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INDIVIDUALS WITH
DISABILITIES AND MICRO
AND NANO TECHNOLOGY
CAREERS
By Valerie Kovach
Special Education Science Teacher an...
 Most recently I have worked as a Special Education Science Teacher in
Albuquerque, New Mexico.
 I have worked For 12 Ye...
“
”
NEW MEXICO RANKED 50TH IN OVERALL
POVERTY RATES AND 51ST IN THE PERCENTAGE
OF CHILDREN LIVING IN POVERTY
“TALK POVERTY...
AS A SPECIAL EDUCATION
TEACHER WORKING IN A HIGH
POVERTY SCHOOL, THESE
STATISTICS IMPACT ME EVERY
DAY.
Poverty is generati...
THE RISK OF A FUTURE OF POVERTY AND
UNEMPLOYMENT FOR MY STUDENTS WITH
DISABILITIES IS HIGH AND THAT DISCOURAGES ME.
AS MY ...
ANOTHER PART OF MY PERSONAL
PERSPECTIVE ON THE SUBJECT OF
DISABILITIES AND CHILDREN …
Is that my work for ten years prior ...
YOU CAN SEE THAT I HAVE PERSONAL REASONS FOR BEING PASSIONATE ABOUT
EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILI...
SOME THINGS I HAVE HELPED STUDENTS DO…
Enjoy learning and teaching others
with lots of fun science activities at
Family Sc...
FAMILY SCIENCE CAMP WAS FOR MANY AGES AND TYPES OF
STUDENTS AS WELL THEIR PARENTS OR FAMILY MEMBERS.
WE HAD FUN. EVERYONE ...
THE “SCIENCE IS YOUR WORLD” FAMILY SCIENCE
CAMP WAS HELD JULY OF 2016. ABOUT 75
STUDENTS AND PARENTS OR FAMILY MEMBERS
ATT...
THE MOST SUCCESSFUL STUDENTS WORKED HARD AND ATTENDED MOST IN PERSON CLASSES.
THEY ALSO GOT HELP FROM ME AND EACH OTHER IN...
THE STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES
NEEDED MORE HELP WITH SKILLS,
BUT ALL STUDENTS NEEDED HELP
WITH “WORK ETHIC”
In the cleanro...
STUDENTS CAN WATCH OF STUDENTS IN THE CLEANROOM,
THE SCIENCE IS YOUR WORLD CAMP AND ALSO OF OTHER
STUDENTS TALKING ABOUT T...
UNITED STATES IS LAGGING
BEHIND OTHER COUNTRIES IN PREPARING
STUDENTS FOR STEM CAREERS.
THERE IS A HIGH NEED FOR HIGHLY TR...
According to the National
Science Foundation, individuals
with disabilities are employed in only
5–6% of the U.S. STEM job...
INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES ARE A TALENTED
AND DIVERSE GROUP OF PEOPLE. THEIR UNIQUE
PERSPECTIVE AND EXPERIENCES ENABLE ...
THIS YOUNG MAN AT FAMILY SCIENCE CAMP IS TWICE EXCEPTIONAL. HE
IS GIFTED AND IS ALSO ON THE AUTISM SPECTRUM. HE IS TEACHIN...
Access Engineering is a program that increases
the participation of people with disabilities in
engineering academic progr...
and (2) integrate relevant disability-related and
universal design content into engineering
courses. Ultimately, project e...
Brandon
One in every sixty-eight kids in the U.S. has
an autism spectrum disorder;
I am one of those kids. I was born with...
With help, I was able to connect with others by learning how to control
my anxiety, how to respond to different types of p...
I want to use my electrical engineering degree to travel
the world and help developing countries become better. I
would al...
Daniel
W
When I enrolled for my undergraduate studies at the University of Florida (UF),
I was uncertain of my eventual ca...
After my freshman year of college, I was diagnosed with Asperger
syndrome, now acknowledged as a high-functioning form of ...
Marie
My journey towards a career in engineering is not a cliché story where I always
loved putting things together and ta...
Early on, my mom noticed a problem with my reading
comprehension and had me tested for learning disabilities in
kindergart...
The humiliation I felt from being deemed “disabled” turned
into anger towards my parents and school; I was ashamed
of bein...
I struggled with this all through middle school and into high
school, but then, when the topic of college started coming
u...
I think the major downfall of the community of
educators with whom I was surrounded in elementary
school was that they wer...
Despite the setbacks with my learning disabilities, I have never
let them affect my goals. I have always dreamed and belie...
After four years in the industrial systems engineering
department, I can safely say that I do not think I would
be in coll...
In four years I have completed two internships – with
Caterpillar Machinery and Deloitte Consulting, studied
abroad at Oxf...
I have accepted a full-time position with Deloitte
Consulting in Los Angeles as a business technology
analyst and will beg...
