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Interactive Marketing 2017 Program


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The marketing world is changing rapidly, and many businesses are rethinking how they organize and execute the marketing function. This course explores the evolution of interactive marketing communications – specifically about the increasingly integrated marketing and corporate communications roles. We’ll touch on advertising, PR, corporate communications, SEO, social media, interactive and digital content and many other topics. The course also includes a final project.

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Interactive Marketing 2017 Program

  1. 1. Boston University Summer Program Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore @ BU, Summer 2017 Interactive Marketing Communications The marketing world is changing rapidly, and many businesses are rethinking how they organize and execute the marketing function. This course explores the evolution of interactive marketing communications – specifically about the increasingly integrated marketing and corporate communications roles. We’ll touch on advertising, PR, corporate communications, SEO, social media, interactive and digital content and many other topics. The course also includes a final project.
  2. 2. Your Instructors Todd Van Hoosear @vanhoosear Florida-based public relations agency professional Jeff Cutler @jeffcutler Boston-based journalist and consultant #bucattolica
  3. 3. Course Schedule
  4. 4. Grading • There are four factors in your grade: 1. Personal IRL and online participation score (60%) • In-person class participation (1 point per contribution, 15 points max, Todd & Jeff) • Online hashtag participation (0-2 points per social post, 15 points max, Todd) • Twitter growth rank (1-4=15; 5-8=14; 9-12=13; 13-15=12; 16-18=11; 19+=10, Todd) • Engagement rank (1-4=15; 5-8=14; 9-12=13; 13-15=12; 16-18=11; 19+=10, Todd) 2. Judges’ team-wide presentation score (20%) • 1st = 20; 2nd = 18; 3rd = 16; 4th = 14; 5th = 12 – averaged across Todd & Jeff 3. Inter-team individual and team evaluations (10%), based on these criteria: • Individual presentation: 1-5 points based on what you learned in presentation skills course, averaged across all students • Team score: 1-5 points based on creativity, practicality and overall structure, averaged across all students 4. Intra-team evaluations (10%), based on amount and/or value of contribution to the team leading up to final presentation, averaged across all team members (10 pts)
  5. 5. Two Important Checklists Where the Digital Marketing $ is being spent What your team needs to address for your class project 1. Business Objectives 2. S.M.A.R.T.* Goals 3. Community Profiles 4. Content and Channels 5. Messaging 6. KPIs
  6. 6. THE HISTORY OF MARKETING Day 1: Part 1
  7. 7. Todd’s 6 Eras of Communication 1. Illustration* 2. Spoken Word 3. Written Word 4. Printed Word 5. Mass Media 6. Social Media 1850/ 2/ /6478042809/ 2520710/ / 292167103/ Used under Creative Commons licensing. * Added by Kylie Keegan
  8. 8. Tomi Ahonen’s Seven* Mass Media 1. Print 2. Recordings 3. Film 4. Radio 5. Television 6. Internet 7. Mobile* * Recently he’s talked about an eighth form of mass media: augmented reality.
  9. 9. History of Marketing A History of Advertising by Henry Sampson • Greece: Politics, with a little commerce: Town crier, known to announce sales • Rome: • Wine, with a little commerce • Already jaded: “Vino vendibili suspensa hedera non opus est” – “Good wine needs no bush” • Acta Diurna (Rome, c151BC) – Daily Roman Gazette (Stone / Metal) • Libelli: Bills announcing estate sales, baths, lost & found, etc. • London: The rise of the “billsticker” and the “bellman”
  10. 10. History of Marketing A History of Advertising by Henry Sampson • The First Newspapers: • Kaiyuan Za Bao (Beijing, 713-734) – Handwritten Tang Dynasty “Bulletin of the Court” • Notizie Scritte (Venice, 1556) – Cost one gazetta, leading to the name • Strasbourg Relation (Germany, 1605) – First modern newspaper • The First Advertisement: The honor probably goes to France’s Journal Général d’Affiches, or Petites Affiches, first published in 1612
  11. 11. History of Marketing
  12. 12. History of Marketing • 1744: Benjamin Franklin sells scientific and academic books by mail, offers first guarantee • 1872: Montgomery Ward launches first catalog • 1893: T.B. Russell writes article in Printer’s Ink magazine titled “With English Advertisers” with perhaps the first mention of “direct mail” • 1903: Preview of telemarketing when the Multi-Mailing Co. of New York used telephone directories as a source for (postal) mailing lists • 1905: Homer Buckley builds first direct mail advertising business
  13. 13. History of Marketing • Early 20th Century: L.L. Bean & Sears take off • 1906: Ivy Lee issues the first press release • WWI: Big transition from door-to-door to direct mail • 1916-1935: Eddie Bernays writes Propaganda, The Engineering of Consent and Crystallizing Public Opinion (later used by Goebbels in Nazi Germany)
  14. 14. Ivy Lee’s “Blindingly Obvious” Idea • Public opinion can be a very dangerous thing, but Lee realized early on that it can be manipulated as well • Started as a reporter, then a publicist before opening his own shop and taking on a long- boiling anthracite coal strike • Lee hit upon an idea: Send news desks a (daily) stream of statements and facts about the strike • While well received at first, some members of the press complained that they were just well- disguised (and free) ads • As a result, he issued his “Declaration of Principles”
  15. 15. Ivy Lee’s “Declaration of Principles” • This is not a secret press bureau. All our work is done in the open. We aim to supply news. • This is not an advertising agency; if you think any of our matter ought properly to go to your business office, do not use it. • Our matter is accurate. Further details on any subject treated will be supplied promptly, and any editor will be assisted most cheerfully in verifying directly any statement of fact. • Upon inquiry, full information will be given to any editor concerning those on whose behalf an article is sent out. • In brief, our plan is, frankly and openly, on behalf of business concerns and public institutions, to supply to the press and public of the United States prompt and accurate information concerning subjects which it is of value and interest to the public to know about. • Corporations and public institutions give out much information in which the news point is lost to view. Nevertheless, it is quite as important to the public to have this news as it is to the establishments themselves to give it currency. • I send out only matter every detail of which I am willing to assist any editor in verifying for himself. • I am always at your service for the purpose of enabling you to obtain more complete information concerning any of the subjects brought forward in my copy. Bullets are mine. Compare these with the Cluetrain Manifesto, written 93 years later. How modern is this thinking?
