PRELIMINARY NOTIONS Linguistics is a science that implies a serious and deep study of a language.Lots of concepts on linguistics have been given through time bylinguists according to their points of view, backgrounds, realities,scenarios,and linguistic environments where they live in and arefrom.Linguistic is the scientific study of language in general.
LINGUISTICS BACKGROUND The word linguistics was initially used in the Philology is a brach of middle of the 19th century linguistics that studies to emphasize the language change and differences between a language relationship. newer approach to the study of language. SOCIO-ETHNIC SOCIOLINGUISTIC LINGUISTICS S PSYCHOLINGUIS ANTHROPOLOGIC TIC AL LINGUISTICS COMPUTATIONA APPLIED L LINGUISTICSLINGUISTICS (AL)
CONTRASTIVE OR COMPARATIVE LINGUISTICS Once the concepts above have been discussed, it is possible to refer to the study, contrast or comparison of two or more language structures, whose subject matter is more specific. COMPARATIVE CONTRASTIVE LINGUISTICS LINGUISTICSLanguages may be related byconvergence throughborrowing or by geneticdescent. Genetic relatedness It compares languages usuallyimplies a common origin or with the aim of assistingproto- language, and language learning bycomparative linguistics aims to identifying importantconstruct proto- language and differences between theespecify the changes that have learner’s native and targetresulted in the documented languagelanguages.
CONTRASTIVE Contrastive analysis, CA of sounds LINGUISTICS systems involve phonological or SYLLABUS phonetic contrast, relevant to identifying types foreing accent. CONTRASTIVE Another perspective is thet PRAGMATICS pragmatics deals with the ways we reach or goal in comunication The contrastive method inFUNDAMENTALS METHODOLOGY OF prinnciple every difference or FOR TEACHING CONTRASTIVE similarity between two or more CL. related languages should be LINGUISTICS explicable in terms of isolaion or context analysis. Although Lado (1957) included a comparison of cultures, early contrastive studies focused NEW TRENDS on what has been described as microlinguistis contrastive analysis (James 1980): phonology, grammar, lexis. It supplies references to description of linguistic phenomena in the students’ mother THE ROLE OF tongue CORPORA It reorganizad uses the IPA conventional register It develops listening decoding and
Language is a system LANGUAGE arbitrary vocal symbols used for human communication MOST SPOKEN BREAKDOWN OF LANGUAGE LANGUAGES BY POPULATION OF WORLD AREA THE WORLD According the stadistics we canIt was mentioned earlier that classify the languages mostethnologue lists 6,912 living important in de world are:languages, the table above reveals a 1 Mandarinstriking difference between the 2 Hindmedian and the mean sizes of 3 Englishlanguages in different parts of the 4 Arabeworld. 5 Spanish
BRIEF CLASSIFICATION OF LANGUAGE VERBAL NO VERBAL LANGUAGE LANGUAGES Written or LANGUAGE Is a group of languages related by It is a system of permanent written symbolic FAMILY descent from a common ancestor symbols language Particular way of using a Idiographic It is a writing system which uses DIALECT language regional and social writing language ideograms(symbols)INDIVIDUAL Is a langue as a whole from the same Syllabic writing it is based on syllables which are LANGUAGE family language represented by separed symbols. This is individual , voice quality Alphabetical It is based on sounds- pronuntiation- and IDIOLECT writing language deals with alphabetical symbols. speech tone Used by people who work inaparticular area Articulated JERGA or who heve a particular interest Eg. Lawer language Deals with phonetic Spelling criminals English might be considered the third- orCOLLOQUIALIS English M Is informal expressions language fourth- largest native language in the world. It is a informal use of the language is Spanish Spanish belongs to the romance branch SLANG rud is non standar language. language of the indo-european language family.
LANGUAGE INCONSISTENCIES IS THE INCOMPATIBILITY, IT IS DE QUALITY OR STATE OF BEING INCONSISTENT, OF CONCIRDANCE WITH A STRUCTURAL PATTERN. THE SAME LETTER OR LETTER COMBINATION CAN REFER TO DIFFERENT SOUNDS THE SAME SOUNDS CAN HAVE WITH DIFFERENTS LETTERS OR LETTER COMBINATIONSDIFFERENT DALECTS PRONUNCE THE SAME WORD DIFFERENTLY
CLUSTER Vowel cluster Consonant cluster Analyzes the observedpronunciation in relation INITIAL CLUSTERS MEDIAL CLUSTERS FINAL CLUSTERSto common english wordscontaining he same vowel clusters INTRASYLLABIC MEDIAL SPANISH has no Initial two- consonant CLUSTER clusters in final clusters may occur in both INTERSYLLABIC MEDIAL position, english words english and spanish while CLUSTER three consonant clusters containing from two up just place in english to four final consonant cluster When it belongs to the SYLLABLE DIVISION second of the two OCCURS BETWEEN THE syllable peaks between MEMBERS which they apper as medial.
Is the study of PHONOLOGY the system of phonemes of a language. PHONEMICS PHONETICS anallophone diacritic allophonesIs the smallest basicand theoretical unit of language. It is a mark Allophones are Is a real apeech placed over, not contrastive variant of a under or since they do not specific through a letter create THEPHONE phoneme (or phonetic differences in ME symbol) meaning.
It is a system of characters arranged in a fixed conventional order to symbolize sounds or letters used in a writing system to represent speech. Its name comes from alpha+beta, the ALPHABET first two letters of the Greek alphabet. The Latin Alphabet, also called the RomanLATIN ALPHABET alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) ENCAPSULATED THELATIN ALPHABET AND Latin alphabet in their (ISO/IEC 646) standard. INTENATIONAL STANDARSINTERNATIONAL There are many transcription conventions asPHONETIC dictionaries and reader´s necessities. ThisALPHABET implies having almost the same problems as(IPA) ordinary orthography.
Is a system of notation that represents TRANSCRIPTION utterances or partial utterances of a language pronounced by people in general. Some details might be ignored or included in the transcription. Also identified as Phonemic Transcription, it is the notation that BROAD represents utterances of a language by indicating only the significant and underlying sounds (phonemes) that make up a word. It ignores asTRANSCRIPTION many as possible details and captures only the general aspects of pronunciation to show differences in meaning among words. It is writing between slant lines ://. It is notation that represents variants of a NARROW specific phoneme. It captures as many asTRANSCRIPTION possible details which are represented by the diacritics provided in the IPA. It is another important feature which is often represented in phonetic and phonemic STRESS transcription. Every single word has a stressed syllable. The vowel sound of the stressed syllable is often longer, louder an higher in pitch.
SYMBOLS USED FOR TRANSCRIPTION ANGLE SLANT SQUARE VERTICAL DIVISION DIACRITI STRESSBRACKET BRACKET BRACKETS LINE MARKER CS MAR K S S They are used to The are enclose Phonemi used It shows It shows the It shows the c around It shows a the variation in the pause in the vowel orspelling of transcript details boundari following phonetic consonant the ion uses phonetic transcriptio es quality. syllableorthograp them: transcript n. between Nasal or stressed: hic /’teyp/. ion: syllables. dark quality. ‘car. notation: [tɦeIp] <pretty>.