Over 700,000 students with disabilities
attended a 2 or 4 year college in 2008-
2009
The most common types of disabilities...
Institutional characteristic
Difficulty
hearing1
Difficulty
seeing2
Difficulty
speaking
or language
impairment
Mobility
li...
THERE IS NO ONE “BEST” METHOD, BECAUSE OF
THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS AND
LEARNING NEEDS. A REPERTOIRE OF
INTERVEN...
A study on math instruction detailed
the Blending Assessment with Instruction
Program (BAIP).
This is a database
of 270 we...
The effects of this supplementary
program were tested with
25,803 students, including 3,012 with
disabilities, through a b...
A technique called Span-
Limiting Tactile Reinforcement (SLTR)
available on mobile devices has shown
promise for strugglin...
This intervention builds
on the unique assets and talents of
students with disabilities associated
with their high capabil...
Universal Design
In the classroom or the workplace, most groups are
diverse. We vary in background, cultural and gender
id...
Universal design (UD) is, according to the
Center for Universal Design, "the design of
products and environments to be usa...
THE SEVEN PRINCIPLES OF UNIVERSAL DESIGN
ESTABLISHED BY THE CENTER FOR UNIVERSAL
DESIGN AT NORTH CAROLINA STATE CAN BE
APP...
Equitable use. The design is useful and
marketable to people with diverse abilities. A
website that is designed so that it...
Flexibility in use. The design accommodates a
wide range of individual preferences and abilities.
A museum that allows a v...
Simple and intuitive. Use of the design is easy to
understand, regardless of the user's experience,
knowledge, language sk...
Perceptible information. The design
communicates necessary information
effectively to the user, regardless of ambient
cond...
Low physical effort. The design can be used efficiently
and comfortably, and with a minimum of fatigue. Doors
that open au...
Size and space for approach and use. The
design provides appropriate size and space
for approach, reach, manipulation, and...
Tolerance for error. The design minimizes hazards
and the adverse consequences of accidental or
unintended actions. An edu...
FEDERAL AGENCIES REQUIRED TO PRACTICE AFFIRMATIVE
ACTION PLANS REGARDING THE RECRUITMENT AND
RETENTION OF INDIVIDUALS WITH...
THE GOAL IS THAT FEDERAL AGENCIES AND THOSE
DOING BUSINESS WITH THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT
SHOULD BECOME “MODEL” EMPLOYERS OF
...
WHAT THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT WANTS
TO SEE IN EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES WITH
THE DISABLED.
 Like the “12 percent” rule the Feder...
As a matter of policy certain disabilities are
specifically targeted by the federal government
for recruiting, hiring and ...
Targeted Disabilities
These are the most severe disabilities
including blindness, deafness, partial and
full paralysis, mi...
THE WORK OPPORTUNITY TAX CREDIT
“EMPLOYERS KNOW LITTLE ABOUT TAX CREDITS SAYS STUDY” DISABILITY ISSUES FOR JOURNALISTS. TH...
IRS CODE SECTION 44, DISABLED ACCESS
CREDIT
“ EMPLOYERS KNOW LITTLE ABOUT TAX CREDITS SAYS STUDY” DISABILITY ISSUES FOR JO...
THE ARCHITECTURAL TRANSPORTATION TAX
DEDUCTION: IRS CODE SECTION 190,
BARRIER REMOVAL “ EMPLOYERS KNOW LITTLE ABOUT TAX CR...
I WANT TO END WITH CONFESSING ONE FINAL REASON I AM INTERESTED IN
THIS TOPIC IS BECAUSE I AM ALSO A PERSON WITH A DISABILI...
 Some more things about me.
 My disability is in an area that is specified as a targeted area by the Federal Government ...
IN THE PAST, IF I FELT A WORK SITUATION WAS DIFFICULT DUE TO MY DISABILITY, I
NEVER ASKED FOR AN ACCOMMODATION OF ANY KIND...
I HAD CREATED THREE DIFFERENT EXTRA CURRICULAR PROGRAMS THAT HELPED
STUDENTS. I WROTE AND RECEIVED THREE DIFFERENT GRANTS ...
I NEVER DID RECEIVE MY ACCOMMODATIONS AT
THIS SCHOOL AND SO THIS SUMMER, I DID WHAT I
HAD ALWAYS DONE BEFORE. I SIMPLY FOU...
“
”
THE ADA IS A MANDATE FOR EQUALITY…
BUT THE ADA MAKES IT CLEAR THAT EQUAL
TREATMENT IS NOT SYNONYMOUS WITH
IDENTICAL TR...
IF WE HAVE A LITTLE TIME
NOW WE CAN END BY VISITING
OUR FACEBOOK PAGE.
