Chapter 7 3• Psychologists debate whether there are differentsystems of memory or just different examples ofthe same system.– Explicit memory.• referred to as declarative memory is memory for specificinformation.• Episodic Memory: a form of explicit memory, memories of thethings that happen to us or take place in our presence. Alsoreferred to as autobiographical memory. “I remember…..”• Semantic Memory: On Not Getting Personal. Memories ofgeneral knowledge. Semantics concerns meanings. “I know…”Kinds of Memory
Chapter 7 4• Psychologists debate whether there are differentsystems of memory or just different examples ofthe same system.– Explicit memory.• referred to as declarative memory is memory for specificinformation.• Episodic Memory: a form of explicit memory, memories of thethings that happen to us or take place in our presence. Alsoreferred to as autobiographical memory. “I remember…..”• Semantic Memory: On Not Getting Personal. Memories ofgeneral knowledge. Semantics concerns meanings. “I know…”Kinds of Memory
Chapter 7 5• Implicit Memory: referred to as no declarativememory is memory of how to perform atask, how to do something.– Characteristics:• Implicit memories– are suggested (implied) not declared.– are illustrated by the things that people do but not by thethings they state.– involve skills, both cognitive and physical: they reveal habitsand involve effects of conditioning.– can persist even when we have not used them for manyyears.– can become relatively automatic referred to as priming.Kinds of Memory
Chapter 7 6• Retrospective Memory involves recallinginformation that has been previously learned.This includes:– Episodic– Semantic– ImplicitKinds of Memory
Chapter 7 7• Prospective memory involves remembering to dothings in the future.– Prospective memory tends to fail when we are:• Preoccupied, distracted, feeling the stress of time pressure.– Various types of prospective memory tasks include:• Habitual tasks• Event based tasks• Time based tasks• Retrospective and prospective memory declinewith age.• Moods and attitudes have an effect onprospective memory in that negative emotionalstates impair prospective memory.Kinds of Memory
Chapter 7 9• Encoding– Information about the outside world reaches oursenses in the form of physical and chemical stimuli.– When we encode information we transform it intopsychological formats that can be representedmentally.• Visual code:– remembering things as a picture.• Acoustic code:– remembering things as a sequence of sounds.• Semantic code:– remembering things in terms of their meaning.Processes of Memory
Chapter 7 10• Storage:– maintaining information over time.• Maintenance rehearsal:– mentally repeating information.• Met memory:– our awareness of the functioning of our memory.• Elaborative rehearsal:– elaborating or extending the semantic meaning of thewhat you are trying to remember.• Retrieval:– Retrieval of stored information requires locating it andreturning it to consciousness.Processes of Memory
Chapter 7 12• Atkinson-Shiffrin model of memory:– There are three stages of memory• Sensory memory• Short-term memory• Long-term memory– Information progresses through these stagesdetermining how whether and how long theinformation will be retained.Stages of Memory:
Figure 7.1 Three Stages of Memory. The Atkinson–Shiffrin model proposes that there are three distinctstages of memory. Sensory information impacts upon the registers of sensory memory, where memorytraces are held briefly before decaying. If we attend to the information, much of it is transferred to short-termmemory (STM). Information in STM may decay or be displaced if it is not transferred to long-term memory(LTM). We can use rehearsal or elaborative strategies to transfer memories to LTM. If information in LTM isorganized poorly, or if we cannot find cues to retrieve it, it may be lost.Three Stages of Memory
Chapter 7 14• Sensory Memory is the type of memory that is firstencountered by a stimulus.– Vision example:• Saccadic eye movements: series of eye fixations;movements which jump from one point to anotherabout four times each second.• Memory trace: visual impression left by the stimulus.• Held in visual sensory register.• Research has used the whole report procedure and thepartial report procedure in memory tasks.– Memory trace for visual stimuli decay within a second.Sensory Memory
Chapter 7 15• Iconic Memory– Visual stimuli are referred to as icons. The sensoryregister that holds icons is labeled iconic memory.– Iconic memories are accurate, photographic memoriesbut briefly stored.– Photographic memory is technically referred to aseidetic imagery.• Eidetic imagery:– photographic memory; having the ability tostore visual stimuli for remarkably long periodsof time.Sensory Memory
Chapter 7 16• Iconic Memory and Saccadic Eye Movements.–Saccadic eye movements occur aboutfour times every second.–Iconic memory holds icons for up to asecond.–The combination is what allows us toperceive imagery in film as beingseamless.Sensory Memory
Chapter 7 17• Echoic Memory.– Mental representations of sounds, or auditorystimuli, are called echoes.– The sensory register that holds echoes is called echoicmemory.– Echoic memory can last for several seconds.– By selectively attending to certain stimuli we sort themout from background noise.Sensory Memory
Chapter 7 18• If one focuses on a stimulus in the sensoryregister, they will tend to retain it in short-termmemory (also referred to as working memory).• In short term memory the image tends tosignificantly fade after 10-12 seconds if it is notrehearsed.• To retain the information then rehearsal isneeded.– The Serial-Position Effect.– Chunking.– Interference in Short-Term Memory.Short-Term Memory
