Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.



Published on

Published in: Technology, Business


  1. 1. Heart Failure Alert System using Rfid Technology Heart Failure Alert System using Rfid Technology C.Sri Aditya K.S.Praneeth B.V.S.Sripathi EEE Department CSE Department ECE Department (3rd year, 1st sem) (3rd year, 1st sem) (3rd year, 1st sem) Guru Nanak Engg. College Guru Nanak Engg. College Guru Nanak Engg. CollegeAbstract Now-a-days the deaths caused due to the heart This paper gives a predicted general model for Heart Failurefailure have been of major concern .The majority of the deaths Alert System. It also discusses the Algorithm for convertingcaused by heart failures are due to the lack of medical the Analog pulse to Binary data in the tag and the Algorithmassistance in time. This paper gives an insight of a new for Alerting the Location & Tracking Station. It discusses intechnology that relates directly to the exploding wireless detail the various stages involved in tracking the exact locationmarketplace. This technology is a whole new wireless and of the Victim using this technology.RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) enabled frontier in Keywords:which a victim’s actual location is integral for providing RFID, RFID-passive tags, GPS, PAM.valuable medical services. 1. Introduction:The paper will be demonstrating for the first time ever the It is tough to declare convincingly what is the mostusage of wireless telecommunications systems and miniature important organ of our body.Infact every organ has its ownsensor devices like RFID passive Tags , that are smaller than a importance contributing and coordinating superbly to keep thegrain of rice and equipped with a tiny antenna which will wonderful machine the human body functioning smoothly.capture and wirelessly transmit a persons vital body-function And one of the primary organs which the body cannot dodata, such as pulse or body temperature , to an integrated without is the heart, 72 beats a minute or over a trillion in aground station. In addition, the antenna will also receive lifetime. The pump house of our body pumping the blood toinformation regarding the location of the individual from the every corner of our body every moment, thus sending oxygenGPS (Global Positioning Satellite) System. Both sets of data and nutrients to each and every cell. Over a period of time, themedical information and location will then be wirelessly heart muscles go weak, the arteries get blocked and sometimestransmitted to the ground station and made available to save because of a shock a part of the heart stops functioninglives by remotely monitoring the medical conditions of at-risk resulting in what is called a HEART ATTACK. Heart attack ispatients and providing emergency rescue units with the a major cause of death and in today’s tension full world it haspersons exact location. become very common. Presently there is no mechanism by which a device monitors a person’s heart 24 hours a day, 7 days a week and gives him instant protection in case of problem. Our primary focus is on people with a history of heart problem as they are more prone to death due to heartCopyright © 2007Paper Identification Number: SC-5.4 failure. In the 1970s, a group of scientists at the LawrenceThis peer-reviewed paper has been published by the PentagramResearch Centre (P) Limited. Responsibility of contents of this Livermore Laboratory (LLL) realized that a handheld receiverpaper rests upon the authors and not upon Pentagram Research stimulated by RF power could send back a coded radio signal.Centre (P) Limited. Copies can be obtained from the company for acost Such a system could be connected to a simple computer and used to control access to a secure facility. 292
  2. 2. International Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and InformaticsThis system ultimately became one of the first building entry The RF tags could be divided in two major groups:systems based on the first commercial use of RFID. Passive, where the power to energize the tag’s circuitry isRFID or Radio Frequency identification is a technology that draw from the reader generated field.enables the tracking or identification of objects using IC based Active, in this case the tag has an internal power source, intags with an RF circuit and antenna, and RF readers that general a battery that could be replaceable or not, in some case"read" and in some case modify the information stored in the this feature limited the tag lifetime, but for some applicationsIC memory. RFID is an automated data-capture technology this is not important, or the tag is designed to live more thanthat can be used to electronically identify, track, and store the typical time needed.information about groups of products, individual items, or Rfid readers:product components. The technology consists of three key RFID readers are querying systems that interrogatepieces: or send signals to the tags and receive the responses. These• RFID tags; responses can be stored within the reader for later transfer to a• RFID readers; data collection system or instantaneously transferred to the• A data collection and management data collection system. Like the tags themselves, RFID readerssystem. come in many sizes. RFID readers are usually on, continuallyRfid tags: transmitting radio energy and awaiting any tags that enter their RFID tags are small