MEMS for High School Students
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  1. 1. INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES AND MICRO AND NANO TECHNOLOGY CAREERS By Valerie Kovach Special Education Science Teacher and a Person With a Disability
  2. 2.  Most recently I have worked as a Special Education Science Teacher in Albuquerque, New Mexico.  I have worked For 12 Years for Albuquerque Public Schools and all of them were in one of the highest poverty areas.  My home state of New Mexico Recently Ranked as 49th in a Study of Child Well Being  Juliana Vadnais “New Mexico Still Stuck Near the Bottom in Child Wellness”, New Mexico Business First: Albuquerque Blog, July 2015  Introduction:  Valerie Kovach
  3. 3. “ ” NEW MEXICO RANKED 50TH IN OVERALL POVERTY RATES AND 51ST IN THE PERCENTAGE OF CHILDREN LIVING IN POVERTY “TALK POVERTY” CENTER FOR AMERICAN PROGRESS, 2016 THE PERCENTAGE OF INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES WHO ARE UNEMPLOYED IN NEW MEXICO IS ABOUT 70% The percentage of individuals without disabilities who are unemployed in New Mexico is less than 29% States Profile, New Mexico”, Employmentfirst.leadcenter.org/Office of Disability Employment, July 2016
  4. 4. AS A SPECIAL EDUCATION TEACHER WORKING IN A HIGH POVERTY SCHOOL, THESE STATISTICS IMPACT ME EVERY DAY. Poverty is generational and because of genetic factors, disabilities sometimes are as well. Every day I interact with children and families who are impacted both by the effects of living with disabilities, but also of living in poverty.
  5. 5. THE RISK OF A FUTURE OF POVERTY AND UNEMPLOYMENT FOR MY STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES IS HIGH AND THAT DISCOURAGES ME. AS MY STUDENTS WOULD SAY, “MISS, THAT’S NOT FAIR!” HOW Does that make me feel? And also….
  6. 6. ANOTHER PART OF MY PERSONAL PERSPECTIVE ON THE SUBJECT OF DISABILITIES AND CHILDREN … Is that my work for ten years prior to becoming a special education teacher in New Mexico was as a Treatment Foster Care Parent and Special Needs Foster Care Parent. I worked exclusively with children with varying disabilities and their families. I also worked with Treatment Teams and Providers Unlike regular foster care, this is so intensive that it is considered full time employment. They are really “your kids” and live in your home!
  7. 7. YOU CAN SEE THAT I HAVE PERSONAL REASONS FOR BEING PASSIONATE ABOUT EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITIES FOR INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES. I WOULD LIKE IT TO BECOME IMPORTANT TO YOU AS WELL. I HAVE TWO STORIES TO TELL WHICH ARE TRUE AND I HOPE THAT THEY GET YOUR ATTENTION.
  8. 8. SOME THINGS I HAVE HELPED STUDENTS DO… Enjoy learning and teaching others with lots of fun science activities at Family Science Days and Family Science Camp. Receive credit for a Dual Credit MEMS Class and work in a clean room!
  9. 9. FAMILY SCIENCE CAMP WAS FOR MANY AGES AND TYPES OF STUDENTS AS WELL THEIR PARENTS OR FAMILY MEMBERS. WE HAD FUN. EVERYONE HAD SOMETHING DIFFERENT TO OFFER.
  10. 10. THE “SCIENCE IS YOUR WORLD” FAMILY SCIENCE CAMP WAS HELD JULY OF 2016. ABOUT 75 STUDENTS AND PARENTS OR FAMILY MEMBERS ATTENDED.
  11. 11. THE MOST SUCCESSFUL STUDENTS WORKED HARD AND ATTENDED MOST IN PERSON CLASSES. THEY ALSO GOT HELP FROM ME AND EACH OTHER IN A TUTORING LAB FOR THE INTRO TO MEMS COURSE EVEN THE GIFTED STUDENTS NEEDED TUTORING IN THE FIRST CLASS. THE MOST IMPORTANT THING THAT THEY ALL NEEDED HELP WITH WAS IN LEARNING TIME MANAGEMENT AND THE LOGISTICS OF COMPLETING A COLLEGE COURSE VERSUS A HIGH SCHOOL COURSE.  Besides the Summer Camp, I have worked with SCME to  Create other ways of reaching out to students and to  Help them become interested in studying Micro and  Nano Technology.  We have had many students register for the Dual Credit  Course, “Intro to MEMS”  Students with and without disabilities have successfully completed the course and worked in the clean room.  Many high school students sign up for a course like this and then realize that  A dual credit college course is significantly more work than they thought. These students have dropped the class.
  12. 12. THE STUDENTS WITH DISABILITIES NEEDED MORE HELP WITH SKILLS, BUT ALL STUDENTS NEEDED HELP WITH “WORK ETHIC” In the cleanroom, the students with disabilities who had worked hard in the class were able to perform well. I noticed no difference, in fact, in their performance versus their non-disabled peers.
