SEPARATION OFCHURCH AND STATEFilipino political philosopher, ApolinarioMabini
Towards the EndTowards the end ofrevolution, Mabini andDon Emilio Aguinaldoworked on theinstitutionalization of theFirst Republic andgovernment transition.Mabini , and otherrevolutionaries workingfor the revolutionary
Art. 12 of Mabini’s Programa Constitucional states:“ The Republic as a collective entity does not profess any specific religion, leaving to the consciences of individuals the full liberty of choosing that one which appears to them the most worthy and reasonable. No one will be molested within Philippine territory for his religious opinions or the exercise of his respective worship, except when it violates universal morality. Nevertheless, public manifestations regarding religion cannot be
Comparison between SpanishConstitution and Mabini‟sConstitutional Program Mabini’s Programa Spanish Constitution of Constitucional 1876 (as found in Art. 11) Universal morality Christian morality The Republic does not The Catholic Apostolic profess any specific Roman religion is that of religion the State Public manifestations No other publicregarding religion cannot manifestations will be be held without permitted except those of permission of local the religion of the State
CHURCH:FRIARS The Church in the Philippines was a Spanish Church and it was united with the State. Political, socio and civil activities of the time were deliberately controlled by the friars. People tend to identify the friars or priestly class with the Church. (e.g. Augustinian, Recolletos, Dominican)
Church FRIARS* State Friar scheme: a representationFriars controlled the Church. Church is in unity of and influential to the State. Having the position of privilege, the friars were able to manipulate the State and control its affairs.
Why is the Church powerful andinfluential? The Church was powerful and influential to the state because:1. religious motive was primary in the colonization of the Philippines; and2. claim that the friars are the best people to uphold Spanish integrity in the country
Revolution: an action against the friars The Spanish Church (friars) took a position hostile to the revolution. The friars were political and intellectual enemies of the state. The desire for freedom of the press, speech, association and religion was simply incompatible with the indefinite stay of the friars in the country. The friars were consistent in their opposition to the institution of above
The friars perceived that reforms could lessen the control of the system of the country and also weaken their political power. The Church could no longer satisfy newly arisen social needs. If these needs were to be satisfied, radical attitude towards the Church had to be first developed. It is thus patent that there was no middle ground between the friars and revolutionists.
Separation of Church and State Physical separation (e.g. control of education; no state money would be used for the support of the Church) Restriction formula (through promulgating laws to restrict activities of the Church and take back affairs which were originally
It is not about.. Separation of Church and State did not advocate for anti-religion attitudes. Mabini‟s anti-clericalism never fought religion as such and never meant to take away religion to the people
Justification of the reasonability of theSeparation of Church an State1. Principle of religious toleration “What the people desire is that the State as a moral entity… should not profess any specific religion and should allow the individuals full liberty to choose the religion that pleases them most; that it should not oblige any inhabitant under physical coercion to profess and support a religion which he find repugnant to his conscience; that it allow the
2. Friars as enemies of intellectual freedom Spanish government in connivance with the friars were responsible for the „intellectual and physical isolation of the Filipinos from the outside world. For this, Mabini considered the Friars as political and educational enemies of the Filipinos. They taught fanaticism, not relevant and inquisitive
State power was to be separate from the Church power for Mabini feared that an increase in the second might be accomplished at the expense of the first
Mabini‟s opposition to the provision of the separation of church and stateMabini‟s idea of a secular state iswell established in his writing andconstitutional draft. But his action during the promulgation of the Malolos Constitution is far inconsistent.
Opposing camps Separation of the Church and Unity of the Church and State State“Art. 5. The nation shall protect Sec. III. The Statethe cult and the ministers of the recognizes the equality of Roman Catholic Apostolic all religious worship andReligion, which is the religion of the separation of the the State…” Church and State. Art. 6 Any other cult may be
Unity of the Church Separation of the and State Church and State Felipe Calderon & Tomas del Rosario & Manuel Gomez Arcadio del Rosario The Catholic Church Roman Catholic is the cohesive force Apostolic religion that bind all “become altered by Filipinos, despite the passions of men, linguistic and regional to the extent that it groupings had bred intolerance and religious wars…”
Mabini’s rationalization “it is not convenient to establish openly the separation of Church and State during these difficult times giving cause for the withdrawal of the supporters of religion.” (La Revolucion Filipina, p.231) Mabini considered the Filipino clergy and its parishioners as members within the revolutionary territory.
“There is going now in Congress a heated discussion on the religious question. If you favor one group, the other will withdraw its support of the government. It is necessary that you commission a Secretary to inform Congress that as long as the situation is not normalized they should notdiscuss such problems. …If you accept the unity of Church and State, those men from whom you can expect more
Annexes: Church’s stand on the issue1. Memorial del P. Garces by Mariano Garces the doctrine of separation of Church and State was “one of the errors of liberalism” and so, society should have a religion2. Memorial del P. Mariano Sevilla It maintained that it is not rational to oppress the Catholics in the country in the name of religious liberty.
Result of Mabini‟s opposition Malolos Constitution provided a “Temporary Article” for the implementation of Title 3. “Temporary Art. 100: The execution of Article 5, Title 3 is hereby suspended until the meeting of the constituent assembly. In the meantime, the municipalities which require the spiritual services of any Filipino priest, shall provide for his necessary support.”
Establishment of a National ChurchAt any rate, the religious spirit could notprevent the aspiration for a secular state. Yetthe religious spirit had to be satisfied. But ithad to be satisfied in a manner that neitherSpaniards nor friars would profit or takeadvantage of it. This is the clue for theunderstanding of the formation of theNational Church- a church that wasintended to be Catholic and keep thereligious faith of Filipinos bur which wasto have nothing to do with Spain or theSpanish friars.