or miniaturized computer chips field of operation. However, for some applications, this isprogrammed with information about a product or with a unnecessary and could be undesirable in battery-powerednumber that corresponds to information that is stored in a devices that need to conserve energy. Thus, it is possible todatabase. The tags can be located inside or on the surface of configure an RFID reader so that it sends the radio pulse onlythe product, item, or packing material. in response to an external event. For example, most electronic toll collection systems have the reader constantly powered upon that every passing car will be recorded. On the other hand, RFID scanners used in veterinarian’s offices are frequently equipped with triggers and power up the only when the trigger is pulled. The largest readers might consist of a desktop personal computer with a special card and multiple antennas connected to the card through shielded cable. Such a reader would typically have a network connection as well so that it could report tags that it reads to other computers. The smallest readers are the size of a postage stamp and are designed to be embedded in mobile telephones. 2. General Model for Heart Failure Alert System: 293
  3. 3. Heart Failure Alert System using Rfid TechnologyThe Heart Failure Alert System consists of:• RFID Tag (Implanted into Human body).• RFID Reader (Placed in a Cellular Phone).• Global Positioning Satellite System.• Locating & Tracking Station.• Mobile Rescue Units.The grain-sized RFID Tag is implanted into the human body, Fig: Grain sized RFID Tagwhich keeps track of the heart pulse in the form of Voltage RFID Tags are smaller than a grain of rice and equipped withlevels. A RFID Reader is placed into the Cellular Phone. The a tiny antenna will capture and wirelessly transmit a personsRFID Reader sends a Command to the RFID Tag which in vital body-function data, such as pulse and do not require lineturn sends these Voltage pulses in the form of bits using the of sight. These tags are capable of identifying the Heart pulsesEmbedded Software in the Tag as Response which is a in the form of Voltage levels and converts into a bit sequence.continuous process. These bit sequence is then sent to The first step in A-D Conversion is Pulse AmplitudeSoftware Program in the Cellular Phone as input and checks Modulation(PAM).This takes an Analog signal, samples it andfor the Condition of Heart Failure. If any sign of Failure is generates a sequence of pulses based on the results of thesensed then immediately an ALERT Signal will be generated Sampling(measuring the Amplitude at equaland in turn results in the AUTODIALING to the Locating & intervals)PCM(Pulse Code Modulation)quantizes PAMTracking Station. This station with the use of GPS System the method of assigning integral values in a specificcomes to know the Whereabouts of the Victim. The Locating range to sampled instances. The binary encoding of these& Tracking Station also simultaneously alerts the Rescue integral values is done based on the Algorithm BIN_ENCUnits. depending on the Average Heart pulse voltage of the Victim3. Working of implanted rfid tags: (Avg_pulse). Passive RFID systems typically couple the transmitter Alg BIN_ENC:to the receiver with either load modulation or backscatter, Step1: Read the Analog Signals from the Heart.depending on whether the tags are operating in the near or far Step2: Sample the Analog Signal and generate series offield of the reader, respectively. In the near field, a tag couples pulses based on thewith a reader via electromagnetic inductance. The antennas of Results of Sampling based on the Tag Frequency.both the reader and the tag are formed as coils, using many Step3: Assign Integral Values to each Sampled Instancesturns of small gauge wire. The reader communicates with the generated.tag by modulating a carrier wave, which it does by varying the Step4: Consider every Individual Sampled Unit andamplitude, phase, or frequency of the carrier, depending on the Compare with the Averagedesign of the RFID system in question. The tag communicateswith the reader by varying how much it loads its antenna. This Voltage Level of the turn affects the voltage across the reader’s antenna. By Step5: If the Sampled Instance Value is in between theswitching the load on and off rapidly, the tag can establish its avg_pulse Valuesown carrier frequency (really a sub carrier) that the tag can in Then Assign BIT=0turn modulate to communicate its reply. Otherwise Assign BIT=1 Step6: Generate the bit sequence by considering all the generated Individual Sample Instances. 294
