Knowledge transfer : concepts and application in Burkina Faso


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Knowledge transfer : concepts and application in Burkina Faso

  1. 1. Knowledge Transfer:Concepts and Applicationsin Burkina FasoValéry RiddeHeidelberg, April 24, 2013Thanks to Christian Dagenais, Catherine Lord, Ludovic Queuille
  2. 2. OUTLINE1. What is knowledge transfer2. What we have done during the last 5 years3. What we plan on doing for the next 5 years
  3. 3. Paul Krugman“When I was young and naïve, Ibelieved that important people tookpositions based on carefulconsideration of the options. Now Iknow better. Much of what SeriousPeople believe rests on prejudices, notanalysis. And these prejudices aresubject to fads and fashions.”
  4. 4. K*(KT, KE, KTT, KMb, KB, KM, etc.)Shaxson, Louise with Alex T. Bielak et al. 2012
  5. 5. A bit of history on K*• 1593 Lemon juice and scurvy…• 1826 The Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge• 1920-1990– Studies of diffusion of agricultural innovations– Adoption of technological innovations• 1990-2010– Impressive growth in efforts to make knowledge moreaccessible– Google: 10,000 shares in 1991 to over 80 million pagescontaining the term "KT » now7
  6. 6. Definition: knowledge is?Knowledge originate from 2 types of information :–Tacit (experential)»From practice–Explicit»From the research process»Analyzed»…Evidence-based88
  7. 7. Definition: Evidence-based9« Evidence is information that comes closest to the facts of amatter. The form it takes depends on context. The findings ofhigh-quality, methodologically appropriate research are themost accurate evidence.The evidence base for a decision is the multiple form ofevidence combined to balance rigour with expedience –while privileging the former over the latter. »Canadian Foundation for Healthcare Improvement http://www.cfhi-fcass.caLinks, The newsletter of the Canadian Health Services Research Foundation, Volume 8, Number 3, Fall 2005, p.7
  8. 8. 10Séries de cas, rapports d’observationÉtudes transversales, études croiséesÉtudes de cas témoinsÉtudes de cohortes ou de suiviEssais contrôlés, randomisésMéta-analysesRevues systématiquesLittératuredesynthèseÉtudesindividuellesAdapté de: McGovern DPB et al. (2001). Key topics in evidence-based medicine. Oxford (UK): BIOS, p. 15.
  9. 9. Definition : knowledge transfer« All efforts to help raise awareness and recognizethe research activities and outcomes (...) for useby the community of practice, policy makers andthe general public that the process is interactiveor not » (FQRSC, 2011, p. 9)11
  10. 10. The three main types of knowledge use– Conceptual• Leading to a new understanding of asituation, facts, etc.– Instrumental• Leading to the decision or action by policy makers orstakeholders.– Persuasive• Used as arguments in support of laws, decisions, etc.12
  11. 11. Knowledge transfer models1. Push2. Pull3. Exchange13
  12. 12. PUSH• Production – > diffusion• Users not involved in theproblem definition• Little influence on changes inpractices14Researchers Target user groups
  13. 13. PULL• Query to solve a problem– Research for the user needs• Provide concrete answers to user questions– Increased chance of use15Researchers Target user groups
  14. 14. EXCHANGE– Interactive– Frequent exchange– Intermediate players(knowledgebroker, managers, …)16ResearchersTarget user groups
  15. 15. Factors influencing the use1. Characteristics of users2. Organizational characteristics of the usercommunity3. Characteristics of knowledge4. Transfer and support strategies5. Characteristics of the researcher and hisenvironment17
  16. 16. 1. Characteristics of users• Responsiveness and positive attitude toresearch• Perceived usefulness of research• Expertise in terms of knowledge from research
  17. 17. 2. Organizational characteristicsof the user community• Organizational culture that values ​​research• Level involvement of the organization in theprocess of transferring• Strong management leadership• Consensus about the nature of knowledge needs• Common and shared vision to achieve results• Resources dedicated to the activities of TC
  18. 18. 3. Characteristics of knowledge• In line with the values ​​and needs of users• Applicability• Level of user participation in knowledgeproduction• Accessibility of information• Time appropriate production
  19. 19. 4. Transfer and support strategies• Must take into account the characteristics of thetarget groups and their needs• Must be based on a mutual relationship of trust• Exchange mechanisms in place (formal andinformal)• Common language• Activities planned in a timely manner• Knowledge format adaptation• Support and regular monitoring (systematicmeasurement of progress)
  20. 20. 5. Characteristics of the researcherand his environment• Researchers attitudes to collaboration• The ability of researchers to knowledgeadaptation (or to surround himself with people)• Researchers credibility in the eyes of users• Researchers ability to relate• Funding dedicated to KT activities• Recognition of the value of KT activities by theuniversity
  21. 21. KT steps23Lemire N., Souffez, K., & Laurendeau, M.-C 2009
  23. 23. Shaxson, Louise with Alex T. Bielak et al. 2012K* SPECTRUM
  24. 24. Two examples from Burkina Faso1. Five years of KT about user fees exemption– Knowledge broker with/for a HDSS (Kaya)
  25. 25. CONTEXT• Lack of communication betweenresearchers and potential users• Knowledge brokering is a promising way
  26. 26. Which knowledge will be transfered ?• Evidence on four areas of intervention in adistrict of Burkina Faso :• Nutrition and free health care• Management of malaria• Maternal health• Mutual health insurance
  27. 27. How is the strategy?1. Planning of the KB activities2. Knowledge brokering (KB) activities3. KB support activities
  28. 28. Planning KB activities• Conduct a literature review on knowledge brokering (KB)• Recruit an expert in KB training• Recruit a knowledge broker• 2 participatory workshops (2 days each) with stakeholders
  29. 29. KB activities• Linkage between KB, practioners and decision-makers• Information needs identification• Information management• Identification of broadcast channels• Preparation of diffusion material (policybriefs, PPT, tailored messages, etc.)• KT at all 3 levels (decision-making, practices, community):workshops, small group meetings, mass media, forum, etc.
  30. 30. KB support activities• Interactive training on knowledge brokering (5 days)• Interactive training on change management (5 days)• Weekly supervision (via Skype)• Technical support by information managementprofessional• 2 weeks internship in Canada
  31. 31. Implementation and outcome evaluation1. Document the implementation of knowledge brokeringactivities and their outputs2. Identify the elements that facilitate or hinder the KBimplementation3. Measure attitudes of potential users towards research andtheir intention to use it4. Measure the effects of the KB strategies on practices anddecision making