Turok Amman Datepalm Jan 2010


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  • The study demonstrates that cryopreservation costs less (in perpetuity per accession) than conservation in field genebanks at different discount rates. A comparative analysis of the costs of both methods showed that the more accessions there are in cryopreservation storage, the lower the per-accession cost.
  • Bioversity has also been organizing many training course on in vitro and cryopreservation in the past such as the in vitro course training course in Ghana. Bioversity also organised atwo major European training course under the EU funded project CRYMCEPT in 2005 here in IRD Montpellier and at KUL in Leuven. Currently Bioversity is has established two centre of excellence in ASIA , one in New Delhi at NBPGR and been now unning for 2 year a course on in vitro and cryopreservation techniques for conservation of PGR. This course is actually starting this week in Delhi. Another centre of excellence we have established at the Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China is postdoctoral Programme on molecular characterization, where we are offering 2 fellowship for 18-24months period.
  • Bioversity has also been very much engaged in the production of many scientific and technical publications on in vitro conservation and cryopreservation.
  • The CGIAR system plays an important role as custodians of PGR collections for the major crops of the world and plays a significant role in creating a global system for the conservation and use of PGR. It is expected that these genebanks are operating at acceptable international standards. To ensure this, the CGIAR is currently implementing project funded by World bank on Collective actions for the rehabilitation of the Global Public goods in the CGIAR Genetic resources System where there are 21 different activities. One of these activities involves the refinement and standardization of storage procedures for clonal crops. The general objective of this activity is to use the knowledge and information gained with Musa , Potato and Cassava for improving the medium and long term storage procedures (e.g. reliability, cost efficiency, safety, plant health) for sweet potato, yam, Ulluco, Oca, and other in trust clonal crops.
  • Turok Amman Datepalm Jan 2010

    1. 1. Ensuring the future of the diversity of date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera) in the face of devastation by the red palm weevil ( Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier): biotechnology can sustain future options Research idea January 2010 Jozef Turok, Bioversity International
    2. 2. Structure of presentation <ul><li>Goal, objectives, outputs, partnerships and overall approach </li></ul><ul><li>Biotechnology at the service of conservation – some experiences from Bioversity’s work on cryopreservation </li></ul><ul><li>Date Palm Project in the oases of North Africa – some experiences from the project implemented in 2001-2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Points for today’s discussion </li></ul>
    3. 3. Goal <ul><li>to secure the future of the diversity of date palm ( Phoenix dactylifera) from the imminent threat posed by the red palm weevil through the development and use of cryopreservation technology. </li></ul>
    4. 4. Purpose <ul><li>work closely with the Date Palm Global Network (DPGN) established under the umbrella of AARINENA in order to develop a global strategy for ex situ conservation of date palm germplasm, meant to strengthen existing field collections through in vitro and cryopreservation technologies. Such a strategy will also include a management plan to ensure the long term security of the date palm collections in the Region. </li></ul>
    5. 5. Specific objectives <ul><li>developing a conservation strategy to secure the existing date palm genetic diversity, including the identification of diversity hotspots, collecting and filling of gaps in collections </li></ul><ul><li>establishing clean (contamination free) and regenerable, true-to-type in vitro cultures that can be used for (i) mass multiplication of elite germplasm and (ii) cryopreservation </li></ul><ul><li>developing/refining cryopreservation protocols for date palm in vitro cultured materials and transferring the technologies to relevant partners, including international network of researchers and users of cryopreservation for date palm germplasm long-term conservation </li></ul><ul><li>establishing a monitoring system to track the spread of the red palm weevil and its impact on date palm diversity </li></ul><ul><li>establishing regional date palm cryopreserved collections with safety back up collections </li></ul>
