FOOD is any substance, usually comprised primarily of carbohydrates, fats, water and/or proteins that can be eaten or drunk by animals (including humans) for nutrition and/or pleasure.
Foods are substances from animal and plant sources that yield heat and energy when ingested and absorbed by the body. Food nutrients build and renew tissues and regulate the body processes. The unit commonly used for describing energy intake and energy expenditure is the calorie. Good food sources contain substantial amounts of nutrients in relation to caloric content
PROTEIN S o Proteins are the “building blocks” of the body and provide important required nutritive elements. o Proteins are needed for growth,maintenance, and replacement of body cells, and they form hormones and enzymes used to regulate body processes.
o Extra protein is either used to supply energy or is changed into body fat.o Found in both the animal and plant kingdoms. o all proteins are composed of amino acids. Proteins play an important role in recovering from fractures, burns, and infections. They are also important in healing wounds and recovering from surgical procedures.
Dietary sources of protein and the nine essential amino acids are milk, yogurt, eggs, meats, fish, cheese, poultr y, peanut butter, legumes, and nuts. Protein from plant sources is best when combined with animal protein, such as milk plus peanut butter, or when legumes are combined with grains, such as Navy beans plus rice
FATSThe chief functions of fats are to supply energy and transport fat-soluble vitamins. Each gram of fat yields 9 calories. Fats provide the most concentrated source of calories (and, therefore, energy) of all the fo od nutrients.
Fats are found in both the animal and vegetable kingdoms. Fatty acids and glycerol are the end products of the digestion of fats.
Fat is stored as adipose (fatty) tissue to form a res erve supply in time of need. Dietary fats delay gastric emptying and promote a feeling of fullness. Excess calories from fats may produce obesity, the forerunner of arteriosclerosis, hypertension, gallbladder disease, and diabetes.
A diet high in fat, especially saturated fat and cholesterol, contributes to elevated blood cholesterol levels in many people. Butter, margarine, cream cheese, fattymeats, whole milk, olives, avocados, egg yolk s, nuts, commercial bakery products, and vegetable oils are all sources of dietary fat
CARBOHYDRATES Carbohydrates (sugar and starches) arethe most efficient sources of energy and are known as the “fuel of life.” They are abundantly found in most plant food sources.
Complex carbohydrates (starches) are in breads, cereals, pasta, rice, dry beansand peas, and other vegetables, such as potatoes and corn. Simple carbohydrates are found in sugars, honey, syrup, jam, and many desserts
Carbohydrates must be reduced to glucose before the body can use them. Carbohydrates are stored in the muscles to fuel their movement.
The main functions of carbohydrates are : to furnish the main source of energy for muscular work and nutritive processes help maintain body temperature form reserve fuel assist in oxidation of fats. spare protein for growth and repair
MINERALSThese essential inorganic elements contribute overwhelmingly to the skeletal framework of the bodyand teeth, and they are an essential part o f many organic compounds. Minerals form an integral part of basic cell structure and circulate in body fluids.
They alsoexercise specific physiologic influences on th e function of body tissues. Among the major minerals are calcium, phosphorus, iron, potassium, zinc, and magnesium.
VITAMINS Vitamins are essential compounds that are present in food in minute quantities. They act as catalysts in many body chemical r eactions and are necessary for normal metabolic functions, gr owth, and the health of the human body.
Vitamins are so widely distributed in food that a properly prepared normal diet usually provides an adequate amount. Vitamins can be destroyed duringthe preparation or preservation of certain fo ods.
vitamins functions Where is it? formation and maintenance of healthy Yellow ,orange, and dark greenVitamin A skin, hair, and mucous membranes. It is vegetables; fruits, liver, eggs, cheese, necessary for proper bone growth butter, and milk. tooth development, and reproduction. Promotes calcium and phosphorus Milk, egg yolk, liver, tuna, and cod liverVitamin D absorption and is required for the oil.Vitamin D is produced in the body formation of healthy bones and teeth. on exposure to sunlight Protects vitamin A and essential fatty Oils, cereals and bread, nuts, wheatVitamin E acids from oxidation in the body germ, and green leafy vegetables cells Promote normal clotting of the blood and Green leafy vegetables, liver, soybean,Vitamin K helps maintain normal liver functions and other vegetable products Normal growth and cell activity . It helps Citrus fruits, raw leafy vegetables, andVitamin C the body resist respiratory tomatoes infections. Wounds and burns require vitamin C for healing Normal growth, carbohydrate Pork, fish, eggs, and whole-grain cerealsThiamin B1 metabolism functioning of the heart, nerves, and muscles Normal growth, vigor, healthy skin and in milk products, green leafyRiboflavin (B2) mucosa normal eye function vegetables, and eggs. organ meats, heart, kidney, and liver. skin health, normal functioning of the meat, liver, poultry, and peanutsNiacin (B3) stomach and intestines, nervous and circulatory systems. for fat, liver, yeast,Pyridoxine (B6) carbohydrate, and protein metabolism wheat germ, pork, potatoes, and milk health of nervous tissue maturation liver and kidneys, milk, eggs, fish, andCyanocobalamin (B1 process of red blood cells cheese2)
WATER Water is often called the “forgotten nutrient.” Water is needed to replace body fluids lost primarily in urine and sweat. A person can survive weeks without food but only days without water. Water makes up 70 percent of body weight and is found in every cell in the body.
