestic waste• such as detergents, sewage, and feces play a large role in river pollution• polluted rivers that contain pathogenic bacteria and viruses can cause the outbreak of diseases• Sewage and garbage also need oxygen to be degraded and decomposed, so the oxygen concentration in water may decrease when these pollutants are present.industrial waste• some wastes still contain harmful and toxic substances such as mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), Chrome (Cr), cooper (Cu), zinc (Zn), and nickel (Ni)• can harm the life of aquatic organisms• mercury can destroy the nervous system when it enters the body and causes paralysis, even death
WATER POLLUTIONfarming waste• by the use of artificial fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides• will poison aquatic organisms and human wo used the wateroil tanker spillages• oil spillage that pollutes water in the oceans comes from both the tanker and offshore factory failures• destroys ocean organism life such as sea birds and fishes by oil that sticks on bird’s feathers and fish’s gills
CONTAMINATION organic waste inorganic waste chemical waste impact on organisms contamination
CONTAMINATIONorganic • can be decomposed or degraded waste by microorganisms • can not be decomposed and difficult to degrade by microorganismsinorganic • this can cause water to be hard because they contain calcium ions (Ca) and magnesium ions (Mg) waste • , these ions can be toxic such as lead (Pb), arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) is very dangerous for the human body • contaminants such as soaps, eradication ofchemical pests, chemical dyes, leather tanning solution and radioactive substances waste • can kill annoying and aquatic animals, water plants and possibly also humans
SOUND POLLUTION caused by the noise of motor vehicles, aircraft, the roar of the engine factory, radio / tape recorder, which reads loud that it interferes with hearing, roadway noise, and as well as high- intensity sonar will disturb human life and can even damage hearing permanently
LIGHT POLLUTION comes from the exterior and interior lighting of buildings, billboards, commercial property, offices, factories, roads and stadium lights due to light pollution, bird can not migrate to the right place because the star and the moon that as navigator is invisible sea turtles also have not come to the beach and lay eggs as usual because of fear of the light astronomers can not observe and find objects in space because of too much light that covered the night sky
THERMAL POLLUTION waste hot water from power plant installation is usually discharged directly into rivers, increasing water temperature and cause thermal pollution aquatic animal populations will decline at higher temperatures, only a few kinds can live at temperatures above 40oCof animals that oil and petrochemical kind of polluting waters will form a thin layer on the surface of the water that prevents the exchange of oxygen in the water with the atmosphere fish can not breathe and marine plants can not photosynthesize cause of death in biota
VISUAL POLLUTION which can refer to the presence of overhead power lines, motorway billboards, scarred landforms (as from strip mining), open storage of trash or municipal solid waste even the trees as elements of urban green evicted by the presence of billboards. beside as the lungs of the city, green trees also contribute in terms of psychology to residents of the city. too many concrete buildings and advertisements will make people easy to stress, because it is far from nature
PREFACE organic waste become hazardous waste to the environment as the human behavior does not match with the concept of ‘back to nature’. household waste, agricultural waste even human organic waste are harmful to the environment. little effort has been practiced but almost resulting in no impact.
in developing countries, the government has set up rules that dictated every organic waste must be used until their full potential has used up and propagated recycling, reuse, and repair. in the large cities, a massive quantities of waste has been produced with inadequate facilities to dealing with it and much of this waste is either left to rot in the streets, or is collected and dumped on open land near the city limits.
DOMESTIC AND HOUSEHOLD WASTE it is usually cooked or uncooked food scrapes, often mixed with non organic waste like plastic that can not be composed. produced in small quantity in developing countries, domestic waste are usually produced in larger quantity than the industry waste
COMMERCIALLY PRODUCED ORGANIC WASTE by this, waste generated at institutional buildings, such as schools, hotels and restaurants. The quantities of waste here are much higher and the potential for use in conjunction with small-scale enterprise is good.
ANIMAL AND HUMAN WASTE there are serious health risks involved with handling sewage connected with bacteria and fungi lived in raw sewage Human faecal residue: produced in large quantities in urban areas and is dealt with in a variety of ways. can present enormous health risks often found in slum areas or poor region the most commonly used method is anaerobic digestion to produce biogas and liquid fertiliser Animal residue commonly used as a source of fertiliser, being applied directly to the land, or as a source of energy, either through direct combustion (after drying) or through digestion to produce methane gas
AGRICULTURAL RESIDUE remains after the processing of crops (e.g. maize stalks, rice husks, foliage, etc.) there are a wide variety of applications for this residue, ranging from simple combustion on an open fire to complex energy production processes that use this waste as a fuel stock
COMPOSTING the decomposition occurs because of the action of naturally occurring micro-organisms such as bacteria and fungi composting can convert organic waste into rich, dark coloured compost, or humus, in a matter of a few weeks or months organic material, the remains of dead animals and plants, is broken down and consumed by micro- organisms and eaten by small invertebrates there are some benefit of composting : it provides a useful way of reclaiming nutrients from organic refuse saves valuable landfill space and possible contamination of land and water due to landfill ‘leachate’ can be used as fertiliser on farmland or in the garden improves the condition of soils
METHODS OF COMPOSTING SYSTEM backyard composting • the waste can be placed in a and left to decompose for 2 – 3 months • produces a rich compost which can be used as a fertiliser on fields or gardens neighbourhood composting • laid out in long rows and turned occasionally and another method is the rotating bin method which uses a series of closed co-composting • co-composting is technique whereby organic food waste is mixed with human or animal excreta and composted
FORMS OF DECOMPOSITION • the breakdown of the organic material is caused by bacteria and fungi that thrive in low or no-oxygen conditionsanaerobic • takes place in closed containers • bacteria and fungi which thrive in high oxygen conditions are responsible for the decomposition • the decomposition teke places in containers aerobic that allow air to enter
PRODUCTION BIOGAS process whereby organic matter is broken down by microbiological activity and takes place in the absence of air biogas can be produced by digesting human, animal or vegetable waste in specially designed digesters The benefit of this digestion are: the production of methane for use as a fuel the waste is reduced to slurry which has a high nutrient content which makes an ideal fertiliser during the digestion process pathogens in the manure are killed, which is a great benefit to environmental health biogas can be used for a number of applications, including lighting, cooking, electricity generation and as a replacement for diesel in diesel engines.