    6. 6. Outputs <ul><li>Date palm genetic resources conservation strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Protocols for in vitro culture of date palm </li></ul><ul><li>Protocols for cryopreservation of date palm </li></ul><ul><li>Full-purpose in vitro banks/cryobanks established, with required equipment and genebank staff trained in management of in vitro or cryopreserved collections and transfer of in vitro germplasm to cryopreservation </li></ul><ul><li>Early Warning System for threats on date palms </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborative strategy for date palm cryopreservation developed with stakeholders </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness of DPGN and other key stakeholders regarding the benefits of cryopreservation </li></ul>
    7. 7. Beneficiaries <ul><li>Date palm growers across the Region, genebank staff (recipients of knowledge, capacity and training), Date Palm Global Network members – beneficiaries and partners, researchers on cryopreservation of germplasm. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Partners <ul><li>Date Palm Global Network members </li></ul><ul><li>Plant Genetic Resources Network members </li></ul><ul><li>ICARDA </li></ul><ul><li>Other partners who have expressed interest in participating include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Institut de recherche pour le développement (IRD), France </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>University of Sfax, Tunisia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Houari Boumediene University, Algeria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Biotechnology at the service of conservation <ul><li>Biotechnology provides alternatives for conserving difficult seeds </li></ul><ul><li>Tissue culture techniques – slow growth and cryopreservation </li></ul><ul><li>At Bioversity, research focused on a list of 21 priority species set up by an Advisory committee on in vitro storage </li></ul><ul><li>Research on cryopreservation initiated on 17 crops, as well as forest trees </li></ul><ul><li>More than 200 plants species – cryopreservation protocols developed </li></ul>
    10. 10. Cryo projects supported by Bioversity EU 2002-2004 6 European institutes CRYMCEPT IPGRI core 1998-99 Univ. Legon, Ghana In vitro conservation ARTs IPGRI core 1998-2002 ITC, Costa Rica In vitro conservation chayote IPGRI core 1998-2003 Univ. Natal Cryo Trichilia IPGRI core 1998-2001 Changli Institute of Pomology, China Cryo temperate fruit trees IPGRI core 1998 IRETA, Western Samoa ; SPC, Fiji Cryo taro Technova 2002-2003 SPC, Fiji Cryo sweet potato DFID 1996-2000 NBPGR, India Cryo rec./vegetatively propagated species IPGRI core 1997-1998 CNIC & ISACA, Cuba Cryo pineapple IPGRI core 2002-2003 Griffith Univ., Australia Cryo papaya IPGRI core 1998-2004 Guangzhou University, China Cryo mango IPGRI core 1999-2000 CATIE, Costa Rica IRD, France Cryo coffee IPGRI core 2001-03 UKM, Malaysia IRD, France Cryo Citrus IPGRI core 1997-1999 CNIC, Cuba IVIA, Spain Cryo Citrus IPGRI core 1997-1998 IPK, Germany RIVC, Poland Cryo Allium IPGRI core 2000-2003 Univ. Guangzhou Physio recalcitrant seeds IPGRI core 1998-2003 Univ. Natal Screening recalcitrant seeds Funding source Duration Partner(s) Title
    11. 11. A cryoprotocol for coffee <ul><li>Efforts made by IRD to investigate the LN sensitivity of coffee seeds </li></ul><ul><li>Led to successful development of cryopreservation protocol for coffee </li></ul><ul><li>With support from Bioversity, protocol was applied to a core set of CATIE coffee field collection in Costa Rica – 63 accessions were cryopreserved </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison of cost of cryopreservation with the field collection at CATIE </li></ul>
    12. 12. Cost per accessions in different size cryo-collections
    13. 13. Training courses <ul><li>In vitro techniques and cryopreservation, University of Legon, Ghana </li></ul><ul><li>CRYMCEPT cryopreservation training course, Leuven and Montpellier, 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>In Vitro and Cryopreservation Techniques for Conservation of Plant Genetic Resources – Nov. 2008, NBPGR, India – 16 participants; practical hands-on course </li></ul><ul><li>HZAU/Bioversity Post-Doctoral Programme on Molecular Characterization for Use of Genetic Resources - Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan, China; 2 scholarships (18-24 months) </li></ul>
    14. 14. Publication on in vitro and cryopreservation <ul><li>Information on in vitro conservation techniques has been widely disseminated through the production of numerous scientific and technical publications and the delivery of oral and poster presentation during scientific conferences. </li></ul>
    15. 15. CGIAR project on rehabilitation of Global public goods <ul><li>Refinement and standardization of storage procedures for clonal crops </li></ul><ul><li>Review in vitro protocols applied to clonal crops (sweet potato, yam, Ulluco, Oca, and other in-trust crops) </li></ul><ul><li>Develop and implement a programme of technology transfer and capacity building to refine and standardize in vitro conservation for clonal crops </li></ul><ul><li>Expert group – compilation and analysis of in vitro protocols in use for slow growth and long-term conservation </li></ul>
