Nasp Glbtq Pp Boston 02 2009


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Nasp Glbtq Pp Boston 02 2009

  1. 1. School Psychology’s Responsibility to Promote Advocacy for GLBTQ Youth Cris Lauback and Nancy Issa Alfred University NASP Boston 2009
  2. 2. <ul><li>Initial thoughts and feelings: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Video </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Music </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Presentation Goals <ul><li>Summarize the key issues GLBTQ youth encounter: prevalent risk and protective factors will be explored. </li></ul><ul><li>Explore best practice prevention programs designed to promote acceptance, knowledge, and safety for GLBTQ youth. </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct a self-evaluation of our own readiness to be an advocate for GLBTQ youth. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Sexual Orientation in Today’s World <ul><li>A topic that surrounds our daily lives yet remains taboo in many communities. </li></ul><ul><li>Society projects much of its perspective through a variety of mediums </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Television </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absolute religious doctrine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The rates of hate-crimes and abuse against GLBTQ individuals opposes the comical view. </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual orientation is the central focus of debates that separate communities and feed discriminatory flames. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Sexual Orientation in Our Schools <ul><li>Harassment and discrimination is not only directed to GLBTQ adults, but exists in schools where GLBTQ students report </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High rates of verbal and physical abuse from peers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surprisingly low rates of staff intervention when homophobic remarks are made </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( 2007 National School Climate Survey conducted by GLSEN) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. NASP Responsibilities of Schools & Their Psychologists <ul><li>Schools have a responsibility to create a safe place that is conducive to learning for all students. </li></ul><ul><li>According to NASP, school psychologists are in a unique position to create system wide change. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affect policies and teach by example. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Counsel students dealing with issues associated with sexual orientation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broaden a school’s acceptance of diversity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Educate those in the system – teachers, students, and community members alike – about sexual orientation issues. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Road Blocks to Change <ul><li>Points to consider and explore before taking action include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is there a need for change? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are school psychologists prepared to create change? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What can be done in order to accomplish such change? </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Is there a need for change?
  9. 9. The Risk Factor of Victimization <ul><li>GLBTQ youth are more likely to experience victimization than the general public due to society’s view of sexual orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological abuse occurs most often within the family context. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GLB individuals are more likely to report experiencing psychological abuse than heterosexual males and females. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bisexual men and women report higher levels of abuse than gay and lesbian individuals. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sexual abuse occurs at a higher rate for GLBTQ individuals compared to heterosexual individuals. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>43.6% of lesbians and 47.6% of bisexual women compared to 30.4% of heterosexual women </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>31.8% of gay men and 44.1% of bisexual men compared to 12.8% of heterosexual men </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Risk Factor of Victimization <ul><li>Verbal Harassment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>86.2% experienced harassment due to sexual orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>66.5% due to gender expression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical Harassment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>23.7% experienced harassment due to sexual orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>30.4% due to gender expression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cyberbullying </li></ul><ul><ul><li>55.4% experienced electronic harassment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biased or derogatory remarks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>92.1% heard other students make remarks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>22.7% heard teachers making remarks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Relational Aggression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>87.6% were targets of mean rumors or lies at school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>87.8% were deliberately left out </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It has been estimated that more than half of lesbian and gay male adults have experienced verbal harassment or physical assault. </li></ul><ul><li>GLBTQ youth nationwide report experiencing various forms of victimization in the schools because of sexual orientation and gender expression ( 2007 National School Climate Survey ). </li></ul>
  11. 11. Outcomes of Victimization Include… <ul><li>Increased levels of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anxiety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Obsessive-compulsiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suicidality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug abuse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Running away from home </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict with law enforcement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>School problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Negative psychological outcomes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social constraint </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stigma consciousness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GLBTQ students with high social constraints can experience an increase in stigma consciousness </li></ul>
  12. 12. School Related Outcomes Include… <ul><li>60.8% of GLBTQ students report feeling unsafe in their own schools because of their sexual orientation </li></ul><ul><li>38.4% feel unsafe because of their gender expression </li></ul><ul><li>Students who experience harassment in schools are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less engaged in school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less likely to participate in school events, increasing their isolation from other students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More likely to skip classes or full days of school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Twice as likely not to plan to pursue post-secondary education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Grade point averages decrease as harassment increases </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Healing Power of Support <ul><li>Social support systems help GLBTQ youth develop effective coping skills. </li></ul><ul><li>Family support can be a mediator between victimization and mental health. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Maternal support versus paternal support </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Families react in various ways to children’s sexual identities, including denial and anger. </li></ul><ul><li>Reactions can cause youth to feel isolated from families. </li></ul><ul><li>The responsibility of school psychologists: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide support to GLBTQ students . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide support to families of GLBTQ students. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Are school psychologists prepared to create change?