  4. 4. International Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics Algorithm ALERT. Alg ALERT: Step 1: Read the bit sequence from the Reader. Step 2: Count for the no of bit zeros in the data using a counter. Step 3: If you encounter a bit one, then set counter to zero. Step 4: If the counter is equal to five then go to Step 5 else go to Step 1. Step 5: Send alert to the nearest Locating & Tracking Station.Fig: Analog-Binary Digits Conversion in Tags 4. Stages In Heart Failure Alert System: Stage 1:Working of rfid reader inside cellular phone:The RFID reader sends a pulse of radio energy to the tag andlistens for the Tag’s response. The tag detects this energy andsends back a response that contains the tag’s serial numberand possibly other information as well. In simple RFIDsystems, the reader’s pulse of energy functioned as an on-off The Tag continuously senses the Heart Pulses, when theswitch; in more sophisticated systems, the reader’s RF signal Reader sends a Command it sends the output of thecan contain commands to the tag, instructions to read or write BIN_ENC() as the Response to the Reader.memory that the tag contains. Historically, RFID readers were /*Module for the Conversion of Analog Signals to Binarydesigned to read only a particular kind of tag, RFID readers digits*/are usually on, continually transmitting radio energy and BIN_ENC()awaiting any tags that enter their field of operation. { Scanf (“The Value of the generated Sample %f”, Value); If (+Avg_pulse<Value<-Ang_pulse) {Bit=0 ;} else if (Value>+Avg_pulse || Value<-Avg_pulse) {Bit=1 ;} }Fig: RFID Reader in cellular phone.The Reader continuously sends the Command to the tags and Stage 2:in turn receives the Voltage levels in the form of bit sequenceas Response from the tags with the help of the BIN_ENCalgorithm. The reader sends the received Bit Sequence to asoftware embedded in the cellular phone , In case of detectionof a weak heart pulse this software automatically alerts theTracking & Location station . The software uses the 295
  5. 5. Heart Failure Alert System using Rfid Technology simultaneous ALERT to both the GPS System & MobileThe bits obtained are sent to the ALERT() program to check Rescue Unit in order to alert the Rescue team in the Mobilewhether the bit is ’BIT 0’ or ’BIT 1’.If a ‘BIT 0’ is Rescue Unit to indicate a possible Heart Failure within theencountered, the counter is incremented and again it checks radius of the Unit. The GPS System mean-while tracks thefor the next bit. If a ‘BIT 1’is encountered then counter is set exact location of the Victim and it guides the Mobile Rescueto zero and it again checks for the next bit. If counter=5 then it Unit to the destination in time and provides immediatealerts the Locating & Tracking Station. medical assistance to the Victim./*Module for checking the Weak Pulse */ 5. Conclusion:ALERT () This new technology will open up a new era in the { field of Biomedical Engineering .The only drawback of this if (bit==0) technology is that, It doesn’t give the promise of saving every { counter++; } person who is implanted with the tag and using this else technology. In the near future; we would like to extend the {counter=0 ;} technology so that every customer who is implanted with the if(counter==5) tags and those who have been using the technology will be { saved. The Worlds first GSM phone (NOKIA 5140)offering printf(“ Report ‘Weak Pulse Detected’ to Locating & with RFID reading capability has already come into theTracking System”); market, In the near future the rfid readers would come into the counter=0; wrist watches, which would be handy than the cellular phones. } This new technology would probably become cheaper in the } future. In the near future we hope this new technology wouldStage 3: probably reduce the deaths due to heart failures. Fig: Nokia 5140 Handset offering RIFD ReaderA Special ALERT message is sent to the Locating & Tracking 6. a. Web References:System through the Cellular Phone by making use of features 1.”Identity chip planted under the skin approved for use inlike AutoMessaging, Autodialling which will be provided by Health care”.the Cellular Network Service Provider. Then the Locating & URL: http://www.spychips.comTracking Station simultaneously sends an ALERT to the 2.”RFID Tags and RFID Chips”Mobile Rescue Unit and sends a request to GPS System for URL: http://www.rfidjournal.comthe proper location of the RFID Reader (or the Cellular 3.”Latest Updates on RFID”Phone).The Locating & Tracking Station sends an 296
  6. 6. International Conference on Systemics, Cybernetics and InformaticsURL:,4. "Fundamentals and Applications in Contact less Smart ph-no:040-27000965,9441885112Cards and Identification" 3. B.V.S.Sripathi: : Currently pursuing his B.Tech inURL: 3rd year, Electronics and communications5.”Annual review of Bio-medical Engineering:” Engineering in Guru Nanak Engineering College,URL: Ibrahimpatnam. His areas of inetersts are radio wave6.”Injectable Electronic Identification, Monitoring and propagation, Digital communications, Signals andSimulating Systems” systems and digital electronicsURL:,7.”Changing the world for less than the price of a cup of a Ph-no: 040-27115512coffee”URL: http://www.line56.com8. www.digitalangel.net6. b. Other References: 1. RFID SECURITY – by Pete Lindstorm 2. RFID ESSENTIALS – by Bill Glover, Himanshu Bhatt 3. RFID Case Studies - by Dr. Peter Harrop 4. RFID - George P. Lister7. Authors: 1. C.Sri Aditya: Currently pursuing his B.Tech in 3rd year, Electrical and electronics Engineering in Guru Nanak Engineering College, Ibrahimpatnam.. He has presented a paper based on ‘Fuel Cells’ along with other classmates at Guru Nanak Dev Engineering college, Bidar. And also secured the third place at the techno-quiz held at the same college. His area of interests are Power electronics, Power systems, Nano generators, radio wave propagation Ph.No : 040-40158638, 040-27135238 2. K.S.Praneeth: Currently pursuing his B.Tech 3rd year in Computer science and engineering at Guru Nanak Engineering College, Ibrahimpatnam. His area of interests is computer programming, artificial intelligence, data communications, and radio wave propagation. 297