  16. 16. The First Press Release: 1906 • Just a month after issuing his declaration, there was a terrible rail accident that killed 53 people • Lee was retained to get the word out on behalf of his client, the Pennsylvania Railroad Company • He issued a “press release” • His words made it into The New York Times verbatim! • His next big client was John D. Rockefeller!
  17. 17. From Principled to “Poison Ivy” • Lee’s support of Rockefeller led him to be criticized by many on the left, including “Mother” Jones, the liberal magazine’s namesake • By 1915, despite attempts to remain behind the curtains, Lee was outed as a highly-paid consultant ($1,000/mo in 1914!) • By 1919, Upton Sinclair, author of The Jungle, had him in his sights and had labeled him “Poison Ivy.” In 1914, Lee made $1,000 less a year than my very first job offer in 1992!
  18. 18. Enter Eddie Bernays • Nephew of Sigmund Freud, who shaped his world view: Humans are easily swayed by irrational thought and “herd mentality,” making mani- pulation a necessary tool • Served on WWI Committee on Public Information • Saw value of controlling info In 1914, Lee made $1,000 less a year than my very first job offer in 1992! • Wrote Propaganda, The Engineering of Consent and Crystallizing Public Opinion (later used by Goebbels in Nazi Germany)
  19. 19. PR’s Flawed Roots • Dig deep into the technology, culture and mindset of this dangerous combination: – Freudian psychology – The influence of mass media and the one-to-many broadcast model that prevailed for most of the 20th Century. • PR is deeply flawed because of this
  20. 20. Moving On: Radio, Phones, TV
  21. 21. The Rise of TV
  22. 22. Sputnik and Social Media There was a sudden crisis of confidence in American technology, values, politics, and the military. Science, technology, and engineering were totally reworked and massively funded in the shadow of Sputnik. The Russian satellite essentially forced the United States to place a new national priority on research science, which led to the development of microelectronics—the technology used in today's laptop, personal, and handheld computers. Many essential technologies of modern life, including the Internet, owe their early development to the accelerated pace of applied research triggered by Sputnik. “ ”
  23. 23. History of the Internet
  24. 24.
  25. 25. The Rise of PCs, Dawn of Mobile
  26. 26. History of Marketing
  27. 27. History of Marketing
  28. 28. History of Marketing
  29. 29. Social Media – A History (cont’d)
  30. 30. History of Marketing
  31. 31. History of Marketing
  32. 32. Social Media – A History (cont’d)
  33. 33. History of Marketing
  34. 34. History of Marketing
  35. 35. Social Media – A History (cont’d)
  36. 36. The Big Tech Trends • AI and big data – Related: IoT • Sharing economy – Related: Distributed trust and the block chain • Hyper-globalization vs hyper-localization – Related: Donald Trump, Angela Merkel, additive manufacturing
  37. 37. Media Trends • Smartphone penetration rates slow, but usage grows • Mobile advertising drives digital growth • Global internet advertising has officially surpassed global TV advertising • Measurability is critical, and ROI is still hard to measure • Picture and video search • UGC still hot • Get more from Mary Meeker here:
  39. 39. Defining Digital Marketing • Digital marketing is the set of processes and tools that centralize both the consumer’s experience AND the brand’s experience • The goal of digital marketing is to drive and create action that is mutually beneficial to the consumer and the brand • Is it digital marketing, or just marketing?