It is the medium through which nutrients are transported from the digestive tract to the cells where they are needed. Water is also the medium through which the byproducts of cell metabolism are removed. Water also serves as the medium in which the chemical processes of life take place.
oIt is normally taken into the body inbeverages, soups, and in the form of solid foods.
DIETARY HABITS Dietary habits are the habitual decisions an individual or culture makes when choosing what foods to eat. Although humans are omnivores, each culture holds some food preferences and some food taboos. Dietary choices can also define cultures and play a role in religion.
Many individuals choose to limit what foods eat for reasons of health, morality, or other factors. For instance vegetarians choose to forget food from animal sources to varying degrees. Others choose a healthier diet, avoiding sugars or animal fats and increasing consumption of dietary fiber and antioxidants. People in each country, city or town eat the food they have according the landforms and the climate.
Can you name the food you have in the place you live because the plants people grow or the animals people raise or breed?
THE FOOD WE EAT PLAYS AN IMPORTANT ROLE IN OUR HEALTH AND WELL-BEING. THEHEALTHY DIET PYRAMID IS DESIGNED TO SHOW US WHAT FOODS MAKE UP A HEALTHYDIET. BY FOLLOWING THE HEALTHY DIET PYRAMID AND PARTICIPATING IN PHYSICALACTIVITY WE BEGIN TO LIVE A HEALTHY AND ACTIVE LIFESTYLE.
THERE ARE DIFFERENT PYRAMIDS, TRINGLES OR CIRCLES. .TO REPRESENT THE FOODCLASSIFICATION AND ITS IMPORTANCE.. HERE THERE ARE SOME EXAMPLES
COULD YOU MAKE YOUR OWN HEALTHY DIETSHAPE, ACCORDING TO YOUR COUNTRY´S FOOD?
Pyramid for Kids reminds you to be physically active every day, or most days, and to make healthy food choices.
Bread, Cereal, Rice & Pasta Group: This area of the Pyramid is the largest. Foods in this group contain iron, thiamin and niacin and some foods in this group contain B vitamins. The foods in this group give you the best fuel or energy for your body.
Vegetable Group: Just like fruits, vegetables are full of vitamins A & C and minerals your body needs for healthy skin, hair and eyes. Some vegetables also contain B vitamins and vitamin K.
FRUIT GROUP:JUST LIKE VEGETABLES, FRUITS ARE FULL OF VITAMINS A& C AND MINERALS YOUR BODY NEEDS FOR HEALTHYSKIN, HAIR AND EYES.
OILS, FATS & SWEETS:THE FOODS IN THIS AREA OF THE PYRAMID CONTAINLITTLE OR NO NUTRIENTS FOR YOUR BODY. THIS IS WHYIT IS THE SMALLEST PART ON THE PYRAMID, TO REMINDYOU THAT YOU SHOULD TRY NOT TO EAT TOO MANYFOODS FROM THIS GROUP.
DAIRY PRODUCTS CONTAIN CALCIUM, PROTEIN ANDRIBOFLAVIN FOR YOUR BODY. THIS HELP TO GIVE YOUSTRONG BONES AND TEETH. ALWAYS TRY TO CHOOSEDAIRY PRODUCTS THAT ARE LOW IN FAT WHEN IT ISPOSSIBLE.
Meat, Poultry & Fish:Items in this food group contain plenty of B vitamins,protein, iron and thiamin to help your body grow strong. Drybeans and nuts are included in this group because of all theprotein they contain. Always try to choose meat, poultry andfish products that are low in fat when it is possible..
A lot of the time you will find that the meals you eat are madeup of parts from more than one food group. Lets take a lookat some examples: This meal includes a piece of toast with butter, an egg, 2 slices of bacon and a glass of orange juice. There are 4 different food groups included in this meal: butter = 1 from fat group eggs and bacon = 2 servings meat group orange juice = 1 serving fruit group toast = 1 serving bread group
This meal includes a sandwich withbread, turkey, cheese, lettuce andtomatoes, a banana and a glass ofmilk. There are 5 different foodgroups included in this meal: 2 slices of bread = 2 servings bread group turkey = 1 serving meat group cheese and milk = 2 servings milk and cheese group lettuce and 2 tomatoes = 2 servings vegetable group banana = 1 serving fruit group
COULD YOU WRITE A TYPICAL DISH FORLUNCH AND EXPLAIN THE COMPONENTS?