  15. 15. NASP & APA Diversity Training Requirements <ul><li>APA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accreditation standards clearly state that any discussion of diversity includes sexual orientation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The topic is brought up in regards to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Program policies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Being covered in the curriculum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>As it relates to the science and practice of psychology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In an assertion for positive relationships between faculty and students </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>NASP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accreditation standards fail to explicitly list sexual orientation as an area of diversity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides a position statement specifically regarding best practices when working with sexual minority students </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Recent Literature of Training Programs <ul><li>APA accredited clinical and counseling doctoral programs have begun to integrate the topic of GLBTQ issues into the curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical and Counseling Psychology pros: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Required multicultural courses that cover GLB issues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Students exposed to GLB clientele during practicum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GLB issues addressed in supervision experiences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Counseling Psychology programs are more likely to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Require multicultural courses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure students address GLB issues in comprehensive examinations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mentor students in GLB research </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Few programs do the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporate GLB competencies into evaluations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrate GLB issues into courses other than multicultural courses </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The Moral Dilemma <ul><li>Sexual orientation has been a sensitive topic, often due to religious or moral viewpoints. </li></ul><ul><li>Personal, moral beliefs become a problem when pushed into schools. </li></ul><ul><li>Homosexuality is viewed as “wrong” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental theories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolutionary theories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The theory an individual accepts effects whether or not they agree with GLBTQ issues being dealt with in the school system. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Two Strands of Moral Beliefs <ul><li>Moralistic Stand (MS) </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals impose their moral codes on others </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate for parents to use in their households </li></ul><ul><li>Teaches right versus wrong </li></ul><ul><li>Moral Democratic Stand (MDS) </li></ul><ul><li>MDS promotes recognition of differences and issues that relate to those differences </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of different views is appropriate for the classroom and can be applied to teaching acceptance of GLBTQ issues </li></ul><ul><li>Teaches about acceptance and human rights </li></ul>“ As citizens in a moral democratic society, all people have a moral obligation to ensure that the rights of all people, including lesbians and gay men, are protected.” (Ellis, 2004, p.82)
  19. 19. MDS in the Profession <ul><li>Each person has the right to have their own opinions and beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Personal beliefs that conflict with professional ethical obligations to provide a safe atmosphere for all students hinder an individual’s ability to be an advocate </li></ul><ul><li>Separating personal beliefs from ethical obligations is one step closer to genuine acceptance and one step towards being an effective advocate </li></ul>
  20. 20. How prepared are you? <ul><li>In contrast to NASP’s position that school psychologists be ready and willing to counsel and advocate for GLBTQ youth, research indicates that most school psychologists do not feel prepared for these roles. </li></ul><ul><li>Training programs teach systems change and diversity, yet we may not be prepared to apply these skills within a school setting advocating for GLBTQ youth. </li></ul><ul><li>Have we examined and challenged our blindspots, biases, and moral beliefs that prevent us from being effective advocates for GLBTQ youth? </li></ul>
  21. 21. Personal Blindspots <ul><li>Attitudes Survey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1-4: Your personal feelings may be preventing you from being inclusive of all students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5-8: You are somewhat accepting but aren’t yet in a place of support for all students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>9-12: You are ready to provide support and affirmation for all students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>13-16: You are able to appreciate and embrace all students </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ask yourself… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Have you ever been to an LGBT social event, march, or worship service? If not, why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can you think of three positive aspects being LGBT? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have you ever laughed at a “queer” joke? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Would you consider wearing a button that says, “How dare you presume I’m heterosexual?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Questions from GLSEN Safe Space manual </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Personal Blindspots continued <ul><li>What did you feel/think when the song and video clip were played? </li></ul><ul><li>Is it consistent with your personal assessment just completed? </li></ul><ul><li>Do you feel prepared to advocate for sexual minority youth in your school? </li></ul><ul><li>Song: For Today I am a Boy </li></ul><ul><li>Artist: Antony and the Johnsons </li></ul><ul><li>Album: I am a Bird Now (2007) </li></ul><ul><li>One day I'll grow up, I'll be a beautiful woman. </li></ul><ul><li>One day I'll grow up, I'll be a beautiful girl. </li></ul><ul><li>One day I'll grow up, I'll be a beautiful woman. </li></ul><ul><li>One day I'll grow up, I'll be a beautiful girl. </li></ul><ul><li>But for today I am a child, for today I am a boy. </li></ul><ul><li>For today I am a child, for today I am a boy. </li></ul><ul><li>For today I am a child, for today I am a boy. </li></ul><ul><li>One day I'll grow up, I'll feel the power in me. </li></ul><ul><li>One day I'll grow up, of this I'm sure. </li></ul><ul><li>One day I'll grow up, I know whom within me. </li></ul><ul><li>One day I'll grow up, feel it full and pure. </li></ul>
  23. 23. How can we create change?