  40. 40. Digital Marketing: Then History of Digital Marketing • 1744: Ben Franklin launches first mail- order guarantee • 1903: First combination of telephone directories and direct mail • 1971: First email • 1978: First email spam (from DEC) • 1986: ACT! Contact management and database marketing software launched • 1994: First banner ad (in HotWired, precursor to WIRED), first search engine • 1997: First social network: Digital Marketing Over the Decades  1970s: Telesales  1980s: Contact Management  1990s: Sales Force Automation  2000s: Customer Relationship Management  2010s: Marketing Automation
  41. 41. Digital Marketing: Then vs Now THEN: • Analog-centric • Digital marketing was a subset of marketing • Print, outdoor & broadcast accounted for vast majority of budget, strategic emphasis • Online was an add-on NOW:  Digital-first  Digital marketing IS marketing  Digital spend catching up with analog
  42. 42. What is Digital Marketing Today? • “In simplistic terms, digital marketing is the promotion of products or brands via one or more forms of electronic media. Digital marketing differs from traditional marketing in that it involves the use of channels and methods that enable an organization to analyze marketing campaigns and understand what is working and what isn’t – typically in real time.” – SAS Institute • “In its short history, digital has evolved rapidly as a push-pull marketing channel, with marketers and consumers alike embracing a wide range of touch points such as social media to engage with one another. Within the past few years, digital has shed its reputation as the nascent weak sister to offline marketing.” – GigaOM
  43. 43. Channel Madness “A marketing channel is a set of practices or activities necessary [but insufficient] to transfer the ownership of goods from the point of production to the point of consumption.” - Wikipedia brand-strategy/multichannel- strategies/selectmarketing-channels/ • Sales and marketing channels transfer information • Payment systems transfer money • Distribution channels transfer goods
  44. 44. Channel Madness a-Difference-and-What-Does-It-Mean-to-You-102361.htm
  45. 45. Push v Pull
  46. 46. Which Programs Are Getting the Biggest Budgets (2014 Data)
  47. 47. The Shifting Digital Marketing Dollar
  48. 48. Where Digital Marketing is Heading
  49. 49. 1. Business Objectives 2. S.M.A.R.T.* Goals 3. Community Profiles 4. Content and Channels 5. Messaging 6. KPIs HELP FOR YOUR CLASS PROJECT OVERVIEW OF YOUR CLASS PROJECT Day 1: Part 3
  50. 50. Your Class Project • Form a group of 4 people (groups of 5 are okay) 1. Name a team leader 2. Assign 1 or 2 items from the list on the next page to each member • Pick a company to “help” by preparing a marketing proposal (see next slide). • The company must: 1. Be primarily English-language 2. Have a public website 3. Have an email marketing database visible on site 4. Have a social media presence (at least two social networks) 5. Have a blog or some form of content marketing program
  51. 51. Your Class Project Prepare and present an interactive marketing strategy and plan addressing: • The primary BUSINESS OBJECTIVE that your proposal attempts to achieve. This company is facing at least one major business challenge that your proposal is trying to help overcome. What is the challenge that your proposal focuses on? • One or two primary S.M.A.R.T.* goals. While business objectives can often be nebulous, and often difficult to measure, a business goal must be SMART. It can be high-level, but it still must be specific and directly measurable. It should be attainable, results-oriented (in K.D. Paine’s words, “Outcomes-focused”) and have a specific time-frame defined. For example, “increase the percentage of online sales from social media sources from 0% to 15% within six months of implementation.” • Your Community. To whom will your efforts be focused on, primarily? Define your community (a.k.a., “target audience”) in terms of 1-3 “buyer personas” (more on buyer personas here: ). Be sure to include a description of their influences (and influencers), which will impact your recommendations. • The Content and Channel. What kind of content does your community consume and/or create, and on which online/social channels (i.e., platforms, social networks or online technologies)? Which of these channels will you focus on to deliver your message? • The Message. What is the broader message that you will deliver to this community over the channel, and what is the essential “call to action” (i.e., “ask”) that you will communicate? • The KPIs. Finally, what are the key performance indicators that you will use to measure the success of your campaign? These should be similar is design to the SMART goal identified in Part 1, and should all clearly support that goal, but these are 3-5 more specific metrics that will allow you to track the success of your campaign. For a little more on KPIs, visit
  52. 52. 1. Business Objectives 2. S.M.A.R.T.* Goals 3. Community Profiles 4. Content and Channels 5. Messaging 6. KPIs HELP FOR YOUR CLASS PROJECT THE MARKETING PROCESS Day 1: Part 3 ✔ ✔
  53. 53. Marketing Alignment • The big question: Does marketing drive business strategy, or does business strategy drive marketing • Understand the difference between – Goals and objectives – Business strategies (or business objectives) – Marketing objectives (vs goals) – Marketing tactics (or goals)