  13. 13. STUDENTS CAN WATCH OF STUDENTS IN THE CLEANROOM, THE SCIENCE IS YOUR WORLD CAMP AND ALSO OF OTHER STUDENTS TALKING ABOUT THEIR EXPERIENCES IN THE CLEANROOM. HTTPS://WWW.FACEBOOK.COM/HIGHSCHOOLMEMS/
  14. 14. UNITED STATES IS LAGGING BEHIND OTHER COUNTRIES IN PREPARING STUDENTS FOR STEM CAREERS. THERE IS A HIGH NEED FOR HIGHLY TRAINED INDIVIDUALS TO COMPETE IN THE STEM WORKFORCE. To this end, educators are encouraged to provide accessible and relevant instruction in STEM at the secondary and postsecondary levels. Evmenova, Jones and Bausch,” Research Shows that Students with Disabilities can Succeed in Stem Education”, TAM Connector, Feb. 2013
  15. 15. According to the National Science Foundation, individuals with disabilities are employed in only 5–6% of the U.S. STEM jobs. Evmenova, Jones and Bausch,” Research Shows that Students with Disabilities can Succeed in Stem Education”, TAM Connector, Feb. 2013
  16. 16. INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES ARE A TALENTED AND DIVERSE GROUP OF PEOPLE. THEIR UNIQUE PERSPECTIVE AND EXPERIENCES ENABLE THEM TO CONTRIBUTE TO STEM FIELDS IN WAYS THAT INDIVIDUALS WITHOUT DISABILITIES CANNOT. Finding ways to include individuals with disabilities who are interested in STEM Fields is not only beneficial to these specific individuals, but also brings fresh ways of viewing problems and solving them. Greater innovation is possible when people with more varied backgrounds and talents are a part of the process.
  17. 17. THIS YOUNG MAN AT FAMILY SCIENCE CAMP IS TWICE EXCEPTIONAL. HE IS GIFTED AND IS ALSO ON THE AUTISM SPECTRUM. HE IS TEACHING THIS MOTHER AND HER CHILD HOW TO PROGRAM A ROBOT.
  18. 18. Access Engineering is a program that increases the participation of people with disabilities in engineering academic programs and careers. Project staff engage faculty and students nationwide in efforts to (1) better serve a diverse student body, including students with a broad range of disabilities, in engineering courses and programs, and
  19. 19. and (2) integrate relevant disability-related and universal design content into engineering courses. Ultimately, project efforts will benefit society by increasing participation in engineering fields and enhancing these fields through the talents and perspectives of people with disabilities.
  20. 20. Brandon One in every sixty-eight kids in the U.S. has an autism spectrum disorder; I am one of those kids. I was born with Asperger’s, a form of autism which causes me to misunderstand social cues that others would easily pick up on. This has made it hard for me to make friends and maintain relationships. “Access Engineering Student Profiles” Access Engineering, .Do IT! University of Washington 2016
  21. 21. With help, I was able to connect with others by learning how to control my anxiety, how to respond to different types of people, and what people expect in a friendship. These skills will be especially useful as I graduate from college and enter the workforce in electrical engineering. Since I was young, I have always loved science and technology. I am ambitious and my mind has always been full of inventions that the world has never seen before. I used to create all kinds of unique gadgets and products, I even had my own website for a while. Thankfully, my family supported me as I engaged in these projects, even though it often included turning the house into a disaster zone . “Access Engineering Student Profiles” Access Engineering, .Do IT! University of Washington 2016
  22. 22. I want to use my electrical engineering degree to travel the world and help developing countries become better. I would also like to start my own company that creates new and useful electronic devices. Anyone on the autism spectrum should have faith that they can work to develop skills that will help them be successful. One of the best things to do is to get out of your comfort zone. You can go to parties and social gatherings to practice being around people. Try to do things that you wouldn’t normally do and push yourself until you achieve your goal. . “Access Engineering Student Profiles” Access Engineering, .Do IT! University of Washington 2016
  23. 23. Daniel W When I enrolled for my undergraduate studies at the University of Florida (UF), I was uncertain of my eventual career path. After earning my bachelor of science in mechanical engineering, I began to pursue my master of science and Ph.D. in biomedical engineering at UF. I chose to become a biomedical engineer instead of practicing medicine because research advancement in one field can help transform other engineering disciplines and synergistically improve the quality of lives. . “Access Engineering Student Profiles” Access Engineering, .Do IT! University of Washington 2016
  24. 24. After my freshman year of college, I was diagnosed with Asperger syndrome, now acknowledged as a high-functioning form of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Retroactively, the diagnosis made sense as I was awkward in social environments and had bouts of depression and anxiety. In learning how to live with ASD and in overcoming all of the continual changes occurring in my mental health, I’ve cultivated a desire to better understand the subtleties of the brain through research. In doing so as a biomedical engineer, I can improve the quality of life for millions of others. After recognizing the complex nature of the brain and its effects on my daily life, I wanted to do research that would help people better understand the brain. “Access Engineering Student Profiles” Access Engineering, .Do IT! University of Washington 2016
  25. 25. Marie My journey towards a career in engineering is not a cliché story where I always loved putting things together and taking them apart. My parents did not think that this would be my passion, and they did not push me towards a career In science, technology, engineering or mathematics (STEM). I actually had no family members or relatives who were engineers, and the topic was rarely brought up in my home. But, there was one common theme throughout my education-my learning disabilities. . “Access Engineering Student Profiles” Access Engineering, .Do IT! University of Washington 2016
  26. 26. Early on, my mom noticed a problem with my reading comprehension and had me tested for learning disabilities in kindergarten. I was diagnosed with SLD (Specific Learning Disability) in reading comprehension. I was too young to know what that meant in elementary and middle school; all I understood was it meant that I had to leave class during exams so I could have extra time and, of course, everyone noticed. I was mortified every time my teachers would point to me at the beginning of each exam, and I would have to walk to a separate room with a proctor. “Access Engineering Student Profiles” Access Engineering, .Do IT! University of Washington 2016
  27. 27. The humiliation I felt from being deemed “disabled” turned into anger towards my parents and school; I was ashamed of being different. I was so ashamed I even insisted that my mom have me retested in middle school to prove I did not need a separate setting and extended time, but, this test showed once again that I had SLD in reading comprehension.
