Biological sciences8

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Biological sciences8

  1. 1. BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES By: MARIA KRISIA FAE DELOS REYES DE ASIS, BSN-RN
  2. 2. TISSUE LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION CARTILAGE -Consists of a dense network of collagen fibers and elastic fibers firmly embedded in CHONDROITIN SULFATE, a gel-like component of the ground substance; these contribute to the strength of the tissue Chondrocytes – cells of the mature cartilage
  3. 3. TISSUE LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION Lacunae – spaces which contain groups of chondrocytes Perichondrium – covers the surface of most cartilage -Cartilage has no blood supply and heals poorly after an injury -Three types: HYALINE CARTILAGE, FIBROCARTILAGE, ELASTIC CARTILAGE
  4. 4. TISSUE LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION 1. Hyaline Cartilage - Contains a resilient gel as its ground substance and appears in the body as bluish-white, shiny substance - Mostly surrounded by perichondrium - Most abundant cartilage in the body - Provides flexibility and support at the joints
  5. 5. TISSUE LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION - Reduces friction and absorbs shock - The weakest of the three types of cartilage 2. Fibrocartilage - Lacks perochondrium - With a combination of strength and rigidity, it is the strongest cartilage - Found in intervertebral discs
  6. 6. TISSUE LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION 3. Elastic Cartilage - Provides strength and elasticity and maintains the shape of certain structures such as the nose and the external ear
  7. 7. TISSUE LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION BONE TISSUE - classified as compact or spongy, depending on how its extracellular matrix and cells are organized. + The basic unit of a compact bone is an OSTEON or HAVERSIAN SYSTEM + Spongy bone consists of columns of bone called TRABECULAE
  8. 8. TISSUE LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION LIQUID CONNECTIVE TISSUE 1. BLOOD TISSUE (BLOOD) - is a connective tissue with a liquid extracellular matrix called PLASMA (which consists of water and dissolved substances) - Formed Elements: a. Red Blood cells – Oxygen transport b. White Blood cells - immunity c. Platelets – blood clotting
  9. 9. TISSUE LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION 2. LYMPH - flows in lymphatic vessels - its composition varies from one part of the body to another
  10. 10. TISSUE LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION MUSCULAR TISSUE - consists of elongated cells called muscle fibers that can use ATP to generate force - produces body movement, maintains posture, generates heat, provides protection - 3 types based on structure and function: SKELETAL, CARDIAC, SMOOTH
  11. 11. TISSUE LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION 1. Skeletal muscle tissue - Usually attached to the bones of the skeleton - Has striations (alternating light and dark banks within fibers) - Voluntary (able to relax and contract by muscle control)
  12. 12. TISSUE LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION 2. Cardiac muscle tissue - Forms most of the wall of the heart - Has striations (alternating light and dark banks within fibers) - Involuntary (contractions are not controlled)
  13. 13. TISSUE LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION 3. Smooth muscle tissue - Located in the walls of hollow internal structures (intestines, blood vessels, stomach, etc.) - Contractions help constrict or narrow the lumen of blood vessels, move fluids, move food - Has no striations or nonstriated - Involuntary (contractions are not controlled)
  14. 14. TISSUE LEVEL OF ORGANIZATION NERVOUS TISSUE - 2 types: 1. Neuron/Nerve cell - Sensitive to various stimuli - Convert stimuli into electrical signals called action potentials 2. Neuroglia - Do not conduct nerve impulses - Functions as support for the neurons
  15. 15. Please bring out any piece of paper and prepare for a quiz..
  16. 16. QUESTION: 1. This type of connective tissue has no blood supply and heals poorly after an injury.
  17. 17. QUESTION: 2. This type of connective tissue produces body movement, maintains posture, generates heat, provides protection.
  18. 18. QUESTION: 3. This covers the surface of most cartilage.
  19. 19. QUESTION: 4. What is the liquid extracellular matrix of blood tissue?
  20. 20. QUESTION: 5. What is the basic unit of a compact bone?
  21. 21. QUESTION: 6. This provides strength and elasticity and maintains the shape of certain structures such as the nose and the external ear
  22. 22. QUESTION: 7. This forms most of the wall of the heart
  23. 23. QUESTION: 8. What is the strongest cartilage?
  24. 24. QUESTION: 9. What is the weakest cartilage?
  25. 25. QUESTION: 10. What are the cells of mature cartilage called?
  26. 26. QUESTION: 11. Nerve cells or Neurons Convert stimuli into electrical signals called ___________.
  27. 27. QUESTION: 12. Are smooth muscle tissues striated or nonstriated?
  28. 28. QUESTION: 13. Are cardiac muscle tissues voluntary or involuntary?
  29. 29. QUESTION: 14. These function as support for the neurons.
  30. 30. QUESTION: 15. They consist of a dense network of collagen fibers and elastic fibers firmly embedded in CHONDROITIN SULFATE, a gel-like component of the ground substance

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