  54. 54. Alignment Exercise 1. Timeframe How long you'll focus on the specific components you will identify in your Focus Canvas. 2. Our Meaning Beyond Money The higher purpose your company is meant to achieve. 3. Why We're Different A short list that defines the valuable characteristics unique to your company. 4. The Value We Provide A clearly communicated statement that helps your customers understand what you do and gives them reason to choose you over your competition. 5. What We're Trying to Accomplish The goals your teams (and company) are working to accomplish. 6. Who Our Customers Are The very specific audience groups you're working to earn and retain. 7. How We're Helping Our Customers The things you're doing to remain relevant in your customers' lives. 8. What's Important Now The most important things (up to three) that you need to focus on over the next 90 days in order to accomplish goals and move the company forward. company-with-your-marketing-strategy
  55. 55. Smart Marketers Remember That • The goal of digital marketing is to drive and create action that is mutually beneficial to the consumer and the brand • They will keep their job longer if their CEO and management team not only trusts them, but depends on them • They create a chain of trust from the CEO to the consumer • They leverage technology to inform the company’s management and consumers on the best choices
  56. 56. Smart Marketers use SMART Goals pecific easurable ttainable esults-Oriented ime Bound Slide courtesy of Kami Huyse of Zoetica (@kamichat)
  57. 57. Which of these are SMART Goals? • Get on page one of SERPs for key industry term • Grow RSS or email subscriptions by 100% • Have an average of 3 comments per post • Increase the number of Facebook users “talking about” our page by 75 • Grow inbound links by 50 • Have at least two blog and media mentions per week • Grow our Alexa ranking by 500 places by n date • Improve the sentiment so there are more positive mentions than negative ones • Grow web traffic by 200% • Grow downloads or sales by 50% over next four months“Secrets of Social Media Marketing” Chapter 15
  58. 58. What is a Conversion? • A conversion is a measurable event that indicates movement through the sales and marketing process (funnel) • Possible examples of conversions: – Follow / friend / fan a social profile – Like / +1 / favorite a post – Share / re-tweet content – Sign up for mailing list – Open email – Click-through to website – Ask for more information on offering – Purchase – Repurchase – Advocacy / evangelism
  59. 59. The Sales Funnel
  60. 60. The “New Marketing” Funnel
  61. 61. Diffusion of Innovations Theory (or, the New Media Adoption Process)
  62. 62. Five Stages of Tech Adoption
  63. 63. Mapping Conversion Flow Twitter/LinkedIn Re-Tweet/Like/Share/Subscribe Intermediary Content Opt In Landing Pages/Blog Download Content Level of Engagement Engage Activate Read More
  64. 64. The 2/3 Step Process Twitter “Applause Rate” (Favorites, Likes) Low Engagement High Engagement Medium Activation Lead Generation High Activation Share “Amplification Rate” (Retweets) Download Opt In Engage Activate Medium Engagement LinkedIn Activation (Click) “Engagement Rate” (Original Tweets or Replies) Bounce Lands on Slideshare/Blog Post/Website, Reads, No Follow-through Low Activation Clicks to Read More on Site
  65. 65. 1. Business Objectives 2. S.M.A.R.T.* Goals 3. Community Profiles 4. Content and Channels 5. Messaging 6. KPIs HELP FOR YOUR CLASS PROJECT MEASUREMENT AND ANALYTICS Day 1: Part 4 ✔ ✔ ✔
  66. 66. The Three Os of Measurement 1. Outputs – Results of publicity efforts 2. Outtakes – How people think as a result of these outputs 3. Outcomes – How their behavior changes as a result of these outtakes O Katie Paine, via “Secrets of Social Media Marketing” Chapter 15
  67. 67. What’s Missing? • Katie Paine’s Three Os describe most, but not all, of the metrics we should be tracking • They represent the part of the marketing / PR process over which you have the most control
  68. 68. The Two Is • Missing are the two important factors that you have the least control over – Inputs are the “raw materials,” resources and tools that you have been given to accomplish your task – Impact is the positive economic or life change brought about as a result of the outcomes
  69. 69. Inputs
  70. 70. Outputs
  71. 71. Ad Value Equivalency • The calculation of space or time used for earned media (publicity or news content) by comparing it to the cost of that same space or time if purchased as advertising
  72. 72. The Problems with AVE 1. AVEs do not measure outcomes 2. AVEs reduce public relations to media relations 3. AVEs treat advertising and PR as cost alternatives, flying in the face of integrated measurement 4. AVEs provide no diagnostic value – they don’t tell you what’s working 5. AVEs do not take into consideration credibility, and ignore social media 6. AVEs are commonly used in conjunction with multipliers (i.e., “this article is worth 2x its AVE because it has editorial credibility”), but no research supports this
  73. 73. Alternatives to AVE 1. gAVE (Google AVE = CPC x search volume) 2. Reach/OTS/Frequen cy 3. ROE: Return on Engagement? 4. AMEC’s response: A grid of alternatives top-tools-for-measuring-pr.html
  74. 74. Alternatives to AVE: AMEC
  75. 75. The NEW Barcelona Principles 1. Goal setting and measurement are fundamental to communication and public relations 2. Measuring communication outputs is great, but also measuring outcomes is even more important 3. The effect of communication efforts on organizational performance can and should be measured 4. Measurement and evaluation require both qualitative and quantitative methods 5. AVEs are not the value of communications 6. Social media can and should be measured consistently with other media channels 7. Measurement and evaluation should be transparent, consistent and valid
  76. 76. Outtakes
  77. 77. “Get to Know Me” • Two ways to learn about your customers: – Observe • Easier and easier to do • Testable (e.g., via A/B Testing) – Ask • Harder • Intrusive (when to do it?) • More subject to bias • Potentially more rewarding
  78. 78. Net Promoter Score
  79. 79. Outcomes
  80. 80. Impact • ROI is just 1 metric • It may not even be the most important metric! • It’s the best measurement of impact we have though
  81. 81. What Does ROI Measure?