  24. 24. Organizational Consultation, Systems Change, & Prevention <ul><li>School-based consultation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A core skill well established as a preference by SP’s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prevention science </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to chose effective programs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organizational consultation & systems intervention </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Process consultation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing school structures and culture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gutkin & Reynolds, 2009 </li></ul>
  25. 25. Counselor <ul><li>NASP recommends that school psychologists be ready and willing to counsel GLBTQ students who are victims of harassment, and their perpetrators. </li></ul><ul><li>Counseling services are a way to reduce the effects of victimization. </li></ul><ul><li>Professional growth activities can help further prepare school psychologists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase knowledge and counseling techniques for GLBTQ youth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learn effective techniques to counsel perpetrators to reduce the frequency of harassment </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. 2 Widely Used Programs <ul><li>Jump-Start Programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Facilitates Gay-Straight Alliances (GSAs), clubs that include individuals that are GLBTQ and straight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>8 steps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>students going to schools with GSAs are less likely to feel unsafe, less likely to miss school, and more likely to feel like they belonged at their school compared to students in schools without GSAs. (GLSEN, 2007) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Safe Space Program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose: visibly mark people and places that are “safe” for GLBTQ students. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>teaches individuals how to train allies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>gives strategies for support and intervention when anti-GLBTQ bias occurs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>provides materials to help make the program visible to others in the school </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Used together, Jump-Start and Safe Space meet many of the characteristics of effective programs described by Weissberg, Kumpfer, and Seligman (2003) and Nation et al. (2003) </li></ul>
  27. 27. Resources <ul><li>Legislation and policy </li></ul><ul><li>Printable guides and toolkits that promote safe schools and gay-straight alliances </li></ul><ul><li>NASP Helping Children at Home and School II , 2004 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Videos, books, and websites </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Families: Children’s and self-help books, videos, websites, organizations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Informative handouts for school administration and parents </li></ul><ul><li>Guides and rationale for implementing GLBTQ specific anti-harassment school policies </li></ul><ul><li>Population specific materials and websites (GLBTQ youth, children of GLBTQ parents, parents and siblings of GLBTQ youth) </li></ul>
  28. 28. Overview <ul><li>Key issues GLBTQ youth encounter </li></ul><ul><li>Self-evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Prevention programs </li></ul><ul><li>Your personal experiences? </li></ul>
  29. 29. References <ul><li>American Psychological Association. (2007). Guidelines and Principles for Accreditation of Programs in Professional Psychology. Retrieved November 25, 2007, from </li></ul><ul><li>Bailey, J. M., Bobrow, D., Wolfe, M., & Mikach, S. (1995). Sexual orientation of adult sons of gay fathers. Developmental Psychology, 31 (1), 124-129. </li></ul><ul><li>Balsam, K. F., Rothblum, E. D., & Beauchaine, T. P. (2005). Victimization over the life span: A comparison of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and heterosexual siblings. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73 (3), 477-487. </li></ul><ul><li>Berenbaum, S. A. & Snyder, E. (1995). Early hormonal influences on childhood sex-typed activity and playmate preferences: Implications for the development of sexual orientation. Developmental Psychology, 31 (1), 31-42. </li></ul><ul><li>Bogaert, A. F. (2007). Extreme right-handedness, older brothers, and sexual orientation in men. Neuropsychology, 21 (1), 141-148. </li></ul><ul><li>Durlak, A. J. (2009). Prevention programs. In Terry Gutkin & Cecil Reynolds (Eds.), The Handbook of School Psychology (pp. 905-920). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Ellis, S. J. (2004). Rights-based reasoning in discussions about lesbian and gay issues: implications for moral educators. Journal of Moral Education, 33 (1), 71-86. </li></ul><ul><li>Fay, J. & Gordon, S. (1989). Moral sexuality in education and democratic values. Theory into Practice, 28 (3), 211-216. </li></ul><ul><li>Gay, Lesbian & Straight Education Network. (n.d.). The GLSEN Jump-Start guide for gay-straight alliances. Retrieved January 27, 2008, from </li></ul><ul><li>Gay, Lesbian & Straight Education Network. (n.d.). GLSEN Safe Space: A how-to guide for starting an allies program. Retrieved January 27, 2008, from </li></ul><ul><li>Golombok, S. & Tasker, F. (1996). Do parents influence the sexual orientation of their children? Findings from a longitudinal study of lesbian families. Developmental Psychology, 32 (1), 3-11. </li></ul><ul><li>Gutkin, T. B., & Curtis, M. J. (2009). School-based consultation: The science and practice of indirect service delivery. In Terry Gutkin & Cecil Reynolds (Eds.), The Handbook of School Psychology (pp. 591-635). Hoboken , NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Hershberger, S. L. & D’Augelli, A. R. (1995). The impact of victimization on the mental health and suicidality of lesbian, gay, and bisexual youths. Developmental Psychology, 31 (1), 65-74. </li></ul><ul><li>Kosciw, J. G., Diaz, E. M., and Greytak, E. A. (2008). 2007 National School Climate Survey: The experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth in our nation’s schools. New York: GLSEN. Retrieved January 27, 2009, from </li></ul><ul><li>Lewis, R. J., Derlega, V. J., Clarke, E. G., & Kuang, J. C. (2006). Stigma consciousness, social constraints, and lesbian well-being. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 53 (1), 48-56. </li></ul>
  30. 30. References <ul><li>McCabe, P. C. & Rubinson, F. (2007, March). Committing to social justice: A model for behavioral change to serve LGBT youth. Paper presented at the meeting of the National Association of School Psychologists, New York, NY. </li></ul><ul><li>Meyer-Bahlburg, H. F. L., Ehrhardt, A. A., Rosen, L. R., Gruen, R. S., Veridiano, N. P., Vann, F. H., & Neuwalder, H. F. (1995). Prenatal estrogens and the development of homosexual orientation. Developmental Psychology, 31 (1), 12-21. </li></ul><ul><li>Meyers, J., Meyers, A. B., Proctor, S. L., & Graybill, E. C. (2009). Organizational consultation and systems intervention. In Terry Gutkin & Cecil Reynolds (Eds.), The Handbook of School Psychology (pp. 921-940). Hoboken , NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Nation, M., Crusto, C., Wandersman, A., Kumpfer, K. L., Seybolt, D., Morrissey-Kane, E., et al. (2003). What works in prevention: Principles of effective prevention programs. American Psychologist, 58 (6/7), 449-456. </li></ul><ul><li>National Association of School Psychologists. (2000). Standards for Training and Field Placement Programs in School Psychology & Standards for the Credentialing of School Psychologists. Retrieved May 28, 2008, from </li></ul><ul><li>National Association of School Psychologists (2002). Gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth. In Alex Thomas & Jeff Grimes (Eds.), Best Practices in School Psychology IV: Vol. 2 (pp. 1711-1713). Bethesda, MD: Author. </li></ul><ul><li>National Association of School Psychologists (2006). Position statement on gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgender, and questioning (GLBTQ) youth (formerly sexual minority youth). NASP Position Statements. Retrieved February 17, 2008, from http:// </li></ul><ul><li>Patterson, C. J. (2000). Family relationships of lesbians and gay men. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62 (4), 1052-1069. </li></ul><ul><li>Petrovic, J. E. (1999). Moral democratic education and homosexuality: censoring morality. Journal of Moral Education, 28 (2), 201-209. </li></ul><ul><li>Remafedi, G., Farrow, J. A., & Deisher, R. W. (1991). Risk factors for attempted suicide in gay and bisexual youth. Pediatrics, 87 (6), 869-875. </li></ul><ul><li>Rosario, M., Schrimshaw, E. W., Hunter, J., & Gwadz, M. (2002). Gay-related stress and emotional distress among gay, lesbian, and bisexual youths: A longitudinal examination. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 70 (4), 967-975. </li></ul><ul><li>Savin-Williams, R. C. (1994). Verbal and physical abuse as stressors in the lives of lesbian, gay male, and bisexual youths: Associations with school problems, running away, substance abuse, prostitution, and suicide. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 62 (2), 261-269. </li></ul><ul><li>Savin-Williams, R. C. & Dube, R. M. (1998). Parental reactions to their child’s disclosure of a gay/lesbian identity. Family Relations, 47 (1), 7-13. </li></ul><ul><li>Sherry, A., Whilde, M., & Patton, J. (2005). Gay, lesbian, and bisexual training competencies in American Psychological Association accredited graduate programs. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 42 (1), 116-120. </li></ul><ul><li>Weissberg, R. P., Kumpfer, K. L., & Seligman, M. E. P. (2003). Prevention that works for children and youth. American Psychologist, 58 (6/7), 425-432. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Thank You!