  28. 28. I struggled with this all through middle school and into high school, but then, when the topic of college started coming up in sophomore/junior year, I started to accept my disability. I knew that if I did not use the extended time I needed on SAT and AP exams, I would not have the opportunity to get the best scores possible. I started to take ownership of my learning disabilities and confront teachers who would announce, in front of the entire class, my need to go to the Disability Services Office to start my exam.
  29. 29. I think the major downfall of the community of educators with whom I was surrounded in elementary school was that they were not trained properly on what learning disabilities were, how the disabilities can affect a student emotionally, and how to make their teaching style adaptive to all learning styles including those of us with disabilities. I found that my teachers saw me as more of an extra chore they were not getting paid for than as an important part of their teaching responsibilities.
  30. 30. Despite the setbacks with my learning disabilities, I have never let them affect my goals. I have always dreamed and believed in having the best career possible, whatever that may be. This dream is what led me to my engineering major. I did not know what I wanted to do freshman year in college, so I was determined to pick a challenging major that would set me up for achievement; I chose industrial systems engineering.
  31. 31. After four years in the industrial systems engineering department, I can safely say that I do not think I would be in college today or have the grades that I do, if it wasn’t for utilizing all of the disability services offered. I now understand and accept that a learning disability, though unfortunate, does not have to hinder anyone’s career goals as long as they are taking advantage of all the opportunities available.
  32. 32. In four years I have completed two internships – with Caterpillar Machinery and Deloitte Consulting, studied abroad at Oxford University in England and at the University of Cape Town in South Africa, stayed an active member of the University Honors Program, and joined the University’s football and basketball dance team. I have also taken on an active outreach and recruiting role in the College of Engineering as an engineering ambassador
  33. 33. I have accepted a full-time position with Deloitte Consulting in Los Angeles as a business technology analyst and will begin after graduation this May. I have big plans for my future and hope to continue my education at Stanford or London Business School in a few years on my pursuit to have the strongest, happiest career possible. . “Access Engineering Student Profiles” Access Engineering, .Do IT! University of Washington 2016
  34. 34. Over 700,000 students with disabilities attended a 2 or 4 year college in 2008- 2009 The most common types of disabilities among students attending post secondary education were specific learning disability, ADD and ADHD, and mental illness. Other types of disabilities represented included other health impairment (chronic medical conditions), Autism Spectrum Disorder, language disabilities, difficulties with seeing, difficulties with hearing, intellectual disabilities, mobility impairment and traumatic brain injury.
  35. 35. Institutional characteristic Difficulty hearing1 Difficulty seeing2 Difficulty speaking or language impairment Mobility limitation/ orthopedic impairment Traumatic brain injury Specific learning disabilities ADD or ADHD3 Autism Spectrum Disorders4 Cognitive difficulties or intellectual disability Health impair- ment/ condition, including chronic conditions Mental illness/ psycho- logical or psychiatric condition5 Other All institutions 4 3 1 7 2 31 18 2 3 11 15 3 Institutional type Public 2-year 4 3 1 8 3 31 13 2 5 10 15 5 Private not-for-profit 2-year 4! 4 2 4 3 28 13 5! 16! 9 11 2! Private for-profit 2-year 2 1 1 8 1 46 13! 1! 8! 5 11 2! Public 4-year 3 3 1 7 2 29 23 2 1 11 16 3 Private not-for-profit 4-year 3 2 1 3 1 36 26 2 1 11 13 2 Private for-profit 4-year 4 2 1 4 2 29 22 4 8 9 14 1! Size of institution Less than 3,000 3 2 1 5 2 36 22 2 3 10 13 2 3,000 to 9,999 3 3 1 7 2 33 17 2 3 11 15 3 10,000 or more 4 3 1 8 3 29 18 2 3 10 16 4 Percentage distribution of disabilities reported by 2-year and 4-year degree-granting postsecondary institutions that enrolled students with disabilities, by disability category and institutional characteristics: 2008-2009
  36. 36. THERE IS NO ONE “BEST” METHOD, BECAUSE OF THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS AND LEARNING NEEDS. A REPERTOIRE OF INTERVENTIONS IS MOST HELPFUL. Research-Based and Innovative Methods are being developed To Support STEM Education and STEM Training and Development of Individuals with Disabilities In Educational Settings as well as the Workplace.