  82. 82. Remember, Nothing is …
  83. 83. The Tangibles of ROI (Gain from Investment – Cost of Investment) Cost of Investment ROI (%) =  Gain: Total revenue generated that can be attributed to the program / campaign (If the program or campaign is not aimed at revenue generation, you can substitute “cost savings”)  Cost: Total cost of program / campaign, including:  Staff time, calculated by FTE %age of salary or hourly rates  Hard costs
  84. 84. The Measurement Challenge • The graph you're looking at shows co-variance, or correlation. Two upward-trending lines representing the traffic to your blog and the number of leads generated. • Is the increase in web traffic causing the increase in leads? Or is the increase in leads causing an increase in web traffic? Or is something else (or multiple things) causing both? • There is no way to tell. That is to say, you cannot infer causation from mere correlation. • To infer causation, you must be able to attribute results to your efforts. You can do this a few different ways: – Use Google Analytics Campaign Codes – Use your own link shortener – Use unique landing pages for each campaign
  85. 85. How Can You Ensure Attribution? ESSENTIAL • Web Analytics (e.g., Google Analytics) (Behavior -> Site Content - > All Pages) BETTER  Campaign Codes +  Link Shortener (e.g., +  Web Analytics (e.g., Google Analytics)
  86. 86. The Intangibles of ROI: Not Just $$
  87. 87. The Best Social Media Metrics* 1. Conversation Index – Ratio of posts to comments or replies 2. Amplification Rate – How many people share each post/update/tweet/etc. 3. Applause Rate – How many people “like,” “+1” or “favorite” each piece of content 4. Economic Value – Sum of short- and long-term revenue and cost savings
  88. 88. Paul’s Favorite Metrics • Page Views – Simple but easy, as long as you understand difference between views (or visits) and visitors • Returning Visitors – How sticky is your site? Over time this becomes more important • Pages Per Visit – Keep it trending upward; it’s another measurement of stickiness • RSS Subscriptions – How many people read your blog on a regular basis (in theory) • Referring Sites – Who’s sending you the most traffic, to where, and why? • SERP – Where do you rank? • Search Terms – Use these to optimize your site content
  89. 89. The Best Tools for Measuring Effectiveness cloud-wars/article/336854/
  90. 90. What Drives You? * AWARENESS • Ideal for – Feeding the top of the sales and marketing funnel – Influencing the influencers of big ticket or long lead item purchases – Driving sales of impulse, small ticket or in-store retail items • Top campaign/program priorities – Exposure – Eyeballs – Quick purchases • Pair with – Strong analytics LEAD GENERATION  Ideal for  Going deeper into the sales and marketing funnel  Reaching the buyer of big ticket or long lead items directly  Online sales  Top campaign/program priorities  Actions  Wallets  Pair with  A solid email marketing program  Marketing automation * And your boss
  92. 92. What is Social Media? • Social media is a set of channels, tools and philosophies for creating content, building community, joining (and shaping) the conversation, and ultimately “converting” • Social media is not just a new way to communicate: it’s a new way to do business • Ultimately, social media, and more specifically social marketing, is about turning your customers and influencers into salespeople. 92
  93. 93. “Ultimately social media is not about the tools, technology and whiz-bang things. It’s about culture and culture change.” - @ScottMonty
  94. 94. Categorizing Social Media Tools & Platforms (c. 2009)
  95. 95. Marketing Technology Landscape: 2011 (~150)
  96. 96. Marketing Technology Landscape: 2016 (~3,800)
  97. 97. My Favorite Tech Model
  98. 98. Social Media Consultant’s Rule #1 There’s no such thing as a Twitter or a Facebook strategy!
  99. 99. Social Media Consultant’s Rule #2 There is no formula for viral marketing!*
  100. 100. Social Media Consultant’s Rule #3 Put people first, not technology! SHINY OBJECT SYNDROME
  101. 101. 1. Business Objectives 2. S.M.A.R.T.* Goals 3. Community Profiles 4. Content and Channels 5. Messaging 6. KPIs HELP FOR YOUR CLASS PROJECT TARGETING Day 2: Part 2 ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔
  102. 102. Creating a Customer Profile • Give them a name, e.g., “Sally Spender” • If necessary, include – The User – The Decision Maker – The Influencer – The Buyer • There may be more than one • Include both – Demographics – Psychographics – Socialgraphics
  103. 103. Social Media Demographics
  104. 104. Social Media Demographics
  105. 105. Social Media Demographics
  106. 106. Social Media Demographics
  108. 108. What is Content Marketing? • Content marketing was a response to the evolution of search engine technology • Since content marketing’s rapid rise to popularity, search engine technology has evolved • Content marketing techniques must evolve with it
  109. 109. Content Marketing is Hot Source: 2016 B2B Content Marketing Trends— North America: Content Marketing Institute/MarketingProfs
  110. 110. Content Marketing is Hot Source: 2016 B2B Content Marketing Trends—North America: Content Marketing Institute/MarketingProfs
  111. 111. Content Marketing is Big. BUT… If you build it…
  112. 112. Content Marketing Will they come?
  113. 113. Content Marketing = Search + Social + Media … Only If You Can Be Found It’s a search game. And a social game. And a media game. All in one.
  114. 114. Content Marketing ≠ Inbound Marketing A good content marketing program used to be able thrive on one web presence (a website or blog with dynamic content) surrounded by a good social media Program. This “inbound” model does Not work as effectively now As it used to. Why?
  115. 115. A Day in the Life of a Content Marketer • 6am: Check Twitter • 6:15am: Check Twitter again. Anything new? • 6:30am: Check Twitter. Did someone just tweet at me? • 6:45am: Check Twitter yet again. Why hasn’t anybody tweeted me? • 7:00am: Drive to work. How am I supposed to check Twitter? • 7:30am: This Twitter withdrawal is going to kill me! • 8:00am: Finally, I can check Twitter again. • … etc., ad infinitum
  116. 116. My Secret Sauce 1. I subscribe to my favorite blogs via – Feedly (for reading on my mobile phone) – Email subscriptions 2. I aggregate my favorite blog content into a single email using Yahoo! Pipes, IFTTT and Feedburner so I get one or two emails a day with headlines and links 3. If I find an article I want to curate and share, I use two browser plugins…
  117. 117. Buffer
  118. 118. Hootsuite
  119. 119. Curation, Not Just Creation • Content curation, or the reuse/repackaging of other people’s content, is becoming hugely popular • You must be able to add value to that content: commentary, insight or more news
  120. 120. What Works Best?