    16. 16. Date Palm Project in the oases of North Africa <ul><li>Partners: Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria </li></ul><ul><li>Objective: Mitigate genetic erosion, safeguard resource base, enhance income generation in oases </li></ul><ul><li>Challenges: </li></ul><ul><li>Replacement by few commercial varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Spreading of ‘Bayoud’ in Morocco and Algeria </li></ul><ul><li>Market forces preference of commercial varieties by Farmers to the exclusion of PGR </li></ul><ul><li>Sand dunes encroachment, e.g. ‘Fezouata Oasis in Algeria’ </li></ul><ul><li>Soil salinity due to inefficient traditional irrigation practices </li></ul>
    17. 17. Project objectives & beneficiaries <ul><li>Project title: </li></ul><ul><li>Participatory management of date palm genetic resources in Oases of the Maghreb (IPGRI/UNDP-GEF, Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia) </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives: </li></ul><ul><li>Mitigating genetic erosion arising mainly from replacement by commercial varieties e.g. ‘Deglet Nour’ and the spread of Bayoud disease in Morocco and Algeria </li></ul><ul><li>Beneficiaries : </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers are the primary stakeholders, they: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create Genetic Diversity through seed and vegetative reproduction and select primitive varieties </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use traditional knowledge and practices in the management and selection of primitive varieties </li></ul></ul>
    18. 19. Activities <ul><li>In situ prescreening to speed up the process of variety selection for multiplication </li></ul><ul><li>Adapting techniques to multiply a greater number of date palm varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Develop alternative markets for date palm products creating value for wider range of phenotypic characteristics and the incentive to grow more varieties </li></ul><ul><li>Develop national capacity to negotiate genetic property rights </li></ul><ul><li>Replicate project best practices at other sites </li></ul>
    19. 20. Achievements <ul><li>SIPALM diversity field survey methodology developed and used </li></ul><ul><li>Farmers selected 40 local varieties for multiplication and further dissemination </li></ul><ul><li>Enhanced public awareness about Date Palm GR through Radio and TV programs, News papers articles, established Website for the project, fact sheets, newsletter, posters </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptor list developed for the collection, characterization and evaluation of Date Palm </li></ul><ul><li>Policy makers in Tunisia agreed to introduce amendments to the code of subsidies to the benefit of growing local varieties of Date Palm </li></ul><ul><li>60 trainees including Framers were trained on Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) in all three countries </li></ul><ul><li>Workshops organized in all three countries on ‘ Participatory diagnosis to analyze biodiversity and plan rehabilitation by scenarios’ </li></ul>
    20. 21. Partnerships <ul><li>Some constraints identified: </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability is difficult to achieve </li></ul><ul><li>Needs greater coordination efforts </li></ul><ul><li>Untimely delivery of outputs </li></ul><ul><li>Varied level of quality of outputs </li></ul><ul><li>How are these constraints to overcome? </li></ul><ul><li>Better capacity building approach </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancing effectiveness of Public Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Improving ways and means of coordination </li></ul><ul><li>Improving accountability and commitment of partners </li></ul><ul><li>Team approach </li></ul>
    21. 22. nature reserves managed areas introduction to reserves field gene banks pollen banks DNA libraries on - farm management on - farm conservation seed gene banks in vitro gene banks Farmers’ exchange, new introductions Community gene banks Short-term/ long-term conservation Slow growth, cryopreservation Complementary Approaches Ex situ In situ
    22. 23. The Project was implemented within an agro-ecosystem concept . Date Palm is the key species of the oases agro-ecosystem providing soil stabilisation, humidity, shade and shelter from high wind, effectively contributing to the prevention of desertification within oases, and the preservation of locally adapted landraces and cultivars of major crops (wheat, barley, sorghum, millet, olive, almond, apricot, grape, alfalfa, beans) and underutilized species such as fig, pomegranate, okra, millet, henna, safflower, etc.
    23. 26. Points for discussion <ul><li>Overall approach </li></ul><ul><li>Extent and patterns of the threat </li></ul><ul><li>Status of date palm diversity, collections in the Region </li></ul><ul><li>Research and conservation capacities </li></ul><ul><li>Steps to be taken </li></ul>