  37. 37. A study on math instruction detailed the Blending Assessment with Instruction Program (BAIP). This is a database of 270 web-based mathematic lessons and 417 tutorials that provide instant feedback to learners. Evmenova, Jones and Bausch,” Research Shows that Students with Disabilities can Succeed in Stem Education”, TAM Connector, Feb. 2013
  38. 38. The effects of this supplementary program were tested with 25,803 students, including 3,012 with disabilities, through a built-in data reporting system. Results suggested that high BAIP users performed better on state-mandated assessment. Evmenova, Jones and Bausch,” Research Shows that Students with Disabilities can Succeed in Stem Education”, TAM Connector, Feb. 2013
  39. 39. A technique called Span- Limiting Tactile Reinforcement (SLTR) available on mobile devices has shown promise for struggling readers. The SLTR technique supports students’ attention and working memory by providing text in a single newsprint-like column with only three words per line. Evmenova, Jones and Bausch,” Research Shows that Students with Disabilities can Succeed in Stem Education”, TAM Connector, Feb. 2013
  40. 40. This intervention builds on the unique assets and talents of students with disabilities associated with their high capabilities for peripheral vision. In a study, students with dyslexia and typical readers demonstrated greater gains in chemistry content knowledge when the text was presented using the SLTR technique as compared to traditional hardcopy text. Evmenova, Jones and Bausch,” Research Shows that Students with Disabilities can Succeed in Stem Education”, TAM Connector, Feb. 2013
  41. 41. Universal Design In the classroom or the workplace, most groups are diverse. We vary in background, cultural and gender identity, first language, and age. We have different learning styles, including visual and auditory. Some of us have disabilities, including blindness, low vision, hearing impairments, mobility impairments, learning disabilities, and health impairments.
  42. 42. Universal design (UD) is, according to the Center for Universal Design, "the design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design."
  43. 43. THE SEVEN PRINCIPLES OF UNIVERSAL DESIGN ESTABLISHED BY THE CENTER FOR UNIVERSAL DESIGN AT NORTH CAROLINA STATE CAN BE APPLIED TO ACADEMIC PROGRAMS AND INSTRUCTION.
  44. 44. Equitable use. The design is useful and marketable to people with diverse abilities. A website that is designed so that it is accessible to everyone, including people who are blind, employs this principle.
  45. 45. Flexibility in use. The design accommodates a wide range of individual preferences and abilities. A museum that allows a visitor to choose to read or listen to a description of the contents of a display case employs this principle.
  46. 46. Simple and intuitive. Use of the design is easy to understand, regardless of the user's experience, knowledge, language skills, or current concentration level. Science lab equipment with control buttons that are clear and intuitive employs this principle.
  47. 47. Perceptible information. The design communicates necessary information effectively to the user, regardless of ambient conditions or the user's sensory abilities. Video captioning employs this principle.
  48. 48. Low physical effort. The design can be used efficiently and comfortably, and with a minimum of fatigue. Doors that open automatically employ this principle
  49. 49. Size and space for approach and use. The design provides appropriate size and space for approach, reach, manipulation, and use, regardless of the user's body size, posture, or mobility. A science lab with adjustable tables employs this principle.
  50. 50. Tolerance for error. The design minimizes hazards and the adverse consequences of accidental or unintended actions. An educational software program that provides guidance when the user makes an inappropriate selection employs this principle.