  121. 121. • At the peak of the era of mass communication, an elite few controlled the news and content agenda in print, radio and television – e.g., The Boston Globe’s editorial staff • As digital media evolved the capacity to support multiple channels, segmentation began – At first, left- vs right-leaning media – Then much more fragmentation • Today, with so many channels across so many media, content consumption choices are much more difficult Evolution of Content Consumption
  122. 122. Information Overload • Definition: When the volume of potentially useful and relevant information available exceeds processing capacity and becomes a hindrance rather than a help • 90% of all the data in the world has been generated over the last two years • Information consumption in the US is in the order of 3.6 zettabytes (3.6 million million gigabytes) • The average American consumes 34 gigabytes / 12 hours of information per day – outside of work • “Between the dawn of civilization through 2003 about 5 exabytes of information was created. Now, that much information created every 2 days” (Eric Schmidt – former Google CEO) • In the US, people who text send or receive an average of 35 texts per day • 28% of office workers time is spent dealing with emails • The typical Internet user is exposed to 1,707 banner ads per month • The human brain has a theoretical memory storage capacity of 2.5 petabytes • The maximum number of pieces of information a human brain can handle concurrently is 7 (Miller’s Law) • Information (over)load is linked to greater stress, and poorer health • Overuse of social media can lead to short-term memory loss
  123. 123. The Rise of Filters “It’s not information overload. It’s filter failure.” - Professor Clay Shirky
  124. 124. Breaking Through the Filters • One of your biggest challenges as a marketer is breaking through the background noise levels of online media
  125. 125. Breaking Through the Filters
  126. 126. The Risk of EdgeRank Social media practitioners fall victim to three key ailments. This is the third of them… • If you or your company put news gathering completely in the hands of your social graph and algorithms, you’re likely suffering from… FISHBOWL SYNDROME
  127. 127. The Risk of EdgeRank Fishbowl Syndrome is dangerous for individuals and companies! • Eli Pariser describes the risks perfectly in his TED talk, website and book on “The Filter Bubble.” • Jonathan Stray found five ways to break out of your filter bubbles.
  128. 128. 1. Business Objectives 2. S.M.A.R.T.* Goals 3. Community Profiles 4. Content and Channels 5. Messaging 6. KPIs HELP FOR YOUR CLASS PROJECT HONING YOUR MESSAGE Day 2: Part 2 ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔
  129. 129. Social Media Consultant’s Rule #4 Every channel is different – pick the right message for the right channel
  130. 130. Social Media Consultant’s Rule #5 Influence the Influencers
  131. 131. Find Your Voice First • Opinions are more interesting, and more valuable in a Twitter world, than facts • Becoming a trusted source is a very valuable position • Remember that PR is storytelling, and… • Social media is the ultimate cocktail party, and… • The hit of the party is often the best storyteller, and… • Stories require characters, but… • Characters have flaws, so… • Don’t be afraid to show your own, and others’, flaws – chances are they’re going to be found anyway
  132. 132. Then Find Your Influencers • The Cocktail Party Model (D.M. Scott) • Don’t pitch them right away • Paul Gillin’s Advice: Court Them – Make initial contact meaningful – Ask for advice – Take conversation offline – Treat bloggers like media • “Listeners make the best conversationalists” - Solis
  133. 133. • Reach (how many people does this particular influencer influence compared to other influencers) • Relevance (how closely aligned are the topics that this influencer writes/talks about compared to your organization’s topics) • Reputation (what is the common opinion that people have about a particular influencer compared to other influencers) • Receptivity (how approachable is this particular influencer, and how likely are they to be influenced by you – shoot too high and they may not be receptive. Too low and they won't have enough followers to make it worth the effort) 133 Rank Them R
  134. 134. The Influence Formula Calculate an influence score between 0 and 1000 for each by assigning a numeric value to each R in the following way, and multiplying these values together: • Reach: 0-10, with 10 representing a wide reach and 0 a very narrow reach • Relevance: 0-10, with 10 representing a very close fit and 0 a stretch • Reputation: 0-10, w/ 10 being a household name and 0 a relative unknown • Receptivity: A percentage likelihood of action, represented decimally, from .0 (0%) to 1 (100%) I = r1 x r2 x r3 x r4
  135. 135. Aristotle’s 3 Modes of Persuasion 1. Ethos – Appeal to ethic or moral standards 2. Pathos – Appeal to emotions 3. Logos – Appeal to logic
  136. 136. Appeals to Ethics/Morals I am… • Trustworthy • Knowledgeable • Authoritative • Overwhelming Must be established first, before the other modes can be effective
  137. 137. Appeals to Emotion • The Higher Emotions – Altruism – Love – Etc. • The Base Emotions – Greed – Lust – Etc.
  138. 138. Appeals to Logic • Facts • Case studies • Statistics • Experiments • Logical reasoning • Analogies • Anecdotes
  139. 139. A Test
  140. 140. What It Tells Us 1. The human brain is lazy. 2. Thinking logically takes a lot of energy. 3. Therefore we take shortcuts. 4. These shortcuts leave gaps – sometimes BIG ones. 5. Good editors remember to check the gaps. 6. Good PR professional pitchers understand that we use our gut first, then our brain.
  141. 141. Emotion First
  142. 142. Influence Tactics 1. Rational Persuasion (Appeal to Thoughts) l 2. Inspirational Appeal (Appeal to Feelings) p 3. Personal Appeal (Appeal to Relationships) e 4. Consultation (Question) 5. Ingratiation 6. Coalitions 7. Relentless Pressure 8. Reciprocity & Exchange The Influencing Formula by Elizabeth Larson & Richard Larson
  143. 143. The Six Forms of Power 1. Coercive – The “Stick” l 2. Referent – The “Name Drop” e 3. Reward – The “Carrot” l 4. Authority – The “Title” e 5. Expertise – The “Smarts” e 6. Leadership – Inner Power + Charisma + Interpersonal Skills lep The Influencing Formula by Elizabeth Larson & Richard Larson
  144. 144. The Art of the Pitch • “The biggest problem in PR is that people don’t read enough.” – Former Journalist Ed Zitron 1. Has the reporter/outlet already written about topic? 2. Will it be interesting to their readers? How? 3. What do they love writing about? What interests them as a human being and a reporter/blogger/editor?
