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Volcanoes Grade 9

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Volcanoes Grade 9

  1. 1. A. Choose the letter of the best answer. Pre-Assessment
  2. 2. 1. Which characteristic of magma mainly determines its explosiveness? a. color b. amount c. temperature d. silica content
  3. 3. 2. Which of the following characteristics of a volcano depends on its magma emission? a. age b. size c. shape d. location
  4. 4. 3. Which of the following factors associated with huge volcanic eruptions may cause the decrease in the Earth’s average temperature for a few years? a. heat b. light c. acid rain d. volcanic ash
  5. 5. 4. A thick layer of volcanic ash can be heavy enough to collapse the roofs of buildings because ash ________. a. is solid. b. cannot be blown by winds. c. becomes heavier as it cools. d. consists of tiny fragments of rocks that becomes heavy as they file up.
  6. 6. 5. Which of the following is an active volcano in the Philippines? a. Apo in Davao b.Bud Datu in Sulu c.Isarog in Camarines Sur d.Kanlaon in Negros Oriental
  7. 7. B. Answer the following questions briefly. 6. Aside from Mayon Volcano, name another Philippine volcano that has erupted recently. 7. What causes a shield volcano to be shaped like a broad dome? 8. By what process can a volcanic eruption affect temperatures around the world?
  8. 8. 9. Give one positive effect and one negative effect of volcanic eruptions. 10. How is energy from volcanoes tapped as source of electricity?
  9. 9. VOLCANOES
  10. 10. Classification of volcanoes • Active volcanoes are those that have a record of eruption within the last 600 years or those that erupted 10, 000 years ago based on analyses of their materials. • Inactive volcanoes, on the other hand, are those that have not erupted for the last 10, 000 years and their physical form is being changed by agents of weathering and erosion through formation of deep and long gullies.
  11. 11. • According to PHIVOLCS, our country has more than a hundred volcanoes as of 2013. Twenty-three are active while the rest are inactive.
  12. 12. List of Some Volcanoes in the Philippines Volcano Latitude Longitude No. of historical eruptions Latest eruption or activity Cabaluyan 15⁰ 42’ 120⁰ 19’ 0 - Cocoro 10⁰ 53’ 121⁰ 12’ 0 - Iraya 20⁰ 29’ 124⁰ 01’ 1 1454 Kanlaon 10⁰ 24’ 123⁰ 7’ 26 June 2006 Mayon 13⁰ 15’ 123⁰ 41’ 49 May 2013 Pulung 7⁰ 55’ 124⁰ 38’ 0 - Smith 19⁰ 32’ 121⁰ 55’ 6 1924 Taal 14⁰ 120⁰ 59’ 33 1977 Tamburok 11⁰ 33’ 124⁰ 26’ 0 - Urot 5⁰ 59’ 121⁰ 15’ 0 -
  13. 13. Summit Slope Base
  14. 14. • Summit is an opening which may either be a crater or caldera. Crater is a funnel-shaped opening at the top of a volcano while caldera is formed when a part of the wall collapses following an explosive eruption.
  15. 15. Crater Caldera
  16. 16. Primary factors affecting the volcanoes’ eruptive style: • Magma’s temperature The higher the temperature of magma is, the lower is its viscosity. • Chemical composition Magmas with high silica content are more viscous than those with low silica content. • Amount of dissolved gases it contains Gas dissolved in magma tends to increase its stability to flow.
  17. 17. Types of Volcanic Eruptions a. Phreatic or hydrothermal – is a stream-driven eruption as the hot rocks come in contact with water. It is short lived characterized by ash columns but may be an onset of a large eruption. Taal Volcano
  18. 18. b. Phreatomagmatic – is a violent eruption due to the contact between water and magma. As a result, a large column of very fine ash and high- speed and sideway emission of pyroclastics called base surges are observed.
  19. 19. c. Strombolian – a periodic weak to violent eruption characterized by fountain lava just like the Irazu Volcano in Costa Rica.
  20. 20. d. Vulcanian – characterized by tall eruption columns that reach up to 20 km high with pyroclastic flow and ash fall tephra like that of Paricutin Volcano in Mexico.
  21. 21. e. Plinian – excessively explosive type of eruption of gas and pyroclastics just like our Pinatubo Volcano in Zambales.
  22. 22. Three Volcanic Cones 1. Shield volcanoes are formed by the accumulation of lava that oozes out from the volcano. Since non- viscous lava can flow freely, a broad, slightly domed structure that resembles a warrior’s shield is formed as shown in the figure. An example of this type is the Mauna Loa in Hawaii.
  23. 23. 2. Cinder cones are built from ejected lava fragments. They have a steep slope, wide crater and are the most abundant of the three major volcano types. One example of this type is the Paricutin in Mexico.
  24. 24. 3. Composite cones or stratovolcanoes are large, nearly perfect sloped structure formed from alternate solidification of both lava and pyroclastic deposits. One perfect example of this type of cone is ourMayon Volcano.
  25. 25. • Geothermal energy - heat from the interior of the Earth. - Geothermal power plants and geothermal heat pumps - Used to generate electricity - Places in the Philippines that uses geothermal power plants as source of electricity are Tiwi (Albay), Kidapawan (North Cotabato), Calaca (Laguna), Tongonan (Leyte), Bago City ( Negros Occ.), Valencia (Negros Or.), and Bacon (Sorsogon).
  26. 26. How do volcanic eruptions affect the society? • Negative effects - Lose of lives and properties - Decreased in the Earth’s surface temperature Can you name some?
  27. 27. Fig. Above: The Aftermath of Pinatubo Volcano Eruption (Photo credits: USGS)
  28. 28. • Positive Effects - Spectacular scenery - Production of very rich soil for farming - Making earthenware out of the ash fall
  29. 29. Signs of an impending volcanic eruption: 1. Increase in the frequency of volcanic quakes with rumbling sounds; occurrence of volcanic tremors. 2. Increased steaming activity; change in color of steam emission from white to gray due to entrained ash.
  30. 30. 3. Crater glow due to presence of magma at or near the crater. 4. Ground swells (or inflation), ground tilt and ground fissuring due to magma intrusion. 5. Localized landslides, rock falls and landslides from the summit area which may not attributable to heavy rains. 6. Noticeable increase inn the extent of drying up of vegetation around the volcano’s upper slopes.
  31. 31. 7. Increase in the temperature of hot springs, wells (e.g., Bulusan and Canlaon) and crater lake (e.g., Taal) near the volcano; 8. Noticeable variation in the chemical content of springs, crater lakes within the vicinity of the volcano; 9. Drying up of springs/wells around the volcano; and, 10. Development of new thermal areas and/or reactivation of old ones; appearance of solfataras.
  32. 32. QUIZ…
  33. 33. 1. Which among the following volcanoes is formed from: a. cinders and ash? b. mostly lava? c. alternate solidification of lava and cinders? 1 2 3
  34. 34. 2. Which of the following are active volcanoes? I. Mayon in Albay II. Taal in Batangas III. Vulcan in Camiguin IV. Kanlaon in Negros Or. a. I and II only b. II and III only c. I, II and III only d. I, II and IV only
  35. 35. 3. Which of the following characteristics of magma mainly affect the explosiveness of a volcanic eruption? a. color b. amount c. temperature d. silica content
  36. 36. 4. How does the eruption of a volcano lower the atmospheric temperature? 5. Give one positive effect and one negative effect of volcanic eruption.
  37. 37. 6. Describe the shape of the volcanic cone formed from the following types of volcanic emission: a. high temperature magma b. low amount of gas magma c. high silica content magma
  38. 38. The End…

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