Chapter 7 19• The Serial-Position Effect.– The tendency to recall the first and last items in aseries is known as the serial-position effect.• Primacy effect:• Regency effect:• Chunking:– discrete elements of information.• Seven chunks, plus or minus one or two.• Rote learning:• Interference in Short-Term Memory.– Prevention of rehearsal can inhibit short term memory.– Appearance of new information can displace the oldinformation.Short-Term Memory
Chapter 7 20• Long-term memory is the third stage ofinformation processing.– The vast storehouse of information.• Information can be kept in the unconscious; long-term memory by the forces of repression.• How Accurate Are Long-Term Memories?– Loftus notes that memories are distorted by our biasesand needs.– We represent our world in the form of schemas.– Loftus and Palmer and the experiment of the car crash.• Words served as diverse schemas that fostered verydifferent ways of processing information.Long-Term Memory
Chapter 7 21• The words chosen by an experimenter and those chosenby a lawyer interrogating a witness have been shown toinfluence the reconstruction of memories.• Children tend to be more suggestible witnesses thanadults.– When questioned properly, young children can provide accurateand useful testimony.– Hypnosis does more than amplify memories; it can also distortthem– Witnesses may accept and embellish suggestions made by thehypnotist.– Witnesses may pay more attention to the suspect’s clothing thanto more meaningful characteristics such as facial features, heightand weight.Controversy In Psychology:Can We Trust Eyewitness Testimony?
Chapter 7 22• Other problems with eye-witness testimony are:– Identification is less accurate when suspects belong toethnic groups that differ from that of the witness.– Identification of suspects is confused wheninterrogators make misleading suggestions.– Witnesses are seen as more credible when they claimto be certain in their testimony but there is littleevidence that claims of certainty are accurate.Controversy In Psychology:Can We Trust Eyewitness Testimony?
Chapter 7 23• For all practical purposes, long-term memory isunlimited.• Information can become lost but not destroyed ordeleted.• Transferring Information from Short-Term to Long-Term Memory:– The more often chunks of information arerehearsed, the more likely they are to be transferred tolong-term memory.– Repeating information over and over to prevent it fromdecaying is termed maintenance rehearsal.– A more effective method is to make information moremeaningful;• relating information to well-known material is termed elaborativerehearsal.How Much Information Can Be Stored in Memory?
Chapter 7 24Levels of Processing Information– Elaborative rehearsal involves processing informationat a deeper level than maintenance rehearsal.– Information is remembered if:• processed deeply-attended to,• encoded carefully, pondered, and• related to things we already know.– Remembering relies on how deeply we processesinformation.– Research has shown that deep processing is related toactivity in the prefrontal area of the cerebral cortex.How Much Information Can Be Stored in Memory?
Chapter 7 25Flashbulb Memories:– The tendency to remember events that aresurprising, important, and emotionally stirring.• One factor is the distinctness of thememory.• The feelings caused by them arespecial.–We are likely to dwell on them and formnetworks of associations.How Much Information Can Be Stored in Memory?
Chapter 7 26Organizations in Long-Term Memory• People tend to organize information according to ahierarchical structure.– A hierarchy is an arrangement of itemsinto groups or classes according tocommon or distinct features.How Much Information Can Be Stored in Memory?
Figure 7.5 Where are whales filed in the hierarchical cabinets of your memory? Your classification ofwhales may influence your answers to these questions: Do whales breathe underwater? Are they warm-blooded? Do they nurse their young?Hierarchal Memory
Chapter 7 28• The Tip-of-the-Tongue-Phenomenon.– The tip-of-the-tongue-phenomenon is the feeling ofknowing an experience. Why?• Words were unfamiliar so elaborativerehearsal did not take place.• Seems to reflect incomplete learning.• Our knowledge of the topic may beincomplete, we don’t know the specificanswer but we know something.The Tip-of-the-Tongue-Phenomenon
Chapter 7 29• The context in which we acquire information canalso play a role in retrieval.• Context-dependent memories are clear in thecontext in which they were formed.– Being in the proper context can dramatically enhancerecall.• Context for memory extends to language.• Déjà vu: the feeling that we know this person orhave been there before.– Seems to occur when we are in a context similar to theone we have been in before.Context-Dependent Memory
Chapter 7 30• State-dependent memory is an extension ofcontext-dependent memory.– We retrieve information better when we are in thephysiological or emotional state that is similar to theone in which we encoded and stored the information.– There is evidence of support for this withlove, anger, frustration, rage, sober orinebriated, happy, sad, and bipolar.State-Dependent Memory
Chapter 7 32• Ebbinghaus and the research with nonsensesyllables.– Remembering should depend on simple acousticcoding and maintenance rehearsal rather than onelaborative rehearsal.– This research is well suited for the measurement offorgetting.Forgetting