  145. 145. Top Pitch Mistakes • Wrong person/beat/name/outlet (read before you pitch) • Buried lead (start with the ask/news, then back it up) • Sounds like a marketing script (write like you speak) • No links or contact info (make it easy for them to get more info)
  146. 146. Social Media’s Impact on Pitching 1. Makes it easier to reach some folks, but… 2. It’s created a lot more noise! 3. It’s made everything public 4. It’s shortened our attention span
  148. 148. “What’s in YOUR Email Database?” • Name (first and last – use separate fields) • Email (says a lot about the contact) – Location (based on email domain) – Company affiliation (if work address) – Social network affiliation (via, e.g., MailChimp SocialPro) • Company Name • Title
  149. 149. Opt-In vs. Opt-Out • Opt-In = “Permission Marketing” • Opt-Out = Minimum Requirement of CAN-SPAM – Other Rules 1. Don’t use false or misleading header information. 2. Don’t use deceptive subject lines. 3. Identify the message as an ad. 4. Tell recipients where you’re located. 5. Tell recipients how to opt out of receiving future email from you. 6. Honor opt-out requests promptly. 7. Monitor what others are doing on your behalf.
  150. 150. Opt-In vs. Opt-Out
  151. 151. Opt-In vs. Opt-Out • People who have actively opted in to receive email open and click-through at much higher rates than people that have been added to a list without their knowledge • Lately, opt-in is getting more people to open the email, but it's not getting a significantly higher percentage of that group to then click on it
  152. 152. A/B Testing Basics
  153. 153. What Can You Test?
  155. 155. What is SEO? The Goal of SEO is to push your content to the top of Search Engine Results Pages
  156. 156. “Above the Fold” in the Old Days
  157. 157. “Above the Fold” Today Paid Placement Unpaid (Organic) Placement
  158. 158. SEM vs PPC vs SEO • Search engine marketing (SEM) is a combination of paid search programs and “organic” search optimization • Paid search includes: 1. Pay-per-click (PPC) 2. Cost-per-impression (CPI or CPM) (M=1,000) • Organic search (i.e., SEO) focuses on “unpaid” ways to improve search engine results page (SERP) placement
  159. 159. 9 Steps to SEO Success 1. Market research 2. Keyword research 3. On-page optimization 4. Site structure 5. Link building 6. Brand building 7. Viral marketing 8. Adjusting 9. Staying up-to-date
  160. 160. On-Page vs. Off-Page • On-Page SEO focuses on how you can improve the content, structure and navigability of your own site • Off-Page SEO focuses on, well, pretty much everything else, including – DNS (Domain name services) – Social media – Inbound links – Press releases – PPC
  161. 161. Search
  162. 162. Search
  163. 163. Search
  164. 164. ASPECTS OF DIGITAL MARKETING PAID SEARCH Day 2: Part 6 ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔ ✔
  165. 165. PPC, PPM, CPL, HUH? • PPC = Pay-Per-Click – Only pay for clicks – CPC = Cost-Per-Click – PPA = Pay-Per-Action (e.g., when item is sold) – CPA = Cost-Per-Action – CPL = Cost-Per-Lead • PPM = Pay-Per-Mille (1,000 impressions) – Avoids click fraud – CPM = Cost-Per-Mille
  166. 166. PPC 101 • PPC is not just about Google AdWords – Bing (Microsoft) Ads – Facebook PPC – Yahoo! Network – Chitika • Not just text ads in SERPs – YouTube – Blogger – Google Maps – Google News – Google Managed Placements (Ad Network)
  167. 167. How to Get Started in PPC 1. Create an AdWords account 2. Pick your audience 3. Choose your keywords that trigger the ad 4. Identify your call to action 5. Build your landing page 6. Build your ad 7. Test your ad 8. Deploy your ad 9. Measure your success
  168. 168. Ad Rank: Who’s #1 • Some factors influencing Quality Score are: – The relevance of your landing page to the keyword – The relevance of your ad to the keyword – The performance of your landing page – a slow-loading website will get a lower QS – Your Click-Through-Rate (CTR) – Historical performance of your campaigns
  169. 169. Google AdWords Accounts • Keywords are bound to a group of ads • This group of ads is part of a campaign • The campaign will be part of your account
  171. 171. PESO • PAID = Money exchanged for space in magazine, newspaper or online site; for time on radio, TV and sometimes online channels • EARNED = Coined by public relations professionals to differentiate from paid media • SHARED = Content shared on, and communities built on, third-party social networks (e.g., Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, Pinterest, etc.) • OWNED = Print collateral, websites, blogs, video, podcasts, ebooks, etc.
  172. 172. Paid vs. Earned vs. Owned • Advertising was traditionally the realm of paid media • Public relations was traditionally the realm of earned media • Advertising claimed an early lead in “interactive” media • PR claimed an early lead in “social” media • Both PR and advertising are now competing for control of owned media channels
  173. 173. POE vs PESO • Which makes more sense?