National Church envisioned that all the ecclesiastical offices of the Roman Catholic Church in the Philippines were to be occupied by Filipino priests. All bishops and acolytes were to be Filipinos and no Spanish priest or foreign priest was to be tolerated in any of the parishes in the Philippines;
Why establish a NationalChurch?Mabini‟s arguments:1. “…an independent nation has the right that one of its sons should be the chief ecclesiastical superior within its own territory.” (La Revolucion Filipina)2. It was time for the Filipino priests to manage their own affairs and to organize themselves, especially sine the Archbishop of Manila, being in territory held by Americans, could not validly exercise his jursidiction on revolutionary territory (Organizacion del Cero Filipino)
Ends of adapting a NationalChurch Recognition of the significant role of the Filipino clergy in both the reform revolution Recognition of religious sensibilities of the majority of Filipinos protection of the gains of the Revolution and the fear of reverting to certain institutional patterns of the old regime
Who is Greorio Aglipay?Appointed vicario generalcastrence by Aguinaldo, a chiefchaplain of the Filipino armedforces on Oct. 20, 1898;Excommunicated member of theChurch;Firm ally of the RevolutionaryGovernment; andLeader of the Filipino priests
How was the formation initiated?Aglipay‟s excommunication took up the cause of Mabini to further alleniate the Filipino priests from Spanish ecclesiastical authorities. Mabini instructed Filipino representatives abroad to induce the Pope to name a Filipino bishop , and warned the Pope that there was a danger of schism in the Philippines
The press was utilized to disseminate the manifesto of Aglipay entitled, “Al Pueblo y Clero Filipinos” “The manifesto claimed that the Spanish prelates made themselves enemies of the people and even of the church by aligning themselves with the friars- the enemies of the Filipino priests and the people.”
Within the manifesto “Friar Bernardino Nozaleda knows too well that when the Revolution triumphs and the Philippine independence is recognized, it would be impossible for him to keep his former authority because an independent nation has the right to have one of its sons become the supreme ecclesiastical superior within its own territory”
Implication of the statements The secularization movement acquired a nationalistic color the moment revolutionary,, like Mabini took sides with the Filipino clergy. The proponents of nationalism would have wanted to nationalistic spirit to permeate the spiritual sphere.
Mabini’s rationalization to disobey Nozaleda1. Nozaleda was incompetent to exercise jurisdiction in the revolutionary territories;2. He was an enemy of the revolution “ The Filipino clergy cannot recognize as its chief the bloody enemy of the Filipino people without antagonizing them.” (La Revolucion Filipina, p.40)3. The claim that Vatican would approve all those actuations of the Filipino
In conclusion, the Manifesto exhorted the Filipino clergy to support the Holy War of Independence, to inculcate the respect for individul rights and the laws, to foster the love of country and virtue, and to practice justice and charity.
How was the formation to be created? Mabini prepared the document to be signed by Filipino priest to elect a council to govern them He rationalized this step using 3 principles:1. the Philippine Church, following the annihilation of Spanish sovereignty in the Philippines, needed bishops to govern it in the name of the Pope;
2. the preservation of the Filipino church required that Filipino priests take care of the spiritual well-being of the Filipinos; and3. the Philippine clergy had the right to assemble at the earliest possible date to elect an ecclesiastical chapter to govern it and represent it in harmony with the phil. Government
The Aftermath: success or failure? On October 23, 1899, the National Church was established. When the Philippine republic was destroyed, the National Church died.
If the National Church wassuccessful.. Solved the struggle-of-power between the friars and the Filipino priest through Filipinization of the parishes and expulsion of the friars. Attained the goal of the revolution to do away with the Spanish Church and its traditional prerogatives Thus, the secularization movement became a success
(Negative) Political implication Mabini pointed out, the moment the Philippine government treated the parishes in the same manner as the Spanish government considered them, the abuses done by the friars would likewise be perpetuated by the Filipino priests themselves.
(Positive) Political Implication The establishment of the Church was supported by government for purposes of the revolution. As the Church ensemble back its control on its affairs and resources, it incurred debt to the government and would need to pay for secular support. In turn, the state would exercise some form of police control over it. The state could have the chance to manage and restrict its prerogatives and prevent having the same old church regime.
Actual Relations of the Filipinoclergy and GovernmentIn some cases, actual interference with theaffairs of the clergy was necessary, to theextent of legislating for the disposal ofparish funds.
Laws July 26, 1898 by October 17, 1899 by Aguinaldo- The Aguinaldo- The heads of provinces clergy should not are to call upon the meddle in civil or patriotism of all military matters Filipino clergy and Jan. 1, 1899 by their parishioners Aguinaldo- Any that it is necessary religious association to give absolute is… prohibited from adhesion to the possessing real revolutionary property exceeding government 50,000 pesos in value
Oct. 20, 1898 by June 24, 1899- Aguinaldo- Priests Father Gregorio nominated by the Aglipay is appointed Archbishop of a commissioner of Manila will not be the government to recognized unless make careful approved by this inspection of the government. parish funds of every town in Luzon.
Aug. 10, 1899- Parish funds and cash belonging to churches will be invested in the national loan.
The relations between the Filipino clergy and the government of the revolution was perceived in a realist perspective. Through legislation of laws that the Filipino clergy had some of its functions and prerogatives restricted, and divested to civil authorities.
Secular Values must bedevelopedTrue Decaloguecivic religionSecular nationalismNational communityFreedom of religionLiberalism and democracy