The Marketing Communications Mix This CTR relates to the material on pp. 422-423. Tools of The Marketing Communications Mix Advertising. Advertising is any paid form of nonpersonal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods, or services by an identified sponsor. Advertising often utilizes mass media and may be adapted to take advantages of a given mediums strengths to convey information. Sales Promotion. Sales promotions consist of short-term incentives to encourage purchase of sales of a product or service. Limited time offers or dated coupons are common sales promotions. Public Relations. Public relations is an on-going process of building good relations with the various publics of the company. Key elements in the process are obtaining favorable publicity, building and projecting a good &quot;corporate image,&quot; and designing an information support and response team to respond proactively to unfavorable rumors, stories, or events. Personal Selling. Personal selling describes the use of oral presentations in a conversation with one or more prospective buyers for the purposes of making a sale. Personal selling combines product information and benefits with the interpersonal dynamics of the sales person. Good interpersonal relationship skills and effective oral communication skills are needed for personal selling. Direct Marketing. Directed communications with carefully targeted individual consumers to obtain an immediate response.
Chapter 18 Designing and Managing Integrated Marketing Communications Marketing Management Tenth Edition Philip Kotler
Objectives <ul><li>The Communications Process </li></ul><ul><li>Developing Effective Communications </li></ul><ul><li>Deciding on the Marketing Communications Mix </li></ul><ul><li>Managing and Coordinating Integrated Marketing Communications </li></ul>
The Marketing Communications Mix Advertising Personal Selling Any Paid Form of Nonpersonal Presentation by an Identified Sponsor. Sales Promotion Short-term Incentives to Encourage Trial or Purchase. Public Relations Direct Marketing Direct Communications With Individuals to Obtain an Immediate Response. Protect and/or Promote Company’s Image/products. Personal Presentations.
Elements in the Communication Process SENDER Encoding Decoding RECEIVER Media Message Feedback Response Noise
Effective Communications Step 1. Identifying the Target Audience Purchase Conviction Preference Liking Knowledge Awareness Step 2. Determining the Communication Objectives Buyer Readiness Stages
Response Hierarchy Models Communi- cations Model d AIDA Model a Innovation- Adoption Model c Hierarchy-of- Effects Model b Stages Cognitive stage Affective stage Behavior stage Awareness Trial Adoption Interest Evaluation Purchase Liking Preference Conviction Awareness Knowlege Attention Interest Desire Action Behavior Attitude Intention Exposure Reception Cognitive response
Message Source Expertise, Trustworthiness, Congruity Step 3. Designing the Message Message Format Layout, Words, & Sounds, Body Language Message Structure Draw Conclusions Argument Type Argument Order Message Content Rational Appeals Emotional Appeals Moral Appeals
Step 4. Select Communications Channel Nonpersonal Communication Channels Personal Communication Channels
Step 5. Establish the Budget Competitive Parity Objective & Task Affordable % Of Sales
Step 6. Decide on Communications Mix Advertising Public, Pervasive, Expressive, Impersonal Sales Promotion Communication, Incentive, Invitation Public Relations & Publicity Credibility, Surprise, Dramatization Personal Selling Personal Confrontation, Cultivation, Response Direct Marketing Nonpublic, Customized, Up-to-Date, Interactive
Step 7. Measure Results Step 8. Manage the IMC Process
Factors in Developing Promotion Mix Strategies Product Life-Cycle Stage Type of Product/ Market Push vs. Pull Strategy Buyer/ Readiness Stage
Push Versus Pull Strategy Producer Producer Push Strategy Pull Strategy Interme- diaries Marketing activities End users Marketing activities Demand Interme- diaries Demand End users Marketing activities Demand
Review <ul><li>The Communications Process </li></ul><ul><li>Developing Effective Communications </li></ul><ul><li>Deciding on the Marketing Communications Mix </li></ul><ul><li>Managing and Coordinating Integrated Marketing Communications </li></ul>