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Identity Formation


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This presentation talks about the foundations of 'identity' and various theories associated with identity formation. Also, it shows the factors affecting identity formation.

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Identity Formation

  1. 1. IDENTITY FORMATION VandanaThakur Asst Professor RIE Bhopal
  2. 2. Definition of identity  the distinctive characteristic belonging to any given individual, or shared by all members of a particular social category or group.  Identity may be distinguished from identification; identity is a label, whereas identification refers to the classifying act itself. Identity is thus best construed as being both relational and contextual, while the act of identification is best viewed as inherently processual.
  3. 3.  Identity formation strategies[edit]  Another issue of interest in social psychology is related to the notion that there are certain identity formation strategies which a person may use to adapt to the social world. (Cote & Levin 2002, pp. 3–5) developed a typology which investigated the different manners of behavior that individuals may have. (3)Their typology includes:
  4. 4. Psychological symptoms Personality symptoms Social symptoms Refuser Develops cognitive blocks that prevent adoption of adult role- schemas Engages in childlike behavior Shows extensive dependency upon others and no meaningful engagement with the community of adults Drifter Possesses greater psychological resources than the Refuser (i.e., intelligence, charisma) Is apathetic toward application of psychological resources Has no meaningful engagement with or commitment to adult communities Searcher Has a sense of dissatisfaction due to high personal and social expectations Shows disdain for imperfections within the community Interacts to some degree with role- models, but ultimately these relationships are abandoned Guardian Possesses clear personal values and attitudes, but also a deep fear of change Sense of personal identity is almost exhausted by sense of social identity Has an extremely rigid sense of social identity and strong identification with adult communities Resolver Consciously desires self-growth Accepts personal skills and competencies and uses them actively Is responsive to communities that provide opportunity for self-growth
  5. 5. Identity formation  also known as individuation, is the development of the distinct personality of an individual regarded as a persisting entity (known as personal continuity) in a particular stage of life in which individual characteristics are possessed and by which a person is recognized or known.  This process defines individuals to others and themselves
  6. 6.  Pieces of the person's actual identity include a sense of continuity, a sense of uniqueness from others, and a sense ofaffiliation.  his may be through individuation whereby the undifferentiated individual tends to become unique, or undergoes stages through which differentiated facets of a person's life tend toward becoming a more indivisible whole.
  7. 7. Theories on identity formation  Erikson  throughout each person's lifetime, they experience different crises or conflicts. Each of the conflicts arises at a certain point in life and must be successfully resolved for progression to the next of the eight stages  "Identity versus Role Confusion" stage consists of adolescents trying to figure out who they are in order to form a basic identity that they will build on throughout their life, especially concerning social and occupational identities
  8. 8.  Marcia The four identity statuses in James Marcia's theory are:[5] 1. Identity Diffusion (also known as Role Confusion): This is the opposite of identity achievement. The individual has not yet resolved their identity crisis, failing to commit to any goals or values and establish future life direction. In adolescents, this stage is characterized by disorganized thinking, procrastination, and avoidance of issues and action.[4]
  9. 9. 2. Identity Foreclosure: This occurs when teenagers accept traditional values and cultural norms, rather than determining their own values. In other words, the person conforms to an identity without exploration as to what really suits him or her best. For instance, teenagers might follow the values and roles of their parents or cultural norms. They might also foreclose on a negative identity, the direct opposite of their parent's values or cultural norms.[4] 2. Identity Moratorium: This postpones identity achievement by providing temporary shelter. This status provides opportunities for exploration, either in breadth or in depth. Examples of moratoria common in American society include college or the military.[4]
  10. 10. 2.Identity Achievement: This status is attained when the person has solved the identity issues by making commitments to goals, beliefs and values after extensive exploration of different areas.
  11. 11. Self-concept  Self-concept or self-identity is the sum of a being's knowledge and understanding of their self.The self-concept is different from self-consciousness, which is an awareness of one's self.  Components of the self-concept include physical, psychological, and social attributes, which can be influenced by the individual's attitudes, habits, beliefs and ideas.
  12. 12.  These components and attributes can not be condensed to the general concepts of self- image and self-esteem[citation needed] as different types of identity coming together in one person.
  13. 13.  Cultural identity  Cultural identity is the (feeling of) identity of a group or culture, or of an individual as far as they are influenced by their belonging to a group or culture. Cultural identity is similar to and has overlaps with, but is not synonymous with, identity politics.  There are modern questions of culture that are transferred into questions of identity. Historical culture also influences individual identity, and as with modern cultural identity, individuals may pick and choose aspects of cultural identity, while rejecting or disowning other associated ideas.
  14. 14.  Ethnic and national identity  An ethnic identity is the identification with a certain ethnicity, usually on the basis of a presumed common genealogy or ancestry. Recognition by others as a distinct ethnic group is often a contributing factor to developing this bond of identification. Ethnic groups are also often united by common cultural, behavioral, linguistic, ritualistic, or religious traits.
  15. 15.  National identity is an ethical and philosophical concept whereby all humans are divided into groups called nations. Members of a "nation" share a common identity, and usually a common origin, in the sense of ancestry, parentage or descent.
  16. 16. Religious identity  A religious identity is the set of beliefs and practices generally held by an individual, involving adherence to codified beliefs and rituals and study of ancestral or cultural traditions, writings, history, and mythology, as well as faith and mystic experience.  The term "religious identity" refers to the personal practices related to communal faith and to rituals and communication stemming from such conviction.This identity formation begins with association in the parents' religious contacts, and individuation requires that the person chooses to the same—or different— religious identity than that of his/her parents
  17. 17. Gender identity  In sociology, gender identity describes the gender with which a person identifies (i.e., whether one perceives oneself to be a man, a woman, outside of the gender binary, etc.), but can also be used to refer to the gender that other people attribute to the individual on the basis of what they know from gender role indications (social behavior, clothing, hair style, etc.).
  18. 18. Social support  Another way of defining identity formation is “the problem‐solving behavior aimed at eliciting information about oneself or environment in order to make a decision about an important life choice” (Bosma & Kunnen, 2001, p. 52).  Social support can be defined as supportive relationships with others
  19. 19. Interpersonal identity development  Interpersonal identity development is composed of three elements:  Interpersonal identity development is composed of three elements:  Categorisation: Labeling others (and ourselves) into categories.  Identification: Associating others with certain groups.  Comparison: Comparing groups.