  51. 51. FEDERAL AGENCIES REQUIRED TO PRACTICE AFFIRMATIVE ACTION PLANS REGARDING THE RECRUITMENT AND RETENTION OF INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES. MOST COMPANIES AND OTHER ORGANIZATIONS THAT HAVE FEDERAL CONTRACTS OR WHO SELL PRODUCTS TO THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT ARE EXPECTED TO FOLLOW THE SAME AFFIRMATIVE ACTION GUIDELINES AND POLICIES. U.S. Office of Personnel Management, “Disability Employment”, June 2016
  52. 52. THE GOAL IS THAT FEDERAL AGENCIES AND THOSE DOING BUSINESS WITH THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT SHOULD BECOME “MODEL” EMPLOYERS OF INDIVIDUALS WITH DISABILITIES. Approximately 12 percent of all individuals employed should be individuals with disabilities. It should be noted that these individuals cannot simply be employed in lower level positions, but represented throughout the organization. U.S. Office of Personnel Management, “Disability Employment”, June 2016
  53. 53. WHAT THE FEDERAL GOVERNMENT WANTS TO SEE IN EMPLOYMENT PRACTICES WITH THE DISABLED.  Like the “12 percent” rule the Federal Government holds for itself, Federal Contractors and those who sell products to the Federal Government are also asked to adopt these initiatives as well.  Specific Programs for Training, Recruiting and Hiring Students with Disabilities should be created within organizations.  Managers should be trained regarding disabilities and ADA Accommodation Requirements.  Some “non- competitive” positions should be created specifically for qualified individuals with disabilities within an organization. This means that the individual may be given a particular job without having to compete against other non-disabled applicants.  There are other “best practices” that the Federal Government has adopted for recruiting, hiring and retaining individuals with disabilities. U.S. Office of Personnel Management, “Disability Employment”, June 2016
  54. 54. As a matter of policy certain disabilities are specifically targeted by the federal government for recruiting, hiring and retention of employees. Individuals with the targeted disabilities typically have the greatest difficulty finding employment. U.S. Office of Personnel Management, “Disability Employment”, June 2016
  55. 55. Targeted Disabilities These are the most severe disabilities including blindness, deafness, partial and full paralysis, missing extremities, dwarfism, epilepsy, intellectual disabilities, and psychiatric disabilities. U.S. Office of Personnel Management, “Disability Employment”, June 2016
  56. 56. THE WORK OPPORTUNITY TAX CREDIT “EMPLOYERS KNOW LITTLE ABOUT TAX CREDITS SAYS STUDY” DISABILITY ISSUES FOR JOURNALISTS. THE CENTER FOR AN ACCESSIBLE SOCIETY. APRIL 29, 2003 Besides the advantages of having a more diverse work force and the need for companies who work with or sell to the Federal Government to comply with specific guidelines, there are other incentives for hiring people with disabilities that many businesses are not aware of. The Work Opportunity Tax Credit allows tax credits of up to $2400 for hiring a person with a disability.
  57. 57. IRS CODE SECTION 44, DISABLED ACCESS CREDIT “ EMPLOYERS KNOW LITTLE ABOUT TAX CREDITS SAYS STUDY” DISABILITY ISSUES FOR JOURNALISTS. THE CENTER FOR AN ACCESSIBLE SOCIETY. APRIL 29, 2003 This tax credit helps small businesses cover the cost of making their businesses accessible, up to a maximum benefit of $5000.
  58. 58. THE ARCHITECTURAL TRANSPORTATION TAX DEDUCTION: IRS CODE SECTION 190, BARRIER REMOVAL “ EMPLOYERS KNOW LITTLE ABOUT TAX CREDITS SAYS STUDY” DISABILITY ISSUES FOR JOURNALISTS. THE CENTER FOR AN ACCESSIBLE SOCIETY. APRIL 29, 2003 Businesses are allowed an annual deduction of up to $15,000 for expenses incurred to remove physical, structural and transportation for persons with disabilities in the workplace.
  59. 59. I WANT TO END WITH CONFESSING ONE FINAL REASON I AM INTERESTED IN THIS TOPIC IS BECAUSE I AM ALSO A PERSON WITH A DISABILITY. THIS IS A PICTURE OF ME WITH SOME STUDENTS ON A MICRO AND NANOTECHNOLOGY INDUSTRY TOUR ALONG WITH THE OWNER OF AN ALBUQUERQUE NANO TECHNOLOGY COMPANY WHICH IS WORKING ON A TREATMENT FOR EBOLA. CAN YOU TELL WHICH OTHER PERSON IN THE PICTURE HAS A DISABILITY? I DID NOT REALIZE THAT I HAD A DISABILITY UNTIL I WAS IN MY 30’S. I BEGIN TO GET SUPPORT AND LEARN WHAT I NEEDED TO DO TO BE MORE EFFECTIVE IN MY PERSONAL LIFE AND IN MY WORK-LIFE. LIKE MANY PEOPLE, I DID NOT DISCLOSE MY DISABILITY AT WORK OR ASK FOR ANY ACCOMMODATIONS.
