• Name: vagh vanita r• Roll no: 14• Sem: 2• Paper: Cultural studies• Topic: Four goals of cultural studies• Year: 2013
INTRODUCTION :- “CULTURAL STUDIES” • Cultural studies is an innovative interdisciplinary field of research and teaching that investigates the ways in which “culture” creates and transforms individual experiences, everyday life, social relations and power.
conti. . .• Arising from the social turmoil of the 1960s , cultural studies is composed af elements of marxism, poststructuralism and post modernism, femining,gender studies, anthropology, sociology,race and ethnic studies, film theory,urban studies, public policy,popular culture studies and postcolonial studies.
1. FIRST: cultural studies transcends the confines of aPARTICULAR DISCIPLINE such as literary criticism or history. • cultural studies involves scrutinizing the cultural phenomenon of a text – for example Italian opera, a Latino telenovela, the architectural styles of prisons, body piercing and drawing conclusion about the change in textual phenomena over time.
Conti. . .• Henty Giroux and others write in their Dalhousie Review manifesto that cultural studies practitioners are “resisting intellectuals” who see what they do as “an emancipatory project.” Because it erodes the traditional disciplinary divisions in most institutions of higher education.
2. SECOND: cultural studies is politically engaged:- • cultural critics see themselves as “ oppositional” not only within their own disciplines but to many of the power structures of society at large. • They question inequalities within power stuctures and seek to disover models for restructuring relationship among dominant and “minority” or “subaltern” discourses.
3. THIRD: cultural studies denies the separation of “HIGH”AND “LOW” OR elite and popular culture. • you might hear someone remark at the symphony or art museum: “i came here to get a little culture”. • Cultural critics today work to transfer the term culture to include mass culture, whether popular , folk , or urban. Following theorists Jean Baudrillard and Andreas Huyssen, cultural critics argue that after world war II the distinctions among high , low and mass culture collapsed , and they cite other theorists such as Pierre Bourdieu and Dick Hebdige on how “good taste” only reflects prevailing social, economic and political power bases.
4. FORTH: cultural studies analyzes not only the cultural work , but also the means of production. • Marxist critics have long recognized the importance of such paraliterary questions as these :- • who supports a given artist ? • Who publishes his or her books, and how are these books distributed? • Who buys books? • For that matter,who is literate and who is not?
conclution• Cultural studies thus joins subjectivity – that is , cultural in relation to individual lives- with engagement , a direct approch to attacking social ills. Though cultural studies practitioners deny “humanism“ or “the humanities” as universal categories, they strive for what they might call “social reason”, which often resembles the goals and values of humanistic and democratic ideals.