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Bottom-up All The Way Down:
How Tags Help Businesses Organize
               Thomas Vander Wal
           Presented to: Enterprise 2.0
       Boston, Massachusetts :: 21 -June 2007
           InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. 2007
What Is A Tag?


 InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Tagging: Definition

    Simple data/metadata externally applied to
❖
    an object
    Used for sorting
❖

    A hook for aggregating
❖

    Provides identifier and/or description
❖

    Personal markers
❖



            InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
History of Tagging
The “F” Word


InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Folksonomy


InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Folksonomy: Definition

❖   Folksonomy is the result of personal free
    tagging of pages and objects for one's own
    retrieval

❖   The tagging is usually done in a social
    environment (shared and open to others)

❖   The act of tagging is done by the person
    consuming the information



             InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Folksonomy:Value
The value in this external tagging is derived
from people using their own vocabulary
and adding explicit meaning, which may
                    meaning
come from inferred understanding of the
information/object.

People are not so much categorizing, as
providing a means to connect items
(placing hooks) to provide their meaning in
their own understanding.


         InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
“The beauty of tagging is that it taps
into an existing cognitive process without
      adding much cognitive cost”

                        Rashmi Sinha
        http://www.rashmisinha.com/archives/05_09/tagging-cognitive.html




           InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2006
Every person is an
           expert in their own
            vocabulary (tags)


InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Every Tag is Sacred




   InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Folksonomy Triad
Object                                      Identity
                      Interest




                      Definition
                                             Vocabulary




                                            Metadata

         InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Dual Folksonomy Triad
   Object                                      Identity
                        Interest




                                                Vocabulary
Culture


                      Definition



                      Terminology
Community                                      Metadata

            InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Finding More Objects
Object 1                Identity              Object 2




                       Metadata

           InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Folksonomy
     vs.
 Taxonomy
InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Taxonomy vs. Folksonomy
  Business                                  Customer




 Taxonomy                                 Folksonomy
                        Product


             InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Taxonomy & Folksonomy




    Taxonomy            Folksonomy
     InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
70% of Folksonomy tag
terms not in Taxonomy
         J. Trant regarding Steve.museum




     InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
The Value of Tagging
   for Business

   InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Business Tensions
Naming control                           People’s vocabulary

Sample groups                            Every perspective

      In-house                           Outside service

 $$$ w/ value                            $ w/ unknown value

   Consistent                            Emergent

                 InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Inside, Outside, Through


     InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Organizations & Tagging

    Intranet
❖


    B2B
❖


    Customers (organization hosted tool)
❖


    External Services
❖



               InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Business Gains: Internet
    Improved understanding of customers
❖

    Current terminology (all of it)
❖

    Market segmentations
❖

    Target message to language, need & taste
❖

    Ability to easily follow the customer
❖

    Monitor and analyze existing services
❖

            InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Business Gains: Intranet
    Improve refindability
❖

    Understand context
❖

    Ease sharing of resources by perspective
❖

    Cost effective means of building taxonomy
❖

    Allow term use in and across silos
❖

    Eases networking
❖

            InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Efficiency
InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Analysis &
Monitoring Tools

  InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Tools Needed
  Monitoring
❖
  ❖ Use
  ❖ Inbound & Outbound
  ❖ Spam
  ❖ External tagging systems
❖ Analysis
  ❖ System usage patterns
  ❖ Term use
    ❖ Synonyms
    ❖ Identify people “near in thought”
    ❖ Order & structure

           InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Understanding Scaling


    InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Cold-Start Problem
    & Beyond

   InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Scaling and Functionality
                                                        A - Personal Use
                                    D
                                                        B - Serendipity
                            C                           C - Social Tagging
                                                            Mature
People Tagging




                      B                                 D - Complex Social
                                                            System
                 A


                 Times Object is Tagged
                            InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Phases of Interaction
  Saving and tagging
❖
❖ Refinding
❖ Clicking, pivoting, exploring
❖ Searching
 ❖ One’s own tags
 ❖ Other’s tags
   ❖ Group
   ❖ Everybody
❖ Group Social Interaction

           InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Personal to Social
                                            Social
                    Personal Serendipity              Mature
                                           Powerful
                      X          X              X      X
       Save & Tag

                      X          X              X      X
           Refind

                                 X              X      X
  Pivot & Explore

                                                X      X
          Search

                                                -      X
Group Interaction



             InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
So, Who Tags?


InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
As much as 28% of
Americans have tagged
            Pew Internet Life Project: Report on Tagging
     http://www.pewinternet.org/PPF/r/201/report_display.asp




    InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Daily 7% of people on
the Web in the U.S. tag
            Pew Internet Life Project: Report on Tagging
     http://www.pewinternet.org/PPF/r/201/report_display.asp




     InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Why do People Tag?


   InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Reasons People Tag
  Their OWN use/value first
❖
❖ Add Perspective/Context
 ❖ Missing metadata
 ❖ Emergent Vocabulary
 ❖ Personal descriptors
❖ Refindability
 ❖ Aggregation of information
 ❖ Task-based aggregation
❖ State Interest
❖ Sociality
          InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Spheres of Sociality
                                      Mob
                                      Collective
                                      Selective
                                      Personal




   InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Social Context

Personal -                    Social -
     Capture                        Share
 ❖                              ❖

     Hook/Copy                      Point
 ❖                              ❖

     Annotate                       Collaborate
 ❖                              ❖

     Refind                          Filter
 ❖                              ❖

     Privacy                        Trusted Groups
 ❖                              ❖



                InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Interaction
    Privacy
❖

        Open to all
    ❖

        Open to community
    ❖

        Personal only
    ❖

        Selective sharing
    ❖

            By object tagged
        ❖

            All posts to a Group
        ❖

            Community tags
        ❖

            Send to
        ❖


                InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Tools for People Tagging
    Retrieval
❖

    Search
❖

    Identify, Build, & use a network of similar
❖
    taggers
        Filter
    ❖

        Follow
    ❖

    Disambiguation
❖

    Networking
❖

                 InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Where Do People Tag?




    InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Tag Venues
    Social Bookmarking del.icio.us, clipmarks, Ma.gnolia
❖

                           Flickr, Dabble, LastFM,Viddler
    Media
❖

                           Amazon
    Shopping
❖

                           Platial, Socialite
    Geo-Location
❖

                           Steve.museum, Powerhouse
    Museums
❖

                           ConnectBeam, IBM Dogear, Scuttle
    Intranet
❖

                           Consumating
    Dating
❖

                           Mac OSX Tiger & Microsoft Vista
    OS (files)
❖

                   InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Tag Venues


  Wherever there is a
digital object or marker

      InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
People Using
Tag Services

InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Scanning


InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Sociality


InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Collective


InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Selective


InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Personal


InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Filtering


InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Clustering


InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Tag Combinations


  InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Algorithms


InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
TagCloud


InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
TagClouds Best on
  Granular Items

   InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Easy Tagging


InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Tag Yes/No




InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
What Is Going On?


   InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Improvements


InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Value of Tagging
for Non-taggers

 InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Volatility of
Tagged Object

 InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Tethering Needed

    When object is updated
❖

        Corrected/Edited
    ❖

        New Content
    ❖

    Removed
❖

        Similar items
    ❖

        Archive access
    ❖



              InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Granular Social
  Network

 InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
Interoperability


 InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007
URL: http://infocloudsolutions.com
E-mail: thomas@infocloudsolutions.com
E-mail: thomas@vanderwal.net
AIM: vanderwal
             InfoCloud Solutions, Inc. - 2007

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Bottom Up Tagging