  60. 60.  Some more things about me.  My disability is in an area that is specified as a targeted area by the Federal Government for recruitment and retention of employees. The reason for this is because unemployment is so high for people with these disabilities. Only about 20 percent of people with the disability that I have are employed at all.  I might be considered “twice exceptional” because I showed “giftedness” in one area in high school. Being “twice exceptional” means that person has giftedness and a disability.  I graduated from high school one year early. I then attended and graduated from a college with 40,000 students. Later on I earned a master’s degree. I have continued to study and have about 250 college hours. I have not earned a doctoral degree… well not yet!  I have been employed since I was 15 years old, which is 44 years!  I was an advertising manager of a newspaper at age 22. My 45 year old boss quit and while they were looking for his replacement, they found out that I was able to do his job better than he had. I also worked a lot cheaper!  I worked in business and marketing including at the LA TIMES and had a sales territory which generated about $500,000 a year in revenue. I reached that number by doubling my sales on that territory within 9 months of taking it on.  I love to learn and do new things!  Part of my energy and drive is actually a positive aspect of one of my disabilities.
  61. 61. IN THE PAST, IF I FELT A WORK SITUATION WAS DIFFICULT DUE TO MY DISABILITY, I NEVER ASKED FOR AN ACCOMMODATION OF ANY KIND. I EITHER “TOUGHED IT OUT”, OR I FOUND A NEW POSITION THAT WAS ALREADY STRUCTURED IN A WAY THAT WORKED BETTER FOR ME. AS A SPECIAL EDUCATION TEACHER WORKING TO HELP MY STUDENTS BECOME SUCCESSFUL IN COLLEGE AND THE WORKPLACE BY RECEIVING THE SUPPORTS THAT THEY NEEDED, I FINALLY DECIDED THAT INSTEAD OF JUST “TOUGHING IT OUT”… I WOULD DISCLOSE MY DISABILITY AND ASK FOR SOME SIMPLE ACCOMMODATIONS. I HOPED THAT THIS WOULD ALLOW ME TO STAY IN THE JOB I LOVED AND THAT I WAS GOOD AT.
  62. 62. I HAD CREATED THREE DIFFERENT EXTRA CURRICULAR PROGRAMS THAT HELPED STUDENTS. I WROTE AND RECEIVED THREE DIFFERENT GRANTS FOR OUR SCHOOL INCLUDING ONE FOR $20,000. A STUDENT I MENTORED IN ONE OF THE PROGRAMS WILL ATTEND AN IVY LEAGUE ENGINEERING PROGRAM THIS FALL. THIS IS A BIG THING FOR A HIGH POVERTY SCHOOL. HE TOLD ME THE PRIMARY REASON, HE THOUGHT, WAS WHAT HE WROTE ABOUT THE PROGRAM I BROUGHT TO OUR SCHOOL. ANOTHER STUDENT WHO WAS MENTORED THROUGH MY EXTRA CURRICULAR PROGRAMS FOUND HIS PASSION AND HAS HAD A NUCLEAR ENGINEERING INTERNSHIP, COMPETED WITH A MEMS DESIGN TEAM COMPETITION AND IS NOW DOING A RESEARCH INTERNSHIP AT SANDIA LABS. HE WILL BE A SENIOR NEXT YEAR AND WANTS TO ATTEND MIT. HE WOULD LIKE TO EARN A PHD SO THAT HE CAN DO RESEARCH AND ALSO TEACH. HE DISCOVERED HE LOVED TEACHING WHEN HE TAUGHT OTHERS AT MY FAMILY SCIENCE CAMP. THIS YOUNG MAN TOLD ME THAT WITHOUT THE ENRICHING PROGRAMS, HE WOULD HAVE BECOME VERY DISCOURAGED. GIFTED STUDENTS HAVE SPECIAL NEEDS TOO!
  63. 63. I NEVER DID RECEIVE MY ACCOMMODATIONS AT THIS SCHOOL AND SO THIS SUMMER, I DID WHAT I HAD ALWAYS DONE BEFORE. I SIMPLY FOUND ANOTHER POSITION THAT I COULD DO, IN WHICH AT LEAST TWO OF THE NEEDS WERE NOT AN ISSUE. I am still waiting on the third, which is still something I need. Our ADA Person has promised yet another meeting. I will see what happens. None of my accommodations had any cost attached to them, they were all extensively documented as real needs by several medical providers. My Union Representative and the Employee Assistance Staff Person thought they were reasonable accommodations.
  64. 64. “ ” THE ADA IS A MANDATE FOR EQUALITY… BUT THE ADA MAKES IT CLEAR THAT EQUAL TREATMENT IS NOT SYNONYMOUS WITH IDENTICAL TREATMENT. Professor Robert Burgdorf, Jr. (one of the drafters of the original bill. The reason I was given by the Principal at my school for not receiving the needed accommodations I requested, was that he feared that allowing something different for me, was not fair. I guess he did not understand the ADA. “Americans With Disabilities Act”, The Center for An Accessible Society/Disability Information for Journalists. June, 2016.
  65. 65. IF WE HAVE A LITTLE TIME NOW WE CAN END BY VISITING OUR FACEBOOK PAGE. MEMS for High School Students

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