Chapter 7 33• Memory Tasks Used in Measuring Forgetting.– Recognition.• Failure to recognize something we have experienced.• The easiest type of memory task.– Recall.• Remembering information from memory without cues.• Research conducted in this area used paired associates.• Recall is more difficult than recognition.– Relearning.• We can relearn information more rapidly the second time.• Ebbinghaus devised the method of savings.Forgetting
Chapter 7 34• Interference Theory.– We may forget information in short-term and long-term memory because newly learned materialinterferes with it.• Retroactive interference:– new learning interferes with the retrieval of old learning.• Proactive interference:– older learning interferes with the capacity to retrievemore recently learned material.Forgetting
Figure 7.3 The Effect of Interference on Short-Term Memory In this experiment, college students wereasked to remember a series of three letters while they counted backward by threes. After just threeseconds, retention was cut by half. Ability to recall the words was almost completely lost by 15 seconds.Forgetting
Chapter 7 36• Repression– Freud suggested that we are motivated to forgetpainful memories because they produce anxiety, guilt,and shame. (Repression)• This is the heart of disorders such as dissociative amnesia.• Stress hormones released when we experience extremes ofanxiety actually heighten memory.• Repressed memories may not be ill-formed we just don’t focus onthem.Forgetting
Chapter 7 37• Do People Really Recover Repressed Memories ofSexual Abuse at an Early Age, Or Are These“Memories” Implanted by Interviewers?– Many recovered memories are sometime induced bytherapists.– Techniques used to recover memories: hypnosis andguided imagery.Controversy In Psychology
Chapter 7 38• Infantile amnesia is difficulty in rememberingepisodes that happened prior to age 3 or so.• Has little to do with the fact that the episodesoccurred in the distant past.Infantile Amnesia
Chapter 7 39• Reflects the interaction of physiological andcognitive factors.– The hippocampus does not become mature until weare about 2 years of age.– Cognitive factors include:• Infants are not particularly interested in remembering their past.• Infants don’t weave episodes together into meaningful stories.• Infants don’t make reliable use of language to symbolize theirevents.• We are unlikely to remember episodes unless we are reminded ofthem from time to time as we develop.• There is no evidence to suggest that early memories aresystematically repressed.Infantile Amnesia
Chapter 7 40• Anterograde amnesia is memory lapses for theperiod following a trauma.• This memory loss has been linked to damage to thehippocampus.• The case of H.M.• Retrograde amnesia is memory lapses for theperiod before the accident.Anterograde and Retrograde Amnesia
Chapter 7 42• Engrams are viewed as electrical circuits in thebrain the correspond to memory traces.• Neural Activity and Memory:– The storage of experience appears to require thenumber of avenues of communication among braincells to be increased.– Sea snails can be conditioned to they release moreserotonin at certain synapses.• As a result the transmission at the synapses becomes moreefficient as trials progress. This greater efficiency is termed long-term potentiation (LTP).The Biology of Memory
Chapter 7 43• Neural Activity and Memory:– Acetylcholine (ACh) is vital in memory formation. Lowlevels of ACh are connected with Alzheimer’s disease.– Glutamate in the brain promotes conditioning.– Adrenaline and noradrenaline both strengthenmemory when they are released into the bloodstreamfollowing learning.– Vasopressin facilitates memory (particularly workingmemory).– Estrogen and testosterone facilitate working memory.The Biology of Memory
Chapter 7 44• Brain Structures and Memory.– Hippocampus is involved in the formation of newmemories.– Parts of memories are stored in appropriate areas ofthe sensory cortex.• Sight in the visual cortex; sounds in the auditory cortex, etc.– The limbic system is largely responsible for integratingthese pieces of information when we recall an event.– The prefrontal cortex acts apparently as the executivecenter in memory.– Thalamus is involved in verbal memories.The Biology of Memory
Chapter 7 45• Psychologists have developed methods forimproving memory.– Drill and Practice: “A,B, C, D, …”– Recommendations from Herrmann (1991) toremember a person’s name:• Say the name out loud.• Ask the person a question, using her or his name.• Use the person’s name as many times as you can during yourconversation.• Write down the name when the conversation has ended.– Relate New Information to What Is Already Known.• Elaborative rehearsal.Life Connections:Using the Psychology of Memory to Enhance Your Memory
Chapter 7 46• Form Unusual, Exaggerated Associations.– It is easier to recall stimuli that stand out.– Create unusual associations.• Use the Method of Loci– Method of Loci: select a series of related images andthen attaché information that you want to rememberto those images. (e.g. parts of the body).Life Connections:Using the Psychology of Memory to Enhance Your Memory
Chapter 7 47• Use Mediation– The method of mediation also relies on formingassociations.• Link two items with a third one that ties them together.• Use Mnemonic Devices– Mnemonics are systems for remembering informationtypically using chunks of information combined into anacronym.Life Connections:Using the Psychology of Memory to Enhance Your Memory