  174. 174. Felix Salmon on The Native Matrix
  175. 175. There is a Convergence Happening in Marketing Image courtesy IDG
  176. 176. Defining Convergence • The slow but steady integration of media channels, tools, strategies, techniques and platforms • Cannot exist without 1. A segmentation phase that will ultimately necessitate convergence 2. A significant need to unify technology, processes or measurement 3. A technological innovation that will enable the integration
  177. 177. The Segmentation Phase As new technologies emerge and evolve, channel segmentation is inevitable – As printing became cheaper and easier, multiple newspapers emerge in each market – As cable improves TV signal transmission, and as digital cable allows for more channels, new TV networks emerge – As cell phone processing and display technology improves, new mobile apps emerge
  178. 178. The Unification Drivers The proliferation of channels and the emergence of new technology can create potential disruptions that necessitate convergence – The emergence of Craigslist caused a precipitous drop in classified ad revenue at newspapers, necessitating the deterioration of the wall between paid and earned media – The emergence of multiple social media platforms caused marketing FOMA, concern about prioritization and optimization, budgeting, etc. – The emergence of new marketing technologies allowed marketers to begin to build a common profile of customers regardless of their current or preferred interaction channel
  179. 179. The Integration Phase • In order to realize convergence, users of a technology, tool or strategy need to settle on one or a small few enabling integration technologies that provide the backbone for integration – The concept of an electric circuit allowed us to build a phone network as well as the precursors to today’s computers and mobile phones – The LAMP model (Linux Operating System + Apache Web Server + MySQL Database + PHP Programming Language) brings all of these technologies together to create much of today’s Web experience – The API (Application Programming Interface) allows different desktop, web and mobile apps to talk to one another – including all of our social media platforms and tools – XML (Extensible Markup Language) provides the basis for HTML (used to display web pages), RSS (Really Simple Syndication, used to distribute content across multiple platforms) – TCP/IP powers the backbone of the Internet
  180. 180. What is Converging? • The marketing technologies that companies use • The marketing strategies that companies engage in • The media categories that individuals and brands use to interact with content and each other • The specific channels where this interaction takes place • The customer and brand experiences • The specific social media platforms and the applications used by brands and individuals
  181. 181. Summary of Trends The Big Convergence The Trend Manifestations Technologies Telesales ‣ Contact Management Software ‣ SFA ‣ CRM ‣ Marketing Automation ‣ Digital Marketing Hub Strategies The Four Cs: Content + Community + Conversation + Conversion Media PESO vs POE: Paid + Earned + Shared + Owned Experience The Brand: Unified View of the Customer The Consumer: Unified Brand Experience Channels Single Channel ‣ Multi-Channel ‣ Omnichannel Web + Print + Out-Of-Home + Email + Phone + Brick & Mortar Platforms / Apps Twitter + Facebook + LinkedIn + Instagram + SnapChat + YouTube + Pinterest + Flickr + Vine + Foursquare + Meerkat + Periscope + etc.
  182. 182. The Evolution of Marketing Technology: 1970-Tomorrow • Take your customer database and digitize it: telesales • Then port it to the personal computer: contact management software • Then add collaboration, lead scoring and reporting: sales force automation • Then port it to the web and add lifecycle management: customer relationship management • Then add SEO and some automation scripts: marketing automation • Then add omnichannel support and mix in some consumer empowerment: digital marketing hub industry-history/
  183. 183. "The Hub of the Universe” "[The] Boston State- House is the hub of the solar system. You couldn't pry that out of a Boston man, if you had the tire of all creation straightened out for a crowbar.”Oliver Wendell Holmes The Autocrat of the Breakfast Table, vol. 1, no. 6 1858
  184. 184. “The Hub of the Universe”
  185. 185. What is a Marketing Hub? “A digital marketing hub provides marketers and applications with standardized access to audience profile data, content, workflow elements, messaging and common analytic functions for orchestrating and optimizing multichannel campaigns, conversations, experiences, and data collection across online and offline channels, both manually and programmatically. “It typically includes a bundle of native marketing applications and capabilities, but it is extensible through published services with which certified partners can integrate.
  186. 186. The Gartner Marketing Hub Magic Quadrant (December 2014)
  187. 187. Gartner’s Four Crucial Aspects of Digital Marketing: The Four Es 1. Have a single view of the customer — Know who you’re interacting with, no matter which channel or identity they’re using. 2. Use the same content engine — Get everyone involved – from content ideation, through to creation, curation and engagement – using the same platform. 3. Address all channels — Most of your customers are using multiple channels to interact with you. Have a plan for each, even if you’re focusing on just a few. 4. Don’t stovepipe your measurement — Have a consistent, overarching set of program objectives that transcend the platform. Don’t get trapped into platform-specific measurement. Gartner, December, 2014 Engagement Execution Extensibility Evaluation
  188. 188. Visualizing the Digital Marketing Hub CMS Email Marketing System Facebook Twitter Other Social Channels Web / Mobile / Tablet F2F Hootsuite Tweetdeck Google Analytics Link Shorteners
  189. 189. Visualizing the Digital Marketing Hub Knowledge Interest Intent Action Awareness Your Marketin g Hub Your Sales & Marketing Process Your Channels
  190. 190. Transitioning to a Digital Marketing Hub, or, Don’t Panic!
  191. 191. The 8 Keys to Digital Marketing Success 1. Content Creation, Curation & Management 2. Social Media Monitoring & Engagement 3. Advertising 4. Search Marketing 5. Lead Generation Mentality 6. Reporting, Analytics & Measurement 7. Automation Technology 8. Targeting & Testing