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Chemical Bonding


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Chemical Bonding

  1. 1. Chemical Bonding By: Valeria Younan
  2. 2. What is a hemoglobin? <ul><li>A hemoglobin is a protein-based component of red blood cells which is primarily responsible for transferring oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Hemoglobin is the reason red blood cells appear red, although oxygen-rich blood is noticeably brighter than the depleted blood returning to the heart and lungs . </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  3. 3. How is hemoglobin important in the transport of oxygen throughout our bodies? <ul><li>The oxygen that we obligate aerobes need for survival is transported from the lungs to peripheral tissues by the hemoglobin that is densely packed in our red blood cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Hemoglobin is attracted to oxygen. When the blood is carried through the lungs, hemoglobin proteins attract whenever oxygen is available. This oxygenated blood then travels throughout the entire bloodstream releasing oxygen throughout the muscles and organs. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  4. 4. Why is the transport of oxygen by hemoglobin in real-life example of chemical bonding? <ul><li>The transport of oxygen by hemoglobin is an example of chemical bonding because the hemoglobin is attracted to oxygen therefore, they combine together just like other substances do when they are forming a chemical bond. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  5. 5. How is hemoglobin related to a successful climb to the top of Mt. Everest? <ul><li>Since hemoglobin release oxygen into the muscles, tissues, organs, and the rest of your body, it allows your body to have more oxygen in it so you won’t get tired fast. </li></ul><ul><li>The more oxygen your body has, the longer period of cardiovascular fitness you will sustain. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  6. 6. What does pH have to do with the transport of oxygen by hemoglobin? <ul><li>Hemoglobin is made up of four hems containing four chains. Hemoglobin behaves as a weak acid. A low pH level causes the hemoglobin to release more oxygen throughout the body. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  7. 7. What is blood doping? <ul><li>the practice of boosting the number of red blood cells in the bloodstream in order to enhance athletic performance. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  8. 8. What is the difference between autologous and homologous blood doping? <ul><li>Autologous blood is the use of a person’s own blood. </li></ul><ul><li>Homologous blood doping is when you use another person’s blood with the same blood type. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  9. 9. What is EPO and why is it used? <ul><li>EPO is a protein that boosts production of red blood cells. </li></ul><ul><li>It is clinically useful in treating certain types of anemia. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  10. 10. Why is blood doping used in sports? <ul><li>Blood doping is used to increase more red blood cells in the body so then can carry more oxygen into the muscles and throughout the entire body. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  11. 11. Tyler Hamilton <ul><li>Tyler Hamilton was tested positive for having foreign blood in his system for the 2004 summer Olympics though he was allowed to keep his gold medal that he earned there due to conclusive tests on his second sample. But, he received a two year ban from the sport of cycling after he tested positive for blood doping in another race in Vuelta a Espana. One of his teammates was also found guilty on the same offense of that race. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  12. 12. Michelle Smith <ul><li>Michelle Smith was the pride of Ireland after winning a gold and bronze medal in the pool. in two previous Olympic Games, Smith's best result was 17th in the 200-metre backstroke. In 1993, she was ranked 90th in the world in the 400 individual medley, but after training with husband Erik de Bruin. By Atlanta, she had won several European titles and trimmed a whopping 17 seconds off two personal bests. After her Olympic success, it was discovered that FINA, swimming's international federation, had repeatedly expressed concern that Smith was unavailable for out-of-competition drug tests from 1995 onward. Finally, in 1998, two drug testers showed up at Smith and de Bruin's home. Smith gave them a sample, but because she was wearing a bulky sweater, the tester couldn't see what she was doing. The sample was sealed and sent to a Barcelona lab for examination. The results were shocking. The sample contained a level of alcohol that would be fatal if consumed by a human. FINA concluded that the sample had been manipulated, that whiskey had been added as a masking agent and they suspended Smith for four years. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  13. 13. What are the side effects of blood doping? <ul><li>Blood clots </li></ul><ul><li>High blood pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Skin rash </li></ul><ul><li>Heart palpitations </li></ul><ul><li>Flu-like symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Elevated pressure in the brain </li></ul><ul><li>Clogged arteries and veins </li></ul><